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Ethephon-Induced Abscission of “Redhaven” Peach  [PDF]
Ali Taheri, John A. Cline, Subramanian Jayasankar, Peter K. Pauls
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2012.32035
Abstract: Fruit size of peaches is an important quality factor that can be optimized by adjusting the number of fruit on the tree by hand thinning 40 - 60 days after full bloom (dafb). Hand thinning is labor intensive and therefore the development of other strategies to reduce production cost is warranted. Since ethylene plays a key role in peach fruitlet abscission, it is hypothesized that foliar applications of ethephon will induce fruit abscission and increase fruit size. Ethephon (0 to 400 mg·L–1) was applied to “Redhaven” peach trees 45 - 50 days after full bloom in 2005 and 2007 to determine the efficacy and concentration required to induce fruit abscission. Abscission was linearly related to ethephon concentration and as a result reduced fruit set by 70% to 100 %. These data indicate that ethephon in the range of 100 - 200 mg·L–1 can be used to induce adequate levels of fruit abscission of ‘Redhaven’ peaches without inducing trunk or limb gummosis.
Pharmacological and biomolecular investigations of a polyherbal formulation (AAF-6) for its antiasthmatic activity
Antony A,JayaSankar K,Roy Partha,Suganya
International Journal of Green Pharmacy , 2010,
Abstract: We investigated the antiasthmatic activity of a herbal preparation from a combination of six Indian medicinal plants. The current study was undertaken to assess the antiasthmatic activity of a polyherbal formulation (AAF-6) using ovalbumin-induced asthmatic rats. The animals were divided into five groups: solvent control, ova sensitised control, ova sensitised plus Ketotifen (KT), ova sensitised + parallel treatment with AAF-6 and ova sensitised + post-treatment with AAF-6. Total and differential white blood cell count, total protein content, nitrite level, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and mast cell stabilising activity were estimated. Intragastric administration of AAF-6 (100 mg/kg body weight) significantly reduced total and differential white blood cell count, normalised the increased protein level, and decreased the nitrite level and MPO activity, and increased mast cell stabilising activity, when compared with ova sensitised control. Statistical analyses were done by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Bonferroni post hoc test at a level of significance P<0.05. AAF-6 exhibited quite a competitive potential when compared with the standard drug KT, affording a possible alternative therapeutic agent in the treatment of asthma.
Probing the structure, morphology and multifold blue absorption of a new red-emitting nanophosphor for LEDs
Savvi Mishra,Isha Bharti,N. Vijayan,R. K. Sharma,L. M. Kandpal,V. Shanker,M. K. Dalai,R. Rajeswari,C. K. Jayasankar,S. Surendra Babu,D. Haranath
Physics , 2012,
Abstract: There has been a stringent demand for blue (~450-470 nm) absorbing and red (~611 nm) emitting material system in phosphor converted white light emitting diodes (WLEDs) available in the market. Conventionally used red-emitting Y2O3:Eu3+phosphor has negligible absorption for blue light produced by GaInN based LED chip. To address this issue, a new red-emitting Gd2CaZnO5:Eu3+ (GCZO:Eu3+) nanophosphor system having exceptionally strong absorption for blue (~465 nm) and significant red (~611 nm) photoluminescence (PL) is presented. This is attributed to a dominant f-f transition (5D0\rightarrow7F2) of Eu3+ ions, aroused due to an efficient energy transfer from the Gd3+ sites of the host lattice to Eu3+ ions. X-ray diffraction and microscopy observations revealed the nanocrystalline nature and a bit elongated morphology of the sample respectively. While the energy dispersive x-ray analysis identified the chemical constituents of the GCZO:Eu3+ nanophosphor, the color overlay imaging confirmed the substitution of Eu3+ for Gd3+ ions. It is highly anticipated that the multifold absorption at ~465 nm would certainly improve the color rendering properties of existing WLEDs.
Robust Control Charts for Monitoring Process Mean of Phase-I Multivariate Individual Observations
Asokan Mulayath Variyath,Jayasankar Vattathoor
Journal of Quality and Reliability Engineering , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/542305
Abstract: Hoteling's control charts are widely used in industries to monitor multivariate processes. The classical estimators, sample mean, and the sample covariance used in control charts are highly sensitive to the outliers in the data. In Phase-I monitoring, control limits are arrived at using historical data after identifying and removing the multivariate outliers. We propose Hoteling's control charts with high-breakdown robust estimators based on the reweighted minimum covariance determinant (RMCD) and the reweighted minimum volume ellipsoid (RMVE) to monitor multivariate observations in Phase-I data. We assessed the performance of these robust control charts based on a large number of Monte Carlo simulations by considering different data scenarios and found that the proposed control charts have better performance compared to existing methods. 1. Introduction Control charts are widely used in industries to monitor/control processes. Generally, the construction of a control chart is carried out in two phases. The Phase-I data is analyzed to determine whether the data indicates a stable (or in-control) process and to estimate the process parameters and thereby the construction of control limits. The Phase-II data analysis consists of monitoring future observations based on control limits derived from the Phase-I estimates to determine whether the process continues to be in control or not. But trends, step changes, outliers, and other unusual data points in the Phase-I data can have an adverse effect on the estimation of parameters and the resulting control limits. That is, any deviation from the main assumption (in our case, identically and independently distributed from normal distribution) may lead to an out-of-control situation. Therefore, it becomes very important to identify and eliminate these data points prior to calculating the control limits. In this paper, all these unusual data points are referred to as “outliers.” Multivariate quality characteristics are often correlated, and to monitor the multivariate process mean Hoteling’s control chart [1, 2] is widely used. To implement Hoteling's control chart for individual observations in Phase-I, for each observation we calculate where = is the th -variate observation, ( ) and the sample mean , sample covariance matrix are based on Phase-I observations. In Phase-I monitoring, the values are compared with the control limit derived by assuming that the ’s are multivariate normal so that the control limits are based on the beta distribution with the parameters and . However, the classical estimators, sample
High Diabetes Prevalence among Tuberculosis Cases in Kerala, India
Shibu Balakrishnan, Shibu Vijayan, Sanjeev Nair, Jayasankar Subramoniapillai, Sunilkumar Mrithyunjayan, Nevin Wilson, Srinath Satyanarayana, Puneet K. Dewan, Ajay M. V. Kumar, Durai Karthickeyan, Matthew Willis, Anthony D. Harries, Sreenivas Achuthan Nair
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0046502
Abstract: Background While diabetes mellitus (DM) is a known risk factor for tuberculosis, the prevalence among TB patients in India is unknown. Routine screening of TB patients for DM may be an opportunity for its early diagnosis and improved management and might improve TB treatment outcomes. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of TB patients registered from June–July 2011 in the state of Kerala, India, to determine the prevalence of DM. Methodology/Principal Findings A state-wide representative sample of TB patients in Kerala was interviewed and screened for DM using glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c); patients self-reporting a history of DM or those with HbA1c ≥6.5% were defined as diabetic. Among 552 TB patients screened, 243(44%) had DM – 128(23%) had previously known DM and 115(21%) were newly diagnosed - with higher prevalence among males and those aged >50years. The number needed to screen(NNS) to find one newly diagnosed case of DM was just four. Of 128 TB patients with previously known DM, 107(84%) had HbA1c ≥7% indicating poor glycemic control. Conclusions/Significance Nearly half of TB patients in Kerala have DM, and approximately half of these patients were newly-diagnosed during this survey. Routine screening of TB patients for DM using HbA1c yielded a large number of DM cases and offered earlier management opportunities which may improve TB and DM outcomes. However, the most cost-effective ways of DM screening need to be established by futher operational research.
Modified method for restoration of height in calcaneal fractures : Report of two cases
Shyam Sundar S,Alagappan R,Jayasankar P,Williams Sudhakar
Indian Journal of Orthopaedics , 2005,
Abstract:
Prunus domestica Pathogenesis-Related Protein-5 Activates the Defense Response Pathway and Enhances the Resistance to Fungal Infection
Ashraf El-kereamy,Islam El-sharkawy,Rengasamy Ramamoorthy,Ali Taheri,Deena Errampalli,Prakash Kumar,Subramanian Jayasankar
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0017973
Abstract: Pathogenesis-related protein-5 (PR-5) has been implicated in plant disease resistance and its antifungal activity has been demonstrated in some fruit species. However, their roles, especially their interactions with the other defense responses in plant cells, are still not fully understood. In this study, we have cloned and characterized a new PR-5 cDNA named PdPR5-1 from the European plum (Prunus domestica). Expression of PdPR5-1 was studied in different cultivars varying in resistance to the brown rot disease caused by the necrotrophic fungus Monilinia fructicola. In addition transgenic Arabidopsis, ectopically expressing PdPR5-1 was used to study its role in other plant defense responses after fungal infection. We show that the resistant cultivars exhibited much higher levels of transcripts than the susceptible cultivars during fruit ripening. However, significant rise in the transcript levels after infection with M. fructicola was observed in the susceptible cultivars too. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants exhibited more resistance to Alternaria brassicicola. Further, there was a significant increase in the transcripts of genes involved in the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway such as phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and phytoalexin (camalexin) pathway leading to an increase in camalexin content after fungal infection. Our results show that PdPR5-1 gene, in addition to its anti-fungal properties, has a possible role in activating other defense pathways, including phytoalexin production.
The Constrained Mean-Semivariance Portfolio Optimization Problem with the Support of a Novel Multiobjective Evolutionary Algorithm  [PDF]
K. Liagkouras, K. Metaxiotis
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2013.67B005
Abstract:

The paper addresses the constrained mean-semivariance portfolio optimization problem with the support of a novel multi-objective evolutionary algorithm (n-MOEA). The use of semivariance as the risk quantification measure and the real world constraints imposed to the model make the problem difficult to be solved with exact methods. Thanks to the exploratory mechanism, n-MOEA concentrates the search effort where is needed more and provides a well formed efficient frontier with the solutions spread across the whole frontier. We also provide evidence for the robustness of the produced non-dominated solutions by carrying out, out-of-sample testing during both bull and bear market conditions on FTSE-100.

Design of a Cantilever - Type Rotating Bending Fatigue Testing Machine  [PDF]
K. K. Alaneme
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering (JMMCE) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jmmce.2011.1011078
Abstract: This research is centered on the design of a low–cost cantilever loading rotating bending fatigue testing machine using locally sourced materials. The design principle was based on the adaptation of the technical theory of bending of elastic beams. Design drawings were produced and components/materials selections were based on functionality, durability, cost and local availability. The major parts of the machine: the machine main frame, the rotating shaft, the bearing and the bearing housing, the specimen clamping system, pulleys, speed counter, electric motor, and dead weights; were fabricated and then assembled following the design specifications. The machine performance was evaluated using test specimens which were machined in conformity with standard procedures. It was observed that the machine has the potentials of generating reliable bending stress – number of cycles data; and the cost of design (171,000 Naira) was lower in comparison to that of rotating bending machines from abroad. Also the machine has the advantages of ease of operation and maintenance, and is safe for use.
FROM THE BOLOGNA DECLARATION IDEAS TO THE CREATION OF COL-LECTIVE INTELLIGENCE В Д ДЕЙ БОЛОНСЬКОЙ ДЕКЛАРАЦ ДО РЕАЛ Й СТВОРЕННЯ КОЛЕКТИВНОГО НТЕЛЕКТУ
K. Метешк?н,Х. Раковський
Information Technologies and Learning Tools , 2010,
Abstract: The results of Bologna process are investigated. It is underlined that theoretical – methodological bases of the Bologna process have been poorly developed. A scheme for master’s education both on requirements of separate states, and on requirements of EU is offered. Досл джуються п дсумки Болонського процесу. П дкреслю ться, що слабко розроблен теоретико-методолог чн основи Болонського процесу. Пропону ться схема навчання маг стр в, як для потреб окремих держав, так для потреб С.
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