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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 151529 matches for " Jay H. Bream "
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Circulating Mediators of Inflammation and Immune Activation in AIDS-Related Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma
Brian M. Nolen, Elizabeth Crabb Breen, Jay H. Bream, Frank J. Jenkins, Lawrence A. Kingsley, Charles R. Rinaldo, Anna E. Lokshin
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0099144
Abstract: Background Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is the most common AIDS-related malignancy in developed countries. An elevated risk of developing NHL persists among HIV-infected individuals in comparison to the general population despite the advent of effective antiretroviral therapy. The mechanisms underlying the development of AIDS-related NHL (A-NHL) are not fully understood, but likely involve persistent B-cell activation and inflammation. Methods This was a nested case-control study within the ongoing prospective Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS). Cases included 47 HIV-positive male subjects diagnosed with high-grade B-cell NHL. Controls were matched to each case from among participating HIV-positive males who did not develop any malignancy. Matching criteria included time HIV+ or since AIDS diagnosis, age, race and CD4+ cell count. Sera were tested for 161 serum biomarkers using multiplexed bead-based immunoassays. Results A subset of 17 biomarkers, including cytokines, chemokines, acute phase proteins, tissue remodeling agents and bone metabolic mediators was identified to be significantly altered in A-NHL cases in comparison to controls. Many of the biomarkers included in this subset were positively correlated with HIV viral load. A pathway analysis of our results revealed an extensive network of interactions between current and previously identified biomarkers. Conclusions These findings support the current hypothesis that A-NHL develops in the context of persistent immune stimulation and inflammation. Further analysis of the biomarkers identified in this report should enhance our ability to diagnose, monitor and treat this disease.
Copy Number Variation of KIR Genes Influences HIV-1 Control
Kimberly Pelak,Anna C. Need,Jacques Fellay,Kevin V. Shianna,Sheng Feng,Thomas J. Urban,Dongliang Ge,Andrea De Luca,Javier Martinez-Picado,Steven M. Wolinsky,Jeremy J. Martinson,Beth D. Jamieson,Jay H. Bream,Maureen P. Martin,Persephone Borrow,Norman L. Letvin,Andrew J. McMichael,Barton F. Haynes,Amalio Telenti,Mary Carrington,David B. Goldstein,Galit Alter
PLOS Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1001208
Abstract: A genome-wide screen for large structural variants showed that a copy number variant (CNV) in the region encoding killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) associates with HIV-1 control as measured by plasma viral load at set point in individuals of European ancestry. This CNV encompasses the KIR3DL1-KIR3DS1 locus, encoding receptors that interact with specific HLA-Bw4 molecules to regulate the activation of lymphocyte subsets including natural killer (NK) cells. We quantified the number of copies of KIR3DS1 and KIR3DL1 in a large HIV-1 positive cohort, and showed that an increase in KIR3DS1 count associates with a lower viral set point if its putative ligand is present (p = 0.00028), as does an increase in KIR3DL1 count in the presence of KIR3DS1 and appropriate ligands for both receptors (p = 0.0015). We further provide functional data that demonstrate that NK cells from individuals with multiple copies of KIR3DL1, in the presence of KIR3DS1 and the appropriate ligands, inhibit HIV-1 replication more robustly, and associated with a significant expansion in the frequency of KIR3DS1+, but not KIR3DL1+, NK cells in their peripheral blood. Our results suggest that the relative amounts of these activating and inhibitory KIR play a role in regulating the peripheral expansion of highly antiviral KIR3DS1+ NK cells, which may determine differences in HIV-1 control following infection.
Copy Number Variation of KIR Genes Influences HIV-1 Control
Kimberly Pelak equal contributor,Anna C. Need equal contributor,Jacques Fellay equal contributor,Kevin V. Shianna,Sheng Feng,Thomas J. Urban,Dongliang Ge,Andrea De Luca,Javier Martinez-Picado,Steven M. Wolinsky,Jeremy J. Martinson,Beth D. Jamieson,Jay H. Bream,Maureen P. Martin,Persephone Borrow,Norman L. Letvin,Andrew J. McMichael,Barton F. Haynes,Amalio Telenti,Mary Carrington,David B. Goldstein,Galit Alter ,on behalf of NIAID Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology (CHAVI)
PLOS Biology , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1001208
Abstract: A genome-wide screen for large structural variants showed that a copy number variant (CNV) in the region encoding killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) associates with HIV-1 control as measured by plasma viral load at set point in individuals of European ancestry. This CNV encompasses the KIR3DL1-KIR3DS1 locus, encoding receptors that interact with specific HLA-Bw4 molecules to regulate the activation of lymphocyte subsets including natural killer (NK) cells. We quantified the number of copies of KIR3DS1 and KIR3DL1 in a large HIV-1 positive cohort, and showed that an increase in KIR3DS1 count associates with a lower viral set point if its putative ligand is present (p = 0.00028), as does an increase in KIR3DL1 count in the presence of KIR3DS1 and appropriate ligands for both receptors (p = 0.0015). We further provide functional data that demonstrate that NK cells from individuals with multiple copies of KIR3DL1, in the presence of KIR3DS1 and the appropriate ligands, inhibit HIV-1 replication more robustly, and associated with a significant expansion in the frequency of KIR3DS1+, but not KIR3DL1+, NK cells in their peripheral blood. Our results suggest that the relative amounts of these activating and inhibitory KIR play a role in regulating the peripheral expansion of highly antiviral KIR3DS1+ NK cells, which may determine differences in HIV-1 control following infection.
LILRB2 Interaction with HLA Class I Correlates with Control of HIV-1 Infection
Arman A. Bashirova equal contributor,Enrique Martin-Gayo equal contributor,Des C. Jones equal contributor,Ying Qi,Richard Apps,Xiaojiang Gao,Patrick S. Burke,Craig J. Taylor,Jerome Rogich,Steven Wolinsky,Jay H. Bream,Priya Duggal,Shehnaz Hussain,Jeremy Martinson,Amy Weintrob,Gregory D. Kirk,Jacques Fellay,Susan P. Buchbinder,James J. Goedert,Steven G. Deeks,Florencia Pereyra,John Trowsdale,Mathias Lichterfeld,Amalio Telenti,Bruce D. Walker,Rachel L. Allen,Mary Carrington,Xu G. Yu
PLOS Genetics , 2014, DOI: doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1004196
Abstract: Natural progression of HIV-1 infection depends on genetic variation in the human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I locus, and the CD8+ T cell response is thought to be a primary mechanism of this effect. However, polymorphism within the MHC may also alter innate immune activity against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) by changing interactions of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules with leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptors (LILR), a group of immunoregulatory receptors mainly expressed on myelomonocytic cells including dendritic cells (DCs). We used previously characterized HLA allotype-specific binding capacities of LILRB1 and LILRB2 as well as data from a large cohort of HIV-1-infected individuals (N = 5126) to test whether LILR-HLA class I interactions influence viral load in HIV-1 infection. Our analyses in persons of European descent, the largest ethnic group examined, show that the effect of HLA-B alleles on HIV-1 control correlates with the binding strength between corresponding HLA-B allotypes and LILRB2 (p = 10?2). Moreover, overall binding strength of LILRB2 to classical HLA class I allotypes, defined by the HLA-A/B/C genotypes in each patient, positively associates with viral replication in the absence of therapy in patients of both European (p = 10?11–10?9) and African (p = 10?5–10?3) descent. This effect appears to be driven by variations in LILRB2 binding affinities to HLA-B and is independent of individual class I allelic effects that are not related to the LILRB2 function. Correspondingly, in vitro experiments suggest that strong LILRB2-HLA binding negatively affects antigen-presenting properties of DCs. Thus, we propose an impact of LILRB2 on HIV-1 disease outcomes through altered regulation of DCs by LILRB2-HLA engagement.
Neemazal Effects on the Consumption and Utilization of Food in Some Early Larval Instars of the Cotton Leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis Boisd. (Noctuidae:Lepidoptera)
H.A. Mohamed,K.S. Ghoneim,A.S. Bream
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2003,
Abstract: The azadirachtin preparation, Neemazal, was assessed against the Egyptian cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis to clarify its possible action on the food metabolism. Six concentration levels were prepared: 1250, 625, 312,100,50 and 10 ppm and given to 2nd instar larvae with the food (castor leaves). All metabolic parameters were estimated during the 2nd and 4th larval instars. A detrimental effect on the food intake and consumption of 2nd instar larvae was found, irrespective of the Neemazal conc. level. All estimated metabolic parameters were less than those of control larvae and decreased as the conc. level was increased. Similarly, food intake and faeces output of 4th instar larvae had been undergone to a strong action of Neemazal. The Approximate digestibility (AD) values of 2nd instar larvae increased, but in no certain trend. Its changes ranged from + 0.7 5 (at 1250 ppm) to +5.2% (at 50 ppm). Its values decreased during the 4th larval instar only at the two middle conc. levels but increased at other ones. A dramatic impact of Neemazal on Efficiency of conversion of ingested food to the body substance (ECI) and Efficiency of conversion of digested food to the body substance (ECD) was observed for both 2nd and 4th instar larvae at some conc. levels. Neemazal exerted an inhibitory action on Assimilation rate (AR) of 2nd instar larvae which decreased by increasing conc. The metabolic effect of Neemazal reflected on Relative weight gain (RWG) and Growth rate (GR) which had been drastically reduced. On the other hand, Neemazal exhibited a different effect on AR, Relative metabolic rate (RMR), RWG and GR of 4th instar larvae. It promoted these larvae to attain higher AR, especially at the higher four conc. levels. However, AR or RMR of 4th instar larvae had not been considerably influenced as RWG and GR by Neemazal.
Delivering Low Income Housing-Role of Access to Land and Credit in Gujarat, India  [PDF]
Jay Mittal, H. M. Shivanand Swamy
Current Urban Studies (CUS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/cus.2014.23023
Abstract: Housing, particularly for the poor and marginalised, is a complex urban problem that occupies centre-stage in present-day development issues. Access to housing is influenced by two major fac-tors—land, and finance. Absence of either (or both) of these results in mushrooming of high density, environmentally insanitary living areas commonly referred to as slums. The poor and vulnerable sections increasingly struggle to secure adequate quality of shelter, because of their inability to access land at affordable rates and finance to be built. As the inflow of the poor from rural to urban is, by now, accepted as inevitable, providing housing and economic opportunities for these would have to form part and parcel of any sustainable urban development strategy. In the state of Gujarat, formal housing supply is unable to meet even a fraction of the housing demands in urban areas. Thus a mix of private and informal sector housing has emerged in the past few decades. During the 1990s, the involvement of NGOs in facilitating access of the poor to housing finance also became increasingly significant. This paper presents a critical review of housing delivery systems in urban Gujarat with an emphasis on the poor. A schematic design for delivery of land and access to housing finance for poor households has also been presented.
Poisons and antidotes among the Taman of West Kalimantan, Indonesia
Jay H. Bernstein
Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde , 1993,
Abstract:
Measuring phosphatidic acid phosphohydrolase (EC 3.1.3.4) activity using two phosphomolybdate-based colorimetric methods  [PDF]
Abul H. J. Ullah, Kandan Sethumadhavan, Jay Shockey
Advances in Biological Chemistry (ABC) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/abc.2012.24052
Abstract: Phosphatidic acid phosphohydrolase (3-sn-phosphatidate phosphohydrolase, EC 3.1.3.4), also known as PAP, catalyzes the dephosphorylation of phosphatidic acid (PtdOH) to form diacylglycerol (DAG) and inorganic orthophosphate. In eukaryotes, the PAP driven reaction is the committed step in the synthesis of triacylglycerol (TAG). Existing methods for measuring PAP activity rely on the use of radioactive PtdOH. These methods are costly and cumbersome. In this report, we describe a simple assay procedure to measure released inorganic orthophosphate, which is a coproduct of the PAP reaction. Each molecule of PtdOH would release one molecule of DAG and one molecule of inorganic orthophosphate (Pi) when subjected to enzymatic breakdown under optimal conditions. Given the published rates of in vitro PAP enzymatic activity from various sources, we proposed that colorimetric determination of released Pi is possible. With this view, we performed in vitro PAP activity assays using freshly isolated enzyme from bitter gourd, Momordica charantia, and measured the released Pi using two spectrophotometric methods. Both methods gave about 2.0 to 2.25 ηkat per mg of protein. Thus, it is now possible to perform PAP activity using a simple procedure that uses nonradioactive substrates, provided the sample is dialyzed extensively to lower the intrinsic concentration of free phosphate. The kinetics data presented in this study is comparable to that of other PAP enzymes reported elsewhere, which gives credence to the notion that non-radioactive methods can be used to perform PAP activity.
Purification, characterization, and bioinformatics studies of phosphatidic acid phosphohydrolase from Lagenaria siceraria  [PDF]
Abul H. J. Ullah, Kandan Sethumadhavan, Casey Grimm, Jay Shockey
Advances in Biological Chemistry (ABC) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/abc.2012.24050
Abstract: Phosphatidic acid phosphohydrolase (PAP), EC 3.1.3.4, is the penultimate step in the Kennedy pathway of triacyl glycerol (TAG) synthesis leading to the formation of diacylglycerol (DAG), which is a key intermediate in TAG synthesis. We partially purified a soluble PAP from mid maturing seeds of bottle gourd, Lagenaria siceraria. The steps include both anionic and cationic ion exchanger columns. Catalytic characterization of the partially purified PAP revealed that the optimum pH and temperature for activity were at 5.5?C and 45?C. Under optimum assay condition using dioleoyl phosphatidic acid (DPA) as the substrate, the Vmax and Km were 0.36 ηkat/mg of protein and 200 μM, respectively. For the synthetic substrate, ρ-nitrophenylphosphate, ρ-NPP, the Vmax and Km were 33.0 nkat/mg of protein and 140 μM, respectively. The activity was neither inhibited nor enhanced by the presence of Mg2+ at a concentration range of 0 to 10 mM. Two major protein bands at 42-kDa and 27-kDa were visible in SDS-PAGE after partial purification. Bioinformatics analysis of tryp-sinized protein fractions containing PAP activity showed peptide sequences with sequence homology to various phosphate metabolizing enzymes including cucumber and castor bean purple acid phosphatase, polyphosphate kinase, fructose biphosphate aldolase, and enolase from various dicotyledonous plants including rice, corn, grape, and Arabidopsis lyrata.
Constraint Optimal Selection Techniques (COSTs) for Linear Programming  [PDF]
Goh Saito, H. W. Corley, Jay M. Rosenberger
American Journal of Operations Research (AJOR) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajor.2013.31004
Abstract:

We describe a new active-set, cutting-plane Constraint Optimal Selection Technique (COST) for solving general linear programming problems. We describe strategies to bound the initial problem and simultaneously add multiple constraints. We give an interpretation of the new COST’s selection rule, which considers both the depth of constraints as well as their angles from the objective function. We provide computational comparisons of the COST with existing linear programming algorithms, including other COSTs in the literature, for some large-scale problems. Finally, we discuss conclusions and future research.

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