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Angular Precession of Elliptic Orbits. Mercury  [PDF]
Javier Bootello
International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics (IJAA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ijaa.2012.24032
Abstract: The relativistic precession of Mercury -43.1 seconds of arc per century, is the result of a secular addition of 5.02×10-7 rad. at the end of every orbit around the Sun. The question that arises in this paper, is to analyse the angular precession at each single point of the elliptic orbit and determine its magnitude and oscillation around the mean value, comparing key theoretical proposals. Underline also that, this astronomical determination has not been yet achieved, so it is considered that Messenger spacecraft, now orbiting the planet or the future mission BepiColombo, should provide an opportunity to perform it. That event will clarify some significant issues, now that we are close to reach the centenary of the formulation and first success of General Relativity.
Perturbing Potential and Orbit Dynamics  [PDF]
Javier Bootello
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2013.48A020
Abstract:

This article checks a perturbing gravitational potential, with some orbit dynamics parameters: the angular precession at each single point of any elliptic orbit, the increase of the eccentricity of the Moon and the secular increase of the Astronomical Unit. This potential is consistent with the solution of the precession of Mercury, event which was the first success of General Relativity, and now is near to reach its first centenary. We suggest in this paper to update the classic test of G.R., studying the gradual progression of precession, not only in its perihelion but testing a complete trajectory around the Sun.

Bioethics and the Law in Familial Cancer, a Practical Approach  [PDF]
Azua-Romeo Javier
Open Journal of Pathology (OJPathology) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojpathology.2012.22009
Abstract: Hereditary cancers are the result of germline mutations in specific genes that increase susceptibility to cancer. This susceptibility is spread among family members according to different patterns of inheritance. Inherited susceptibility to cancer, does not imply the certainty of developing it in all cases. In this sense many questions have come out in recent years, not only in the medical sense but also in the field of bioethics and the law.
Psychic Neuronal Hypersynchronies: A New Psychiatric Paradigm?  [PDF]
Javier Alvarez-Rodriguez
Health (Health) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/health.2014.616242
Abstract: This paper deals with certain psychic automatisms that appear suddenly in the consciousness of the subject in a passive or automatic way and that usually are diagnosed as psychiatric symptoms or manifestations of an epileptic partial seizure. These mental automatisms are described in many writings by mystics, philosophers, literates, composers, and many different great artists and creators from human history, but they did not confer any pathological value on these experiences. The analysis of the epileptogenic activity gives us arguments to propose that these automatic experiences are due to neuronal circuits physiologically adapted to fire in a hypersynchronous way. With these data we enunciate an innovative hypothesis: these psychic experiences are manifestations of an adaptive neuronal network for which we propose the term psychic hypersynchrony. Finally, we discuss the consequences of this hypothesis, especially in the epileptic, psychiatric, and neuropsychopharmacologic fields.
Hypersynchronic Mental Automatisms: An Innovative Psychiatric Hypothesis Reaffirming Its Validity for Fifteen Years  [PDF]
Javier Alvarez-Rodriguez
Health (Health) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/health.2015.71006
Abstract: This paper deals with certain psychic automatisms that are usually diagnosed as psychiatric symptoms or as simple partial seizures. These mental automatisms are described in many writings by mystics, philosophers, literates, composers, and many different great artists and creators from human history, but they have never conferred any pathological value on these experiences. We have carried out previous scientific researches in which we found abundant arguments suggesting that these automatisms are due to neuronal nets physiologically adapted to fire in a hypersynchronous way. With these pieces of information we propose an audacious hypothesis: these automatic experiences are manifestations of a cognitive cerebral function that, until now, has been insufficiently delimited. We propose the term hyperia to denominate this cognitive function, which we consider responsible for clairvoyant and/or telepathic cognitions. Finally, we discuss the relevant consequences of this hypothesis, particularly in the fields of epilepsy, psychiatry, and neuropsychopharmacology.
Psychiatric Symptoms of Epileptic Nature: An Old Hypothesis in Light of Current Psychopharmacologic Advances  [PDF]
Javier Alvarez-Rodriguez
Open Journal of Psychiatry (OJPsych) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojpsych.2015.51012
Abstract: This paper analyses a hypothesis according to which many positive psychiatric symptoms should be interpreted as symptoms of epileptic nature. When we first raised this proposition, almost fifteen years ago, it was inconsistent with the widespread conviction among psychiatrists that psychopharmacological drugs used to suppress psychiatric symptoms were proconvulsant. But lately, there have appeared numerous neuroscientific investigations that defend the anticonvulsant effect of most psychopharmacological drugs, hence supporting our hypothesis. We have carried out bibliographical reviews in search of the pro- or anticonvulsant role of these substances, particularly lithium, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, dual antidepressants, and antipsychotic drugs.These researches show abundant evidence regarding the anticonvulsant action of these substances, a fact that contributes to a better comprehension of paradoxical relationship between epilepsy and psychoses.
The Hypothesis of Hyperia from the Perspective of Neuronal Plasticity  [PDF]
Javier álvarez-Rodríguez
Open Journal of Medical Psychology (OJMP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojmp.2016.51003
Abstract: We analyze certain mental automatisms appearing in the consciousness with phenomenological features of simple partial seizures (SPSs). We propose to include all these phenomena into a cognitive function to which we term hyperia. In this paper, we analyze the similarities between the nature of this cognitive function and the mechanisms used by our brain to elicit neuronal plasticity.
Dating and functional characterization of duplicated genes in the apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) by analyzing EST data
Javier Sanzol
BMC Plant Biology , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2229-10-87
Abstract: This study evaluates the gene duplication and polyploidy history of the apple by characterizing duplicated genes in this species using EST data. Overall, 68% of the apple genes were clustered into families with a mean copy-number of 4.6. Analysis of the age distribution of gene duplications supported a continuous mode of small-scale duplications, plus two episodes of large-scale duplicates of vastly different ages. The youngest was consistent with the polyploid origin of the Pyrinae 37-48 MYBP, whereas the older may be related to γ-triplication; an ancient hexapolyploidization previously characterized in the four sequenced eurosid genomes and basal to the eurosid-asterid divergence. Duplicated genes were studied for functional diversification with an emphasis on young paralogs; those originated during or after the formation of the Pyrinae lineage. Unequal assignment of single-copy genes and gene families to Gene Ontology categories suggested functional bias in the pattern of gene retention of paralogs. Young paralogs related to signal transduction, metabolism, and energy pathways have been preferentially retained. Non-random retention of duplicated genes seems to have mediated the expansion of gene families, some of which may have substantially increased their members after the origin of the Pyrinae. The joint analysis of over-duplicated functional categories and phylogenies, allowed evaluation of the role of both polyploidy and small-scale duplications during this process. Finally, gene expression analysis indicated that 82% of duplicated genes, including 80% of young paralogs, showed uncorrelated expression profiles, suggesting extensive subfunctionalization and a role of gene duplication in the acquisition of novel patterns of gene expression.This study reports a genome-wide analysis of the mode of gene duplication in the apple, and provides evidence for its role in genome functional diversification by characterising three major processes: selective retention of
Evolution of gene order conservation in prokaryotes
Javier Tamames
Genome Biology , 2001, DOI: 10.1186/gb-2001-2-6-research0020
Abstract: Gene order is extensively conserved between closely related species, but rapidly becomes less conserved among more distantly related organisms, probably in a cooperative fashion. This trend could be universal in prokaryotic genomes, as archaeal genomes are likely to behave similarly to bacterial genomes. Gene order conservation could therefore be used as a valid phylogenetic measure to study relationships between species. Even between very distant species, remnants of gene order conservation exist in the form of highly conserved clusters of genes. This suggests the existence of selective processes that maintain the organization of these regions. Because the clusters often span more than one operon, common regulation probably cannot be invoked as the cause of the maintenance of gene order.Gene order conservation is a genomic measure that can be useful for studying relationships between prokaryotes and the evolutionary forces shaping their genomes. Gene organization is extensively conserved in some genomic regions, and further studies are needed to elucidate the reason for this conservation.Completely sequenced genomes enable the study of relations between organisms in terms of the complete set of genes they possess. Genomic properties have been proposed as the most convenient tool for studying these relationships, as they are global properties that may circumvent many of the difficulties of classical molecular phytogenies [1]. Common gene content [2,3] or conservation of families of proteins [4] are examples of this kind of genomic information. From this genomic perspective, conservation of gene order is a very informative measure that may provide information both about the function and interactions of the proteins these genes encode [5,6], and about the evolution of the genomes and the organisms themselves.Gene order is generally well preserved at close phylogenetic distances [7]. When the species are not closely related, the degree of gene order conservation is usu
Review of "Medical Image Analysis Methods" by Lena Costaridou
Javier Toro
BioMedical Engineering OnLine , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1475-925x-5-6
Abstract: The book is organized in 12 chapters. Chapter 1 reviews a particular CAD system for the detection of microcalcifications and masses in mammography. Chapter 2 is similar to Chapter 1 in that it is also concerned with the study of CAD systems for mammographic images. By contrast, Chapter 2 slants towards generality. It spells out the basic elements of a CAD system and then gives a cursory compilation of various processing methods used in the main stages of a typical system. The chapter also discusses the problem of reconstructing the three-dimensional shape of arteries, exploiting both intravascular ultrasound images and biplane angiographies. This chapter could have better served as Chapter 1, as an introduction to CAD systems and related techniques. Chapter 3 reviews another computer-aided system. It focuses on the automated characterization of atherosclerotic carotid plaques from high-resolution ultrasound images. The reviewed computational scheme is based on a neural network and statistical pattern recognition techniques. Chapters 4 to 9 and 11 give either a summary of techniques or a detailed description of methods used for specific tasks usually required in a CAD system. Chapter 4 gives a comprehensive review of classification methods that have made their way into medical image processing. Chapter 5 centers on texture characterization using autoregressive models, while Chapter 6 covers topics in image enhancement using wavelet analysis techniques. Chapters 7 and 8 are concerned with image segmentation. In Chapter 7, the segmentation of magnetic resonance (MR) images via multiscale gradient watershed hierarchies is reviewed. In Chapter 8, the segmentation problem in mammography is examined using Markov random field (MRF) models. Chapter 9 offers an approach to estimate the geometric transformation that puts two medical images into correspondence. And Chapter 11 reviews the problem of how to combine multimodal information, in particular that coming from electroenc
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