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An exploratory study on perceived relationship of alcohol, caffeine, and physical activity on hot flashes in menopausal women  [PDF]
Jay Kandiah, Valerie Amend
Health (Health) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/health.2010.29146
Abstract: This study examined the effects of caffeine, alcohol, and physical activity (PA) on the perceived frequency and severity of hot flashes in menopausal women. Female employees at a Mid-Western university were invited to participate in an on-line survey. The 26-itemized Wo- men’s Health Survey (WHS) included questions regarding demographics, menopausal stage, experience of hot flashes, consumption of caffeinated beverages and alcohol, and participation in PA. One-hundred and ninety-six women completed the study. Ordinary Least Squares regressions revealed PA, caffeine, and alcohol intake were significant in predicting the severity of hot flashes (R2 = 0.068, F(6,180) = 2.195, p = 0.046), though they did not predict frequency of hot flashes (R2 = 0.043, F(6,184) = 1.39, p = 0.221). Participation in aerobic PA increased frequency of hot flashes (p = 0.031); while higher intensity of aerobic PA had an inverse relationship on both frequency and severity of hot flashes (p = 0.011, p = 0.003, respectively). Spearman correlations demonstrated a positive relationship between caffeinated soda intake and frequency (r = 0.17, p = 0.06) and severity (r = 0.19, p = 0.04) of hot flashes. Beverage consumption and PA may predict severity of hot flashes in women. Less frequent, higher intensity aerobic PA may lead to fewer, less severe hot flashes.
Teaching New Mothers about Infant Feeding Cues May Increase Breastfeeding Duration  [PDF]
Jay Kandiah, Charlene Burian, Valerie Amend
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2011.24037
Abstract: The objective of this pilot study was to compare two different methods of educating prenatal women regarding breast-feeding. Comparisons were made between traditional and innovative methods to determine which was more effective in increasing breastfeeding duration. Over a 32 month period, 197 prenatal women were assigned to either a control (C, n = 139) or an experimental (E, n = 51) group. The C group received standard breastfeeding education, while the E group received standard education in addition to information about infant hunger cues. Cox Regression and Kap-lan- Meier analysis were performed. Estimated mean number of weeks for C and E groups to continue breastfeeding was 14.3 + 17.4 weeks and 18.5 + 17.1 weeks, respectively. At 26 weeks, duration of breastfeeding approached significance (chi square = 2.907, df = 1, p = 0.088), indicating probability of continuing to breastfeed was about 28% better for those in E group when compared to C group. Duration of breastfeeding may increase when prenatal women are taught to identify infant behavior such as hunger cues.
Compliance of a Small Convenience Sample and Efficacy of Short Term Modified Carbohydrate Diet on Weight Loss in Overweight College Students: A Pilot Study  [PDF]
Jay Kandiah, Dawn Brinson, Valerie Amend
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2012.35095
Abstract: The purpose of this pilot study was to determine overweight students’ compliance on low and moderate carbohydrate diets and its influence on weight loss. The 28 day study was divided into two experimental periods of 14 days each. For the first 14 days, Group 1 (n = 6) received LC diet (30 grams carbohydrate/day with ad libitum intake of protein and fat), and group 2 (n = 8) received MC diet (60 grams carbohydrate/day with ad libitum intake of protein and fat). After 14 days, there was a crossover of the diets. Two random 24-hour diet records, urinary ketones, and daily emotional and physical well-being journals evaluated participants’ dietary compliance. Height, weight, body mass index, and urine ketones were assessed at baseline, days 14 and 28. A 2 × 2 ANOVA was conducted to examine the difference between groups and to determine if a difference existed from baseline to the end of the diet period. During the study period, ir- respective of carbohydrate levels, a vast majority of participants had above or below the recommended intake of carbo- hydrates, indicating non-compliance due to various reasons. During each experimental period, although weight loss differences between groups over time did not exist, there was a significant weight loss within subjects over time (p < 0.01). Presence of urinary ketones during the dietary interventions were not statistically significant. In conclusion, mod-ified carbohydrate diets were effective with weight loss; however participants were non-compliant with their de- fined dietary protocols.
Nutritional Status and the Risk for Colorectal Adenomas: A Case-Control Study in Hospital Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Amutha Ramadas,Mirnalini Kandiah
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2010,
Abstract: The most important and possible risk factor of colorectal adenomas is the individual’s nutritional status. The role of nutritional status in the aetiology of colorectal adenomas remains an area of active investigation, as the exact relationship between nutritional status and colorectal adenomas remains unclear. The objective of this case-control was to determine the nutritional status of subjects with colorectal adenomas as compared with healthy subjects at Hospital Kuala Lumpur over a period of one year. A total of 118 subjects were recruited (n case = 59 and n control = 59). A pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic information and dietary intake. Lipid profile was determined using standard Roche diagnostic kits. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 12.0. The intake of beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, lycopene, vitamin A and crude fiber found to be significantly different between the groups (p<0.05), while beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, lycopene, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin E and crude fiber significantly reduced the risk. Although the percentages intake of nutrient achieved according to RNI were below the recommended value, percentages of RNI achieved for vitamin C, D, E and folate were found to be significantly different between male subjects (p<0.05). Our results support the notion that certain nutritional factors are of importance for the development of these pre-cancerous lesions. Identification of risk factors through this case-control study should be able to supplement the available data in order to develop an intervention package that focuses on multiple risk factors to reduce the chances for developing colorectal adenomas or colorectal cancer.
Letter to the Editor
David A Kandiah
Australasian Medical Journal , 2011,
Abstract: .
Google Matrix Analysis of DNA Sequences
Vivek Kandiah, Dima L. Shepelyansky
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0061519
Abstract: For DNA sequences of various species we construct the Google matrix of Markov transitions between nearby words composed of several letters. The statistical distribution of matrix elements of this matrix is shown to be described by a power law with the exponent being close to those of outgoing links in such scale-free networks as the World Wide Web (WWW). At the same time the sum of ingoing matrix elements is characterized by the exponent being significantly larger than those typical for WWW networks. This results in a slow algebraic decay of the PageRank probability determined by the distribution of ingoing elements. The spectrum of is characterized by a large gap leading to a rapid relaxation process on the DNA sequence networks. We introduce the PageRank proximity correlator between different species which determines their statistical similarity from the view point of Markov chains. The properties of other eigenstates of the Google matrix are also discussed. Our results establish scale-free features of DNA sequence networks showing their similarities and distinctions with the WWW and linguistic networks.
Google matrix analysis of C.elegans neural network
Vivek Kandiah,Dima L. Shepelyansky
Computer Science , 2013, DOI: 10.1016/j.physleta.2014.04.045
Abstract: We study the structural properties of the neural network of the C.elegans (worm) from a directed graph point of view. The Google matrix analysis is used to characterize the neuron connectivity structure and node classifications are discussed and compared with physiological properties of the cells. Our results are obtained by a proper definition of neural directed network and subsequent eigenvector analysis which recovers some results of previous studies. Our analysis highlights particular sets of important neurons constituting the core of the neural system. The applications of PageRank, CheiRank and ImpactRank to characterization of interdependency of neurons are discussed.
PageRank model of opinion formation on social networks
Vivek Kandiah,Dima L. Shepelyansky
Computer Science , 2012, DOI: 10.1016/j.physa.2012.06.047
Abstract: We propose the PageRank model of opinion formation and investigate its rich properties on real directed networks of Universities of Cambridge and Oxford, LiveJournal and Twitter. In this model the opinion formation of linked electors is weighted with their PageRank probability. We find that the society elite, corresponding to the top PageRank nodes, can impose its opinion to a significant fraction of the society. However, for a homogeneous distribution of two opinions there exists a bistability range of opinions which depends on a conformist parameter characterizing the opinion formation. We find that LiveJournal and Twitter networks have a stronger tendency to a totalitar opinion formation. We also analyze the Sznajd model generalized for scale-free networks with the weighted PageRank vote of electors.
MicroRNAs in Neurotoxicity
Prameet Kaur,Arunmozhiarasi Armugam,Kandiah Jeyaseelan
Journal of Toxicology , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/870150
Abstract: MicroRNAs are gaining importance as regulators of gene expression with the capability to fine-tune and modulate cellular events. The complex network with their selective targets (mRNAs/genes) pave way for regulation of many physiological processes. Dysregulation of normal neuronal activities could result in accumulation of substances that are detrimental to neuronal functions and subsequently result in neurotoxicity. Neurotoxicity-mediated pathophysiological conditions could then manifest as diseases or disabilities like Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s which have debilitating implications. Such toxicity can be a result of individuals predisposed due to genetic inheritance or from other sources such as brain tumours. Neurotoxicity can also be brought about by external agents like drugs and alcohol as well as brain injury with miRNAs playing a pivotal role in diseases. It is therefore vital to understand the expression of these microRNAs and their impact on neuronal activities. In this paper, we discuss some of the neuronal pathophysiological conditions that could be caused by dysregulated microRNAs. 1. Introduction MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are fast emerging as important regulators of gene expression, controlling almost every activity of a cell from development to cell death [1–6]. These riboregulators were first discovered in Caenorhabditis elegans in 1993 [7] after which numerous reports on the miRNA-mRNA relationships and the resulting functional regulations have been documented [6, 8–14]. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous, small (~23?nt), noncoding RNAs that are capable of regulating translation and transcription of specific mRNAs and gene promoters [7, 15–19]. A single miRNA is also capable of regulating a myriad of genes [20]. These miRNAs are derived from long stem-loop transcripts by the action of nucleases Drosha and Dicer (RNaseIII enzyme). The mature miRNA forms a complex with the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) and subsequently interacts with its targets to bring about RNA interference (inhibition or activation) [21]. Tissue-specific and organ-specific miRNAs have also been elucidated [22]. MiRNAs are abundant in the central nervous system. MiRNAs that are specifically expressed and enriched in the brain are implicated in maintaining normal neuronal function and homeostasis which in turn is associated with memory, neuronal differentiation, synaptic plasticity, and neurogenesis as well as neuronal degeneration [23–26]. The brain-specific miR-9 targets the stathmin mRNA and has been implicated in early neurogenesis and proliferation while decreasing
Postpartum Pneumomediastinum and Subcutaneous Emphysema: Two Case Reports
Shivanthi Kandiah,Harish Iswariah,Stephen Elgey
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/735154
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