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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 192061 matches for " Jayant D Deshpande "
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Prevalence of Ocular Morbidities among School Children in Rural Area of North Maharashtra in India
Deshpande Jayant D, Malathi K
National Journal of Community Medicine , 2011,
Abstract: The global initiative for the Elimination of Avoidable Blindness sets a major challenge to work relentlessly to avoid the preventable blindness. Effective methods of vision screening in school children are useful in detecting correctable causes of decreased vision. Present study was conducted with the objective of estimating the prevalence of ocular morbidity among school children in rural area. A cross sectional study was conducted among school going adolescents studying from 5th to 10th standard in the age group 10-16 years in rural area. The ocular examination of school children was done at the respective schools. All the data obtained was analyzed using the software StatistiXL version 1.8. Chi square test was used to observe the association of the ocular morbidities with respect to age, sex, education of father, occupation, class, and nutritional status. Prevalence of ocular morbidities was found to be 27.65 %. Refractive errors and Vitamin A deficiency were the most common ocular disorders. The prevalence of ocular morbidity showed significant association with socio-economic status (?2=29.8, p<0.001), education and occupation of parents, while no significant association was found between ocular morbidity and sex of the school children (?2=0.162, p=0.687), family type (?2=2.41, p=0.121), and religion (?2=6.77, p=0.08) of the school children. Nutritional status of children was significantly associated with the occurrence of ocular morbidity. High prevalence of ocular morbidity among school children in rural area was observed. Periodic screening of school children is very essential to improve the quality of eye-sight.
Antimicrobial resistance: the global public health challenge
Jayant D Deshpande,Mohini Joshi
International Journal of Students' Research , 2011, DOI: 10.5549/ijsr.1.2.41-44
Abstract: Antimicrobial resistance is one of the biggest challenges to face global public health at the beginning of the third millennium. Antimicrobial resistance and its global spread threaten the continued effectiveness of many medicines used today to treat the sick. Antibiotic resistance is usually associated with significant morbidity, longer hospitalization, excess costs and mortality. Many factors contribute to the unnecessary use of antibiotics including the knowledge and beliefs of doctors and consumers, direct patient requests, perceptions of patient demand, culture and norms and advertisements and other promotional literature distributed by the pharmaceutical companies. Self-medication with antimicrobials is often cited as a major factor contributing to drug resistance. The microorganisms employ several mechanisms in attaining multidrug resistance such as they no longer rely on a glycoprotein cell wall; enzymatic deactivation of antibiotics, decreased cell wall permeability to antibiotics and altered target sites of antibiotic. Efflux mechanisms to remove antibiotics and increased mutation rate are some of the other important mechanism for the antimicrobial resistance. Optimal use of existing antimicrobial agents, using alternative treatment options, reducing the need for antimicrobials by increasing immunity, education of health professionals and patients, antibiotic policies and implementation of infection control measures are the strategies aimed at prevention of emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance.
The Sanitary Condition of Food Establishments and Health Status and Personal Hygiene among Food Handlers in a Rural Area of Western Maharashtra, India
Jayant D Deshpande, Deepak B Phalke
Asian Journal of Medical Sciences , 2013, DOI: 10.3126/ajms.v4i2.7895
Abstract: Background: Foodborne disease occurs in mass catering establishment that is not complying with sanitary and hygienic food handling and preparation. Objective: Objective of the present study was to explore the status of sanitary condition of food establishments and to assess hygienic practices among food handlers. Material and Method: A cross-sectional study design was used to assess the sanitary condition of food establishments and personal hygiene of food handlers. Data was collected with the help of structured and pre-tested questionnaires. The questionnaire also allowed the interviewers to record their observations. All the data obtained was entered into Microsoft Excel and analyzed using the software StatistiXL version 1.8. Result: Separate kitchen and Onsite solid waste storage containers/receptacles were available in 4(16%) establishments. Provision for heating devices for cooked food was available in 5(20%) establishments. Wash basin present with soap were available in 10 (40%) of the food establishments. Sweeping and washing floor with water and disinfectant was done in 8(32%) food establishments. Male and female food handlers’ have equal percentage of morbidity and this difference was not statistically significant (χ2=0.0329, p=0.84), but anaemia was significantly higher among female food handlers (χ2=6.30, p=0.01). Poor hygienic practices were significantly associated with presence of infectious diseases like ARI, diarrhoea, dysentery and skin infections. (χ2=5.71, p=0.017). Conclusion : Food establishments in the study area were found to have poor sanitation and were not maintained well. The health status and the level of personal hygiene of the food handlers in the eating establishments were found to be unsatisfactory . There is need of enforcement of sanitary provisions and educating the food handlers about personal hygiene. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ajms.v4i2.7895 Asian Journal of Medical Sciences 4(2013) 23-29
Jayant D Deshpande,Deepak B Phalke,Vaishali D Phalke
International Journal of Biomedical and Advance Research , 2012, DOI: 10.7439/ijbar.v3i3.368
Abstract: Background: Cervical cancer caused by infection with a sexually transmitted agent human papillomavirus (HPV), can be readily prevented by identifying and treating women with HPV-induced precancerous lesions of the cervix. Objective: To study the profile of cervical smear cytology in rural women in western Maharashtra. Methods: The study was designed to look at the previous reports of the Pap smear present at the health center Pravaranagar in rural area of Western Maharashtra. The reports of 186 smears were analyzed. Results: Maximum numbers of the women (70.43%) were less than 40 years of age. Majority of the women were from lower socio-economic status. There were 29.03 % Pap smears, negative for intraepithelial lesion. Intraepithelial neoplasia of various grade and invasive cervical carcinoma were diagnosed in some cases. Other infections were also detected on Pap smear like bacterial vaginosis, candidial infection and trichomonas vaginalis infestation. Conclusion: An Awareness and education program needs to be implemented to target women about cervical cancer and Pap smear screening. The goal of any screening programme should be to pick up majority of the precursor lesions and not frank cancers; it is desirable to initiate Pap smear screening in women from lower socio-economic status before the 40 years of age.
Jayant D Deshpande,Padmakar K Baviskar,Deepak B Phalke
International Journal of Biomedical and Advance Research , 2012, DOI: 10.7439/ijbar.v3i4.424
Abstract: Background: Burns represent one of the major health problems in India.Objective: To study some of the important epidemiological factors in relation to burn cases. Methods: Present study was retrospective study of all burn injury cases admitted hospital situated in rural area. The information obtained was tabulated analyzed using the software GraphPad Instat. Results: Overall female burn patients were significantly higher than male. Majority of female patients had total burn surface area more than 35% whereas 48.70% of the male patients had a total burn surface area more than 35% ( 2= 7.99, p = 0.005). Thermal burn was the commonest cause of burn followed by scalds. In majority of the patients (91.8%) burns were caused by flame occurred at home.Conclusion: Public education on safer first-aid practices and availability of good burn care facilities is necessary.
Profile of Cancer Cases at a Tertiary Care Level Teaching Hospital in Rural Western Maharashtra, India
Jayant D Deshpande , Kailash K Singh , Deepak B Phalke
National Journal of Community Medicine , 2012,
Abstract: Background: Cancer is one of the major public health problems worldwide. Prevalence and pattern of cancer is known to vary from region to region. Epidemiological information on cancer including the pattern is an important basis for determining the priorities for cancer control in any population group. Objective: Present work is an attempt to study magnitude, profile and some epidemiological aspects in relation to cancer cases at a tertiary care level teaching hospital in rural area. Method: All records were studied and analyzed. A total of 1106 patients were treated during the period studied. A proforma was used to collect data such as age, sex, place of residence, type of cancers and treatment given. The data collected were entered into MS-Excel sheets and analysis was carried out. The information obtained was tabulated analyzed using the software GraphPad Instat demo version. Results: A total of 1106 cancer patients were treated during the January 2010 to December 2010. Among these, 626(56.60) were females and 480(43.39) were females. In males, the common cancers were oral cavity cancers, lung cancers and GIT cancers. The most common cancers among females were the cervical carcinomas, which constituted 32.10% of the total number of cancers cases followed by cancers of breast. Almost 2/3rd of cases occurred in the age group of 41 to 70 years. Maximum frequency was observed in 51–60 year age group in both sexes. Maximum numbers (74.59%) of the cases were from rural area. The main methods of cancer treatment were surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, used alone or in combination. Conclusion: Tobacco and alcohol related cancers predominated in males. In females, cervical cancer predominated over breast cancer. Human behavior is a major determinant in the successful control of cancer. Understanding cancer magnitude, risk and trends will be of help in cancer control.
Maternal Risk Factors for Low Birth Weight Neonates: A Hospital Based Case-Control Study in Rural Area of Western Maharashtra, India
Deshpande Jayant D, Phalke D B, Bangal V B, D Peeyuusha, Bhatt Sushen
National Journal of Community Medicine , 2011,
Abstract: Low birth weight (LBW) is a major determinant of infant mortality and morbidity. It is generally recognized that the etiology of LBW is multifactorial. Present case control study was conducted with the objective of studying maternal risk factors associated with full term LBW neonates. A total of 200 cases and 200 controls of age 18a€“35 years who delivered a live-born singleton baby were enrolled. The data information was gathered from the maternal health records and interviewing the mothers of these neonates. All the data were entered into the SPSS package (version 17). Association of the risk factors under study was assessed by applying chi a€“square test. To assess the strength of association the odds ratio and 95% confidence interval of odds ratio was calculated. Majority of the cases and controls belongs to 20-29 years age group. The proportion of low income, illiterate/primary educated, farm labourer mothers, primiparas, and women with Spacing < 2 years were higher among the LBW newborns. LBW was strongly associated with anaemia [?2=17.33, p<0.0001]. Significant risk factors identified in univariate analysis included pregnancy-induced hypertension [OR=4.09(1.49-11.19)], pre pregnancy maternal weight <45 kgs [OR=4.41(2.30-8.46)], maternal height <145 cms [OR=2.34(1.17-4.66)] and Inadequate antenatal care (?2=24.81, p<0.0001). Large number of mothers from rural area were not utilizing or inadequately utilizing antenatal care services. Many risks for LBW can be identified before pregnancy occurs. Health education, socio-economic development, maternal nutrition, and increasing the use of health services during pregnancy, are all important for reducing LBW.
D. Shukla,Jayant Dubey
Journal of Reliability and Statistical Studies , 2010,
Abstract: In the present days of advanced electronic technologies in the field of communicationlike mobile phones, e-mail, internet etc. (and so forth) the incentive based mail surveys are beingpopular due to their cost effectiveness and rapid approach to individuals. But, a majordisadvantage appears as mail surveys are affected by a huge amount of non-response of units inthe sample. The post-stratified non-response (PSNR) scheme is used, in the stratified samplingset-up, when (i) frames of stratum are unknown and (ii) strata contain some non-responding units.This paper presents a general class of PSNR type sampling scheme by introducing three groupsof earmarked strata based on response pattern along-with two parameters pf the class. TheBayesian approach regarding utilization of prior knowledge (or guess) of response pattern isintroduced in the proposed class for estimating the population mean. Several properties of theclass are derived and the results are numerically supported.
Design and Development of pH-monitered in situ Gel of Lomefloxacin
Jayant Deshpande,Dr. P. B Shah,Dr. Anil Bhandari
Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Bioscientific Research , 2013,
Abstract: Present Study was focused on Design and Development of in situ gel of Lomefloxacin HCL.Lomefloxacin HCL is an antibacterial agent which exhibits rapid precorneal elimination and poor ocular bioavailability, when given in the form of conventional ophthalmic solutions. To overcome this, an attempt has been made to formulate pH-triggered in situ gelling system of Lomefloxacin HCL to provide sustained release of drug based on polymeric carriers that undergo sol-to-gel transition upon change in pH. The Lomefloxacin HCL in situ gelling system formulated by using poly acrylic acid (Carbopol 940) and in combination with hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) which acted as viscosity enhancing agent. The developed formulation was stable, non-irritant and provided sustained release over 8-hour period and it is a viable alternative to conventional eye drops.
D. M. Deshpande*
International Journal of Pharmacy and Technology , 2010,
Abstract: Diabetes Mellitus is most common endocrine disease. Diabetes Mellitus is defined conventionally as a lack of insulin secretion due to destruction of pancreatic β- cells. Diabetes is not a single disease entity, but rather a group of metabolic disorders sharing a commonunderlying feature of hyperglycemia. Hyperglycemia in diabetes, results from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action or both. Rosiglitazone Maleate is antidiabetic drug in Thiazolidinedioneclass of drugs has been used for treatment of Diabetes type II. Rosiglitazone is a highly selective and potent agonist for the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-gamma (PPARγ).Activation of PPARγ nuclear receptors regulates the transcription of insulin-responsive genes involved in the control of glucose production, transport, and utilization.Rosiglitazone Maleate is readily soluble in ethanol and a buffered aqueous solution with pH of2.3; solubility decreases with increasing pH in the physiological range. Thus Rosiglitazone Maleate is needed to be formulated in GRDDS.In present investigation core tablet formulated with hydrophobic meltable binder such as Compritol 888 and Precirol ATO 5 with drug: polymer in 1:1, 1:2 ratio. Then, by using 32 full factorial design the formulations in suitable combinations formulated and tablets were evaluated.HPMC K100M and Sodium bicarbonate were selected as independent parameters in factorial design. Total floating time and floating lag time were selected as dependent parameters.The final formulations N7 and N8 were found to be optimized and follows Peppas model for drug release suggesting that drug release is anomalous from dosage form.
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