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MRI as Non-Invasive Modality of Choice for Diagnosis of Cause in Case of Chyluria  [PDF]
Kishor Taori, Amit Disawal, Jawahar Rathod, Rakhi P. Puria, Prasad Wavare, Vishal N. Bakare, Anand Hatgaonkar, Suresh Dhakate
Open Journal of Nephrology (OJNeph) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojneph.2013.31002
Abstract:

Chyluria is a urological manifestation of lymphatic system abnormality as a result of some abnormal communication between these two systems. Although chyluria as such is rare, filariasis is most common cause in Asian countries. This parasitic tropical debilitating disease is known for chronicity, recurrence and resultant complications. This article provides importance of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), as a non-invasive modality, in the diagnosis of exact etiopathogenesis of chyluria along with clinical symptoms, other investigations required and brief about the management protocols. On MRI, abnormally dilated lymphatics are visualized as meshwork of multiple tubular, tortuous, fluid-filled structures in the retroperitoneum. We report a case of 20 year young adult who presented with history of passing whitish urine on and off since 8 months. MRI helped in the detection of the site and level of lymphatic obstruction and resultant lympho-urinary fistula.

Formulation and evaluation of pectin-hydroxypropyl methylcellulose coated curcumin pellets for colon delivery
Sureshkumar R,Munikumar,Ganesh G N K,Jawahar N
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutics , 2009,
Abstract: High molecular weight hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and biodegradable pectin were used for coating the pellets containing curcumin, to be released in the colon. The prepared pellets were free flowing. in vitro release of curcumin remained intact up to pH 3.0, disintegrated at pH 7.2, and released up to 12 hours. The ideal batch (1:3) showed minimum release at pH 1.2 and maximum release at pH 6.8, and an increased amount of curcumin in the blood stream(1.287 μg/ml) was achieved when compared with pure curcumin (0.5 μg/ml). The drug release was retarded by the high concentration and greater thickness of the coating of HPMC on the pellets. Release kinetics of the preparation shows a non-Fickian or anamolous diffusion or matrix erosion.
Computer assisted semen analysis for quantification of motion characteristics of bull sperm during cryopreservation cycle
M. N. Sundararaman,J Kalatharan,K Thilak Pon Jawahar
Veterinary World , 2012, DOI: 10.5455/vetworld.2012.723-726
Abstract: Aim: The study was undertaken to quantify and to analyze the changes in the motion characteristics of bull spermatozoa during various stages of cryopreservation cycle. Materials and Methods: Using computer assisted semen analysis (CASA) technique, 26 ejaculates, collected from two Jersey bulls were analyzed for motility, head behaviour and swimming pattern of spermatozoa on dilution, pre-freeze and post-thaw stages of cryopreservation. French straw technique was employed for deep-freezing of semen using liquid nitrogen. Results: Equilibration of diluted semen at 5 C has significantly (P< 0.01) reduced sperm motility, progressive motility, path velocity, and progressive velocity. Beat cross frequency was also affected significantly (P<0.05) by equilibration. Freezing and thawing processes drastically affected all the motility, velocity and head behaviour characteristics (P< 0.01). Conclusion: CASA facilitate objective evaluation sperm motion characteristics. Adoption of CASA technique has the potential for improvements in evaluation of semen thereby the quality of frozen semen for fertility can be enhanced. [Vet World 2012; 5(12.000): 723-726]
Mucoadhesive slow-release tablets of theophylline: Design and evaluation
Senthil V,Gopalakrishnan S,Sureshkumar R,Jawahar N
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutics , 2010,
Abstract: Mucoadhesive tablets were prepared to evaluate the adhesive property of the gum obtained from seeds of Ceaselpinia pulcherrima (CP) by comparing it with carbopol, hydroxy propyl methylcellulose (HPMC), and Chitosan. Physical parameters such as bulk density, tapped density, compressibility index, and Hausner′s ratio values indicate good flow, the percentage of drug content was in the range of 96.4± 0.97%, and various adhesive evaluation results reveal a good mucoadhesive property. The barium sulphate loaded tablet possesses strong mucoadhesive property, which was evident from prolonged adhesion in the same location of the stomach up to a period of 10 h, whereas the duration of adhesion found to be comparatively less with other polymers. From the results of in vitro and in vivo adhesive tests and in vitro release study the test agent (Gum) appears to exhibit considerable mucoadhesive property and mean residence time values when compared with tablets of carbopol, HPMC, and Chitosan.
Factors Influencing Tacit Knowledge in Construction
Jawahar Nesan
Australasian Journal of Construction Economics and Building , 2012,
Abstract: Increased complexity of the construction business and consequentuse of new management concepts and technologies ledconstruction organisations to focus more on the transfer of explicitknowledge. However, it is the tacit knowledge that determinesthe construction companies’ competitiveness in a business thatis driven by turbulent market conditions and customers’ everincreasingdemands. This paper highlights the importance of tacitknowledge sharing in construction, explores the challenges andopportunities to efficiently share tacit knowledge, and based on theliterature review identifies some critical factors that influence tacitknowledge in construction. It is argued that employees’ knowledgesharing (learning) behaviours are influenced by work practices thatare borne by respective organisational behaviours. Organisational,cultural, and project characteristics that facilitate knowledgesharing among construction employees are explored and thepractices that influence the construction employee behaviour insharing tacit knowledge are highlighted.
Project Finance Model for Small Contractors in USA
Jawahar Nesan
Australasian Journal of Construction Economics and Building , 2012,
Abstract: Construction projects do not require a large capital outlay but a large working capital to start up the project. Unfortunately, for small contractors there are very limited options available from the banks or other lending institutions to cover this large working capital requirement in the absence of sufficient collateral. The “Project Finance” method presented in this paper is recommended as the most effective method for small contractors in the United States. The problems of small and start up contractors in funding their projects have been little addressed in the literature. The current financing practices were observed through both the literature review and interviews with contractors and bankers in the western Michigan area and subsequently a system has been proposed which could help a small start-up company seeking higher growth. The growth rates that can be achieved using the project finance system in contrast to the traditional “line of credit” arrangements as illustrated in this paper show that the project finance model is beneficial.
Preparation and Properties of Polyester-Based Nanocomposite Gel Coat System
P. Jawahar,M. Balasubramanian
Journal of Nanomaterials , 2006, DOI: 10.1155/jnm/2006/21656
Abstract: Nanocomposite gel coat system is prepared using unsaturated polyester resin with aerosil powder, CaCO3, and organoclay. The influence of organoclay addition on mechanical and water barrier properties of gel coat system is studied for different amount (1, 2, and 3 wt %) of organoclay. The nanolevel incorporation of organoclay improves the mechanical and water barrier properties of nanocomposite gel coat system. The nanocomposite gel coat system exhibits 55% improvement in tensile modulus and 25% improvement in flexural modulus. There is a 30% improvement in impact property of nanocomposite gel coat system. The dynamic mechanical analysis shows a slight increase in glass transition temperature for nanocomposite gel coat system.
Functional gene clustering via gene annotation sentences, MeSH and GO keywords from biomedical literature
Jeyakumar Natarajan,Jawahar Ganapathy
Bioinformation , 2007,
Abstract: Gene function annotation remains a key challenge in modern biology. This is especially true for high-throughput techniques such as gene expression experiments. Vital information about genes is available electronically from biomedical literature in the form of full texts and abstracts. In addition, various publicly available databases (such as GenBank, Gene Ontology and Entrez) provide access to gene-related information at different levels of biological organization, granularity and data format. This information is being used to assess and interpret the results from high-throughput experiments. To improve keyword extraction for annotational clustering and other types of analyses, we have developed a novel text mining approach, which is based on keywords identified at the level of gene annotation sentences (in particular sentences characterizing biological function) instead of entire abstracts. Further, to improve the expressiveness and usefulness of gene annotation terms, we investigated the combination of sentence-level keywords with terms from the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) and Gene Ontology (GO) resources. We find that sentence-level keywords combined with MeSH terms outperforms the typical ‘baseline’ set-up (term frequencies at the level of abstracts) by a significant margin, whereas the addition of GO terms improves matters only marginally. We validated our approach on the basis of a manually annotated corpus of 200 abstracts generated on the basis of 2 cancer categories and 10 genes per category. We applied the method in the context of three sets of differentially expressed genes obtained from pediatric brain tumor samples. This analysis suggests novel interpretations of discovered gene expression patterns.
Food Safety Hazards Related to Emerging Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria in Cultured Freshwater Fishes of Kolkata, India
T. Jawahar Abraham
Advance Journal of Food Science and Technology , 2011,
Abstract: Association of opportunistic human bacterial pathogens in cultured freshwater fishes of Kolkata, India and their sensitivity to broad spectrum antibiotics was investigated. Both indigenous and non-indigenous human bacterial pathogens such as Aeromonas hydrophila, A. caviae, Edwardsiella tarda, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas spp. and Vibrio parahaemolyticus were isolated from freshwater fishes of Kolkata. These strains were highly resistant to oxytetracycline (62%) and nitrofurantoin (46%), and sensitive to ciprofloxacin (91%) and chloramphenicol (89%). Multiple Antibiotic Resistance (MAR) was high in catfishes (76%) followed by miscellaneous fishes (66%) and sewage-fed farm grown carps (55%). Among the bacterial species, the MAR was high in Ed. tarda (86%). More than 50% of the strains of A. hydrophila, A. caviae, E. coli, Pseudomonas spp., V. parahaemolyticus and unidentified Gram positive rods exhibited MAR. The results suggested that there is added risk of antibacterial resistance developing in the emerging human bacterial pathogens from freshwater aquaculture and of such antibiotic resistant bacterial pathogens entering the food chain.
Effect of centchroman coadministration on the pharmacokinetics of metformin in rats
Lal Jawahar,Jain Girish
Indian Journal of Pharmacology , 2010,
Abstract: Objectives : To study the effect of centchroman, a non-steroidal oral contraceptive, coadministration on the pharmacokinetics of metformin in rats. Materials and Methods : The pharmacokinetic interaction of metformin was studied in normal Sprague-Dawley female rats with and without centchroman coadministration. Blood samples were analyzed using a validated high-performance liquid chromatography method to generate the pharmacokinetic profile of metformin. The C max and t max were directly read from the concentration-time data. Other pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated using non-compartmental analyses. Results : Metformin was monitored up to 10 h, and it exhibited a double-peak phenomenon. The C max 1, 2.62 ± 0.32 μg/ml, and C max 2, 2.96 ± 0.65 μg/ml, occurred after 0.75 and 3 h post-dose, respectively. The mean residence time (MRT), AUC 0-4 h and volume of distribution (Vd/F) were 4.20 ± 0.30 h, 8.53 ± 1.89 μg.h/ml and 14.24 ± 5.42 L/kg, respectively. Following centchroman coadministration, metformin showed significantly (P < 0.05) higher C max (C max 1, 3.96 ± 0.55 μg/ml and C max 2, 5.21 ± 0.59 μg/ml), AUC 0-4 h (12.28 ± 0.73 μg.h/ml) and Vd/F (18.29 ± 1.19 L/kg), but lower MRT (3.19 ± 0.36 h) than the values obtained after metformin dosing alone. However, AUC0-t (17.74 ± 5.58 μg.h/ml) and clearance (3.76 ± 0.80 L/h/kg) remained unchanged. Conclusions : The results indicate that centchroman coadministration increases the rate but not the extent of absorption of metformin in rats. However, it does not seem to alter the pharmacokinetics of metformin to clinically significant levels.
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