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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 20949 matches for " Jean Berton "
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St. John le calviniste, ou l’émule de Gil-Martin Charlotte Bront ’s Calvinist St. John Emulating James Hogg’s Gil-Martin
Jean Berton
Revue LISA / LISA e-journal , 2009, DOI: 10.4000/lisa.833
Abstract: This article aims to show how far Hogg’s archetypal character, Gil-Martin, influenced Charlotte Bront ’s enigmatic character, St. John, who appears in chapters XXVI to XXXV and is mentioned again in the conclusion of Jane Eyre. Some unexpected words, like “glen”, in a greater Yorkshire area, operate as keywords to a “deep context” study in a neo-contextualist approach. Even though St. John cannot be mistaken for a double of Gil-Martin, a fair number of details tend to prove that James Hogg’s Private Memoirs and Confessions of a Justified Sinner deeply influenced Charlotte Bront —both pride-driven St. John and Gil-Martin stand for demonic despotism. Yet, if Gil-Martin is a straightforward Gothic illustration of Satan, St. John is a reincarnation of a marble-cold Apollo in a dogma-trapped Calvinist. Bront ’s intention was not so much to denounce noxious excesses in religious beliefs as to set her heroine’s wise independence against nefarious male domination: whereas victimised Robert Wringhim is driven to despair and suicide, self-reliant Jane Eyre escapes from St. John’s grip. In both narratives relationships between men and women are shown as tragically warped by religious behavioural extravagance, but only the female character is granted a positive outcome to serve an optimistic view on life: Robert Wringhim is violently wrung out of the society of men and women, St. John Rivers, from “Marsh End”, blindly drifts away to his death in India, and airy Jane, of “Moor House”, wafts away to anchor to Edward Rochester, the sender of the airwave-born call.
Age-related dedifferentiation of cognitive and motor slowing: insight from the comparison of Hick–Hyman and Fitts’ laws
Rita Sleimen-Malkoun,Jean-Jacques Temprado,Eric Berton
Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience , 2013, DOI: 10.3389/fnagi.2013.00062
Abstract: The present study aimed to determine whether the general slowing hypothesis (GSH) could be extended to the motor domain by comparing cognitive and motor age-related slowing. To achieve this objective, we compared the slopes of Hick–Hyman’s law and Fitts’ law, in young and older adults. The general hypothesis was that, due to the dedifferentiation of cognitive and motor neural resources during aging, the slopes of Hick–Hyman’s law and Fitts’ law should become closer, if not similar, in older adults. Ten young adults (mean age = 26 ± 3 years) and 14 older adults (mean age = 78 ± 7 years) participated in the experiment. They had to perform a discrete rapid-aiming task and a reaction time (RT) task. In the aiming task, five index of difficulty (ID) levels were used (from three to seven bits by increments of 1.0 bit). Task difficulty was scaled via the manipulation of target distance from home position. In the RT task, five IDs were selected: 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 bits, with incompatible S–R associations. RT and movement times were recorded. Efficiency and Brinley regression functions were calculated. Age-related slowing ratios were estimated. Response times increased in both tasks in older adults. The slopes of Hick–Hyman’s law and Fitts’ law were steeper in older adults than in young participants. In young participants, the slope of Hick–Hyman’s law was smaller than that of Fitts’ law. In older adults, no difference was found. Slowing ratios observed in both tasks were equivalent. The present results extended the GSH to the motor domain. They suggested that, due to dedifferentiation of cognitive and motor neural resources, decrease in processing speed acts as a common cause to behavioral slowing in both cognitive and motor tasks.
Lazy or Greedy? Impact of Xenophobic Beliefs on Natives’ Attitudes towards Redistribution  [PDF]
Raul Magni Berton
Open Journal of Political Science (OJPS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojps.2013.31005

Several recent accounts have shown that anti-immigrant feeling among citizens seems to reduce the support for the welfare state. As a consequence, the rise of immigration could produce a deep change in industrialized countries’ social security systems. This paper provides evidence that support for redistribution is not decreased by generic xenophobia, but by a specific kind of xenophobic belief. It also shows that some other xenophobic beliefs tend rather to produce a demand for governmental protection programs. Based on a multivariate analysis on individual and contextual French data, findings show that the support for social protection programs is positively related to the fear of competition from immigrants and negatively with the fear that immigrants strain the welfare state. This result can be generalized to other countries where “redistributive xenophobia” is much more widespread.

Is Fitts’ Law Continuous in Discrete Aiming?
Rita Sleimen-Malkoun, Jean-Jacques Temprado, Raoul Huys, Viktor Jirsa, Eric Berton
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0041190
Abstract: The lawful continuous linear relation between movement time and task difficulty (i.e., index of difficulty; ID) in a goal-directed rapid aiming task (Fitts’ law) has been recently challenged in reciprocal performance. Specifically, a discontinuity was observed at critical ID and was attributed to a transition between two distinct dynamic regimes that occurs with increasing difficulty. In the present paper, we show that such a discontinuity is also present in discrete aiming when ID is manipulated via target width (experiment 1) but not via target distance (experiment 2). Fitts’ law’s discontinuity appears, therefore, to be a suitable indicator of the underlying functional adaptations of the neuro-muscular-skeletal system to task properties/requirements, independently of reciprocal or discrete nature of the task. These findings open new perspectives to the study of dynamic regimes involved in discrete aiming and sensori-motor mechanisms underlying the speed-accuracy trade-off.
Bimanual training in stroke: How do coupling and symmetry-breaking matter?
Rita Sleimen-Malkoun, Jean-Jacques Temprado, Laurent Thefenne, Eric Berton
BMC Neurology , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2377-11-11
Abstract: Bimanual coordination emerges as an active, task-specific assembling process where the limbs are constrained to act as a single unit by virtue of mutual coupling. Consequently, exploring, assessing, re-establishing and exploiting functional bimanual synergies following stroke, require moving beyond the classical characterization of performance of each limb in separate and isolated fashion, to study coupling signatures at both neural and behavioural levels. Grounded on the conceptual framework of the dynamic system approach to bimanual coordination, we debated on two main assumptions: 1) stroke-induced impairment of bimanual coordination might be anticipated/understood by comparing, in join protocols, changes in coupling strength and asymmetry of bimanual discrete movements observed in healthy people and those observed in stroke; 2) understanding/predicting behavioural manifestations of decrease in bimanual coupling strength and/or increase in interlimb asymmetry might constitute an operational prerequisite to adapt therapy and better target training at the specific needs of each patient. We believe that these statements draw new directions for experimental and clinical studies and contribute in promoting bimanual training as an efficient and adequate tool to facilitate the paretic upper-limb recovery and to restore spontaneous bimanual synergies.Since bimanual control deficits have scarcely been systematically investigated, the eventual benefits of bimanual coordination practice in stroke rehabilitation remains poorly understood. In the present paper we argued that a better understanding of coupling and symmetry-breaking mechanisms in both the undamaged and stroke-lesioned neuro-behavioral system should provide a better understanding of stroke-related alterations of bimanual synergies, and help clinicians to adapt therapy in order to maximize rehabilitation benefits.Stroke is a major cause of functional disabilities and decrease in quality of life of people living i
Esther Schor, ed. The Cambridge Companion to Mary Shelley
E-rea : Revue électronique d’études sur le Monde Anglophone , 2006,
Abstract: “Today, whether she is found between staid cloth covers, in paperback, on the screen or in cyberspace, Mary Shelley is everywhere,” writes Esther Schor in her Introduction to this collection of essays (2). Interest in “the Author of Frankenstein” and of other works has grown steadily over the last twenty years, thanks notably to the publication of her Journals (The Journals of Mary Shelley, 1814-1844, ed. Paula R. Feldman and Diana Scott-Kilvert, 2 vols, Oxford: Clarendon, 1987), of her Lette...
Patterns of Horse-Rider Coordination during Endurance Race: A Dynamical System Approach
Sylvain Viry, Rita Sleimen-Malkoun, Jean-Jacques Temprado, Jean-Philippe Frances, Eric Berton, Michel Laurent, Caroline Nicol
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0071804
Abstract: In riding, most biomechanical studies have focused on the description of the horse locomotion in unridden condition. In this study, we draw the prospect of how the basic principles established in inter-personal coordination by the theory of Coordination Dynamics may provide a conceptual and methodological framework for understanding the horse-rider coupling. The recent development of mobile technologies allows combined horse and rider recordings during long lasting natural events such as endurance races. Six international horse-rider dyads were thus recorded during a 120 km race by using two tri-axial accelerometers placed on the horses and riders, respectively. The analysis concentrated on their combined vertical displacements. The obtained shapes and angles of Lissajous plots together with values of relative phase between horse and rider displacements at lower reversal point allowed us to characterize four coordination patterns, reflecting the use of two riding techniques per horse's gait (trot and canter). The present study shows that the concepts, methods and tools of self-organizing dynamic system approach offer new directions for understanding horse-rider coordination. The identification of the horse-rider coupling patterns constitutes a firm basis to further study the coalition of multiple constraints that determine their emergence and their dynamics in endurance race.
Equipment review: New techniques for cardiac output measurement – oesophageal Doppler, Fick principle using carbon dioxide, and pulse contour analysis
Christine Berton, Bernard Cholley
Critical Care , 2002, DOI: 10.1186/cc1492
Abstract: Intensive and perioperative care share a common goal, namely to maintain 'adequate' organ perfusion throughout the body during the time course of critical illness or surgery. Adequate organ perfusion implies two different physical properties: perfusion pressure that is sufficiently high to force blood into the capillaries of all organs; and sufficient flow to deliver oxygen and substrates, and to remove carbon dioxide and other metabolic byproducts. However, in many instances the only aspect of perfusion that is carefully monitored is pressure, whereas flow is simply ignored. One of the reasons for this may be related to the difficulties encountered in obtaining flow measurements. Indeed, in many centres the only way to obtain a measure of cardiac output is to use the thermodilu-tion technique through a pulmonary artery catheter. The difficulties and risks associated with pulmonary artery catheter insertion may account, in part, for the lack of routine cardiac output monitoring in every patient. New emerging techniques can provide a measure of cardiac output less invasively than is the case with a pulmonary artery catheter.The purpose of the present review is to provide an overview of the new cardiac output measurement techniques, with an emphasis on their principles of operation and their respective limitations. We review methods based on Doppler velocime-try of the descending aorta, the Fick principle applied to carbon dioxide, and arterial pulse contour analysis.The oesophageal Doppler technique is based on measurement of blood flow velocity in the descending aorta by means of a Doppler transducer (4 MHz continuous or 5 MHz pulsed wave, according to the type of device) at the tip of a flexible probe. The probe may be introduced orally in anaesthetized, mechanically ventilated patients. Following introduction of the probe, it is advanced gently until the tip is located approximately at the mid-thoracic level; it is then rotated so that the transducer faces the aor
Influence of a discontinuity on the spectral and fractal analysis of one-dimensional data
R. P. H. Berton
Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics (NPG) , 2004,
Abstract: The analysis of a data area or segment containing steep transitions between regions with different textures (for example a cloud and its background) leads to addressing the problem of discontinuities and their impact on texture analysis. In that purpose, an original one-dimensional analytical model of spectrum and roughness function has been worked out, with a discontinuity between two fractal regions, each one specified by its average μ, standard deviation σ, spectral index β and Hurst exponent H. This has the advantage of not needing the generation of a fractal structure with a particular algorithm or random functions and clearly puts into evidence the role played by the average in generating spectral poles and side lobes. After validation of the model calibration, a parametric study is carried out in order to understand the influence of this discontinuity on the estimation of the spectral index β and the Hurst parameter H. It shows that for a pure μ-gap, H is well estimated everywhere, though overestimated, and β is overestimated in the anti-correlation range and saturates in the correlation range. For a pure σ-gap the retrieval of H is excellent everywhere and the behaviour of β is better than for a μ-gap, leading to less overestimation in the anti-correlation range. For a pure β-gap, saturation degrades measurements in the case of raw data and the medium with smaller spectral index is predominant in the case of trend-corrected data. For a pure H-gap, there is also dominance of the medium with smaller fractal exponent.
Keats et de Kooning : Pour un romantisme expressionniste abstrait ou la mise en image de l’épitaphe ‘Here lies one whose name was writ in water’: Keats and de Kooning or the abstract expressionist vision of a Romantic epitaph
Caroline Bertonèche
Revue LISA / LISA e-journal , 2007, DOI: 10.4000/lisa.1223
Abstract: The article explores the comparative dialectic between John Keats’s choice of a visual epitaph, theatrically staged as a fluid, evanescent metaphor of poetic identity in relation to Romantic writing, and Willem de Kooning’s late awareness and expressionist interpretation of it. The modernity of Keats’s epitaphic imagery seemed to have been an uncanny preamble to de Kooning’s gestural art or pictorial pantomimes on the themes of impermanence and forgetfulness, memory and death. Close in many other ways, despite chronological and geographical differences, the two inspired artists meet around their creative intermingling of the picturesque and the poetic: the rhythmic liquidity, the verse schemes, the chiaroscuros, the ‘dripping’ technique, the ‘erasures’, the fading colours… Keats’s strangely melancholic but also deeply ironic and contrasted lyricism meets de Kooning’s mixed style of painting, torn as it is between the realms of tradition and novelty, of figurative and abstract art. A writer and a reader, an indolent poet and an ‘action painter’, they are, above all, or aspire to be, especially with regard to this mysterious conception and meaningful depiction of an epitaph, immortal artists as well as enlightened visionaries.
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