Abstract:
We will study the Klein-Gordon's field with an homogeneous external potential, which does not depend on $\h$. We will construct the Fock's space corresponding to our problem and we will see that there are phenomena of creation and anihilation of pairs particle-antiparticle. Finally, we will see that in dimension 1, when $\h\to 0$, these phenomena disappear. However, in dimension 2 or 3, when $\h\to 0$, the creation probability of particle-antiparticle pairs is not zero.

Abstract:
In these lectures we consider some topics of Quantum Field Theory in Curved Space. In the first one particle creation in curved space is studied from a mathematical point of view, especially, particle production at a given time using the so called "instantaneous diagonalization method". Particle production by strong electromagnetic fields (Schwinger's effect) and particle production by moving mirrors simulating black hole collapse are also studied. In the second lecture we calculate the re-normalized two-point function using the adiabatic regularization. The conformally and minimally coupled cases are considered for a scalar massive and massless field. We reproduce previous results in a rigorous mathematical form and clarify some empirical approximations and bounds. The re-normalized stress tensor is also calculated in several situations. Finally, in last lecture quantum correction due to a massless fields conformally coupled with gravity are considered in order to study the avoidance of singularities that appear in the flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) model.

Abstract:
Different models of universes are considered in the context of teleparallel theories. Assuming that the universe is filled by a fluid with equation of state (EoS) $P=-\rho-f(\rho)$, for different teleparallel theories and different EoS we study its dynamics. Two particular cases are studied in detail: in the first one we consider a function $f$ with two zeros (two de Sitter solutions) that mimics a huge cosmological constant at early times and a pressureless fluid at late times. In the second one, in the context of loop quantum cosmology with a small cosmological constant, we consider a pressureless fluid ($P=0\Leftrightarrow f(\rho)=-\rho$) which means that there are a de Sitter and an anti de Sitter solution. In both cases one obtains a non-singular universe that at early times is in an inflationary phase, after leaving this phase it passes trough a matter dominated phase and finally at late times it expands in an accelerated way.

Abstract:
Creation of scalar massless particles in two-dimensional Minkowski space-time--as predicted by the dynamical Casimir effect--is studied for the case of a semitransparent mirror initially at rest, then accelerating for some finite time, along a trajectory that simulates a black hole collapse (defined by Walker, and Carlitz and Willey), and finally moving with constant velocity. When the reflection and transmission coefficients are those in the model proposed by Barton, Calogeracos, and Nicolaevici [$r(w)=-i\alpha/(\w+i\alpha)$ and $s(w)=\w/(\w+i\alpha)$, with $\alpha\geq 0$], the Bogoliubov coefficients on the back side of the mirror can be computed exactly. This allows us to prove that, when $\alpha$ is very large (case of an ideal, perfectly reflecting mirror) a thermal emission of scalar massless particles obeying Bose-Einstein statistics is radiated from the mirror (a black body radiation), in accordance with results previously obtained in the literature. However, when $\alpha$ is finite (semitransparent mirror, a physically realistic situation) the striking result is obtained that the thermal emission of scalar massless particles obeys Fermi-Dirac statistics. We also show here that the reverse change of statistics takes place in a bidimensional fermionic model for massless particles, namely that the Fermi-Dirac statistics for the completely reflecting situation will turn into the Bose-Einstein statistics for a partially reflecting, physical mirror.

Abstract:
Different approaches to quantum cosmology are studied in order to deal with the future singularity avoidance problem. Our results show that these future singularities will persist but could take different forms. As an example we have studied the big rip which appear when one considers the state equation $P=\omega\rho$ with $\omega<-1$, showing that it does not disappear in modified gravity. On the other hand, it is well-known that quantum geometric effects (holonomy corrections) in loop quantum cosmology introduce a quadratic modification, namely proportional to $\rho^2$, in Friedmann's equation that replace the big rip by a non-singular bounce. However this modified Friedmann equation could have been obtained in an inconsistent way, what means that the obtained results from this equation, in particular singularity avoidance, would be incorrect. In fact, we will show that instead of a non-singular bounce, the big rip singularity would be replaced, in loop quantum cosmology, by other kind of singularity.

Abstract:
Assuming that time exists, a new, effective formulation of gravity is introduced, which lies in between the Wheeler-DeWitt approach and ordinary QFT. Remarkably, the Penrose-Hawking singularity of usual Friedman-Robertson-Walker cosmologies is naturally avoided there. The theory is made explicit via specific examples, and compared with loop quantum cosmology. It is argued that it is the regularization of the classical Hamiltonian performed in this last theory what avoid the singularity, rather than quantum effects as in our case.

Abstract:
Creation of scalar massless particles in two-dimensional Minkowski space-time--as predicted by the dynamical Casimir effect--is studied for the case of a semitransparent mirror initially at rest, then accelerating for some finite time, along a specified trajectory, and finally moving with constant velocity. When the reflection and transmission coefficients are those in the model proposed by Barton, Calogeracos, and Nicolaevici [$r(w)=-i\alpha/(\w+i\alpha)$ and $s(w)=\w/(\w+i\alpha)$, with $\alpha\geq 0$], the Bogoliubov coefficients on the back side of the mirror can be computed exactly. This allows us to prove that, when $\alpha$ is very large (case of an ideal, perfectly reflecting mirror) a thermal emission of scalar massless particles obeying Bose-Einstein statistics is radiated from the mirror (a black body radiation), in accordance with previous results in the literature. However, when $\alpha$ is finite (semitransparent mirror, a physically realistic situation) the striking result is obtained that the thermal emission of scalar massless particles obeys Fermi-Dirac statistics. Possible consequences of this result are envisaged.

Abstract:
It is stated that holonomy corrections in loop quantum cosmology introduce a modification in Friedmann's equation which prevent the big rip singularity. Recently in \cite{h12} it has been proved that this modified Friedmann equation is obtained in an inconsistent way, what means that the results deduced from it, in particular the big rip singularity avoidance, are not justified. The problem is that holonomy corrections modify the gravitational part of the Hamiltonian of the system leading, after Legendre's transformation, to a non covariant Lagrangian which is in contradiction with one of the main principles of General Relativity. A more consistent way to deal with the big rip singularity avoidance is to disregard modification in the gravitational part of the Hamiltonian, and only consider inverse volume effects \cite{bo02a}. In this case we will see that, not like the big bang singularity, the big rip singularity survives in loop quantum cosmology. Another way to deal with the big rip avoidance is to take into account geometric quantum effects given by the the Wheeler-De Witt equation. In that case, even though the wave packets spread, the expectation values satisfy the same equations as their classical analogues. Then, following the viewpoint adopted in loop quantum cosmology, one can conclude that the big rip singularity survives when one takes into account these quantum effects. However, the spreading of the wave packets prevents the recover of the semiclassical time, and thus, one might conclude that the classical evolution of the universe come to and end before the big rip is reached. This is not conclusive because. as we will see, it always exists other external times that allows us to define the classical and quantum evolution of the universe up to the big rip singularity.

Abstract:
The CMB map provided by the Planck project constrains the value of the ratio of tensor-to-scalar perturbations, namely $r$, to be smaller than $0.11$ (95% CL). This bound rules out the simplest models of inflation. However, recent data from BICEP2 is in strong tension with this constrain, as it finds a value $r=0.20^{+0.07}_{-0.05}$ with $r=0$ disfavored at $7.0 \sigma$, which allows these simplest inflationary models to survive. The remarkable fact is that, even though the BICEP2 experiment was conceived to search for evidence of inflation, its experimental data matches correctly theoretical results coming from the matter bounce scenario (the alternative model to the inflationary paradigm). More precisely, most bouncing cosmologies do not pass Planck's constrains due to the smallness of the value of the tensor/scalar ratio $r\leq 0.11$, but with new BICEP2 data some of them fit well with experimental data. This is the case with the matter bounce scenario in the teleparallel version of Loop Quantum Cosmology.

Abstract:
Quantum corrections coming from massless fields conformally coupled with gravity are studied, in order to see if they can lead to avoidance of the annoying Big Rip singularity which shows up in a flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe filled with dark energy and modeled by a scalar phantom field. The dynamics of the model are discussed for all values of the two parameters, named $\alpha>0$ and $\beta<0$, corresponding to the regularization process. The new results are compared with the ones obtained in \cite{hae11} previously, where dark energy was modeled by means of a phantom fluid with equation of state $P=\omega\rho$, with $\omega<-1$.