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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 11879 matches for " Javier Valenzuela "
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Sobre colores y lenguas
Javier Valenzuela
Ciencia Cognitiva : Revista Electrónica de Divulgación , 2008,
Abstract: Una serie de nuevos estudios muestran cómo la lengua afecta en determinados aspectos a la percepción cromática, proporcionando de esta manera nuevos argumentos para la Hipótesis del Relativismo Lingüístico.
Relativismo lingüístico: Qué tal suena?
Javier Valenzuela
Ciencia Cognitiva : Revista Electrónica de Divulgación , 2007,
Abstract: Puede afectar el lenguaje que hablamos al modo en que procesamos la música? En este artículo se revisa un experimento reciente que parece respaldar esta idea, y que se ala la alta correlación existente entre la capacidad conocida como “oído absoluto” (i.e., la capacidad de identificar una nota musical sin ninguna otra referencia) y el ser hablante de lenguas tonales (i.e., aquéllas en las que el significado léxico varía según la entonación).
Para qué sirve el lenguaje? El experimento de la discriminación de aliens
Javier Valenzuela
Ciencia Cognitiva : Revista Electrónica de Divulgación , 2009,
Abstract: Además de su funcion comunicativa, el lenguaje puede ser una poderosa herramienta para determinadas tareas cognitivas, p.ej la formación de categorías. Se presenta un experimento en el que los participantes deben clasificar una serie de aliens como amistosos o agresivos. Los participantes a los que se suministra una etiqueta lingüística arbitraria son más eficientes a la hora de realizar esta tarea.
La complejidad morfológica de una lengua depende en parte de factores demográficos
Javier Valenzuela
Ciencia Cognitiva : Revista Electrónica de Divulgación , 2010,
Abstract: Las lenguas del mundo difieren enormemente en su complejidad morfológica. Nociones como el tiempo, el aspecto, la negación, la evidencialidad o la estructura de eventos se pueden expresar por medios morfológicos o simplemente de manera léxica. Lupyan y Dale (2010) han realizado un estudio estadístico de más de 2000 lenguas en el que encuentran un alto grado de correlación entre la complejidad morfológica de una lengua y factores demográficos como el número de hablantes, su extensión geográfica o su grado de contacto lingüístico con otras lenguas. Estos resultados apuntan a la relevancia de factores socio-culturalesen la explicación de la estructura gramatical de las lenguas.
MUSIC, MODULARITY AND SYNTAX
Javier Valenzuela,Joseph Hilferty
International Journal of English Studies (IJES) , 2007, DOI: 10.6018/ijes.7.1.48911
Abstract: First generation cognitive science has always maintained that the mind/brain is a modular system. This has been especially apparent in linguistics, where the modularity thesis goes largely unquestioned by the linguistic mainstream. Cognitive linguists have long disputed the reality of modular architectures of grammar. Instead of conceiving syntax as a computational system of a relatively small set of formal principles and parameters, cognitive linguists take the notion of grammatical construction to be the basic unit of syntax: syntax is simply our repertoire of form-meaning pairings. On such a view, there is no a-priori reason to believe that semantics and phonology cannot affect syntax. In the present paper, we want to take things a step further and suggest, more generally, that language is not a module of cognition in any strict sense. We present preliminary results from research in progress concerning the effect of music on grammatical constructions. More specifically, our experiment compares reaction times between two grammatical constructions that differ in semantics and intonational curves but share lexical material. Our data so far suggests that subjects take less time reading the construction when the semantic bias and intonation match than in non-matching cases. This, we argue, suggests not only that semantics, phonology and syntax form an information bundle (i.e. a construction in the cognitive linguistic sense), but that perceived similarity of music can influence linguistic cognition.
FICTIVE MOTION IN ENGLISH AND SPANISH
Ana Rojo,Javier Valenzuela
International Journal of English Studies (IJES) , 2003, DOI: 10.6018/ijes.3.2.48411
Abstract: This paper analyzes fictive motion expressions in English and Spanish with the twofold aim of (a) finding out whether the differences that have been reported in the expression of motion in English and Spanish also apply to fictive motion, and (b) checking whether the similarities and differences reported by Matsumoto for English and Japanese also apply to English and Spanish. We start by offering a detailed account of the similarities and differences between the expression of motion in English and Spanish; subsequently, we take a closer look at fictive motion expressions in English and Japanese. We then present two different studies carried out with the aim of gathering additional data on Spanish fictive motion expressions. The first study focuses on the strategies used by translators in rendering fictive motion expressions from English into Spanish. The second experiment analyses a Corpus of expressions generated using elicitation from drawings. The paper concludes with a discussion of the findings and directions of future research.
Son más eficaces unas lenguas que otras?
Javier Valenzuela Manzanares
Ciencia Cognitiva : Revista Electrónica de Divulgación , 2011,
Abstract: Según un reciente estudio, las lenguas tienen un mecanismo que regula la velocidad de transferencia de un reciente estudio, las lenguas tienen un mecanismo que regula la velocidad de transferencia de información. Así, las lenguas que tienden a hablarse más lentamente suelen también ser “informacionalmente más densas”, es decir, a condensar en pocos elementos lingüísticos una gran cantidad de información, y viceversa. Existe, pues, un equilibrio entre velocidad de habla y densidad informacional, que hace que la tasa de transferencia de información de las distintas lenguas sea aproximadamente la misma.
De la Revolución del Jazmín al movimiento por la educación en Chile: las constantes del cambio permanente
Marcelo Javier Ramírez Valenzuela
Revista Enfoques : Ciencia Política y Administración Pública , 2012,
Abstract: More than one year ago in the Arab world started a political and social movement that rapidly expanded its influence from the North Africa and Middle East to the Occidental world. Since an historical perspective this is an atypical movement characterized by the presence of multiple actors and objectives, the lack of a clearly and visible leadership, a shortage of comprehensive proposals and the use of social networks. In this perspective the aim of this paper is advance in the analysis of this movement, assessing the nature of their motivations and identifying the factors that characterize, differentiate and explain the persistent social mobilization.
16S rRNA gene-based molecular analysis of mat-forming and accompanying bacteria covering organically-enriched marine sediments underlying a salmon farm in Southern Chile (Calbuco Island)
Aranda,Carlos; Paredes,Javier; Valenzuela,Cristian; Lam,Phyllis; Guillou,Laure;
Gayana (Concepción) , 2010, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-65382010000200006
Abstract: the mat forming bacteria covering organic matter-enriched and anoxic marine sediments underlying a salmon farm in southern chile, were examined using 16s rrna gene phylogenies. this mat was absent in the sea bed outside the direct influence of the farm (360 m outside fish cages). based on nearly complete 16s rrna gene sequences (-1500 bp), mat-forming filamentous cells were settled as the sulphur-oxidizing and putatively dissimilative nitrate-reducing beggiatoa spp., being closely related (up to 97% sequence identity) to beggiatoa spp. identified in eutrophic shallow sediments in northern europe (danish limfjorden and german dangast inlets). their phylogenetic affiliation was consistent with their morphology as vacuolated and sulphur-containing cells arranged on tandem along trichomes (18 to 28 μm diameter). additionally, deltaproteobacterial sulphate reducers, sulfurospirillum, sulfurovum and fusibacter were detected according to partial 16s rrna gene sequences (-500 bp). their concurrence with beggiatoa suggested an intense and complex sulphur cycle within the surface of these aquaculture-affected sediments, which may have important implications for the necessity of more efficient benthic-bioremediation of finfish aquaculture in chile and worldwide.
Fixations of the HIV-1 env gene refute neutralism: New evidence for pan-selective evolution
Valenzuela,Carlos Y; Flores,Sergio V; Cisternas,Javier;
Biological Research , 2010, DOI: 10.4067/S0716-97602010000200002
Abstract: we examined 103 nucleotide sequences of the hiv-1 env gene, sampled from 35 countries and tested: i) the random (neutral) distribution of the number of nucleotide changes; ii) the proportion of bases at molecular equilibrium; iii) the neutral expected homogeneity of the distribution of new fxated bases; iv) the hypothesis of the neighbor infuence on the mutation rates in a site. the expected random number of fxations per site was estimated by bose-einstein statistics, and the expected frequencies of bases by matrices of mutation-fxation rates. the homogeneity of new fxations was analyzed using χ2 and trinomial tests for homogeneity. fixations of the central base in trinucleotides were used to test the neighbor infuence on base substitutions. neither the number of fxations nor the frequencies of bases ftted the expected neutral distribution. there was a highly signifcant heterogeneity in the distribution of new fxations, and several sites showed more transversions than transitions, showing that each nucleotide site has its own pattern of change. these three independent results make the neutral theory, the nearly neutral and the neighbor infuence hypotheses untenable and indicate that evolution of env is rather highly selective.
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