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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 28313 matches for " Jason Liang "
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Developmental and Condition-Related Changes in the Prefrontal Cortex Activity during Rest  [PDF]
Ling-Yin Liang, Jia-Jin Jason Chen, Patricia A. Shewokis, Nancy Getchell
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2016.612044
Abstract: The prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays an important role in cognitive process related to executive function, but is also active during resting states. Quantifying prefrontal cortex activity during resting states provides a baseline for interpreting task-induced brain activity. Researchers commonly use resting conditions where participants are prompted to stare at a screen (eyes open) or close their eyes (eyes closed). Are these two conditions equivalent representations of a baseline resting state? Further, does prefrontal cortex activity during these conditions change as a function of development? The aim of this study was to examine differences in prefrontal cortex activity between eyes open and eyes closed conditions during resting states in children and adults to provide a rationale of proper selection of baseline condition in future research. Thirty-six participants in 3 age groups were recruited in this study including twenty-four adults, five 12 - 15 years old children, and seven 8 - 11 years old children. Relative changes in concentrations of oxygenated hemoglobin (Δoxy-Hb) and deoxygenated hemoglobin (Δdeoxy-Hb) were obtained by using functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) in eyes closed (EC) and eyes open (EO) conditions, 3 minutes each. Contrasts were tested to compare the differences of Δoxy-Hb and Δdeoxy-Hb between eyes open and eyes closed conditions. The EC condition had significantly higher Δoxy-Hb than EO when all groups were combined (t (17.268) = 3.021, p = .008, Cohen’s d = –0.72). When comparing Δoxy-Hb between eyes conditions within each group, the younger group had significantly higher Δoxy-Hb in EC than EO (t (9.459) = 2.734, p = 0.022, Cohen’s d = –1.46). Based on these results, the EO condition may be a better baseline condition, particularly in studies with younger children, since it has less activity in the PFC that could interfere with interpretations of task-induced activity.
Phyllostachys edulis Compounds Inhibit Palmitic Acid-Induced Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein 1 (MCP-1) Production
Jason K. Higa, Zhibin Liang, Philip G. Williams, Jun Panee
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0045082
Abstract: Background Phyllostachys edulis Carriere (Poaceae) is a bamboo species that is part of the traditional Chinese medicine pharmacopoeia. Compounds and extracts from this species have shown potential applications towards several diseases. One of many complications found in obesity and diabetes is the link between elevated circulatory free fatty acids (FFAs) and chronic inflammation. This study aims to present a possible application of P. edulis extract in relieving inflammation caused by FFAs. Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1/CCL2) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine implicated in chronic inflammation. Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) and activator protein 1 (AP-1) are transcription factors activated in response to inflammatory stimuli, and upregulate pro-inflammatory cytokines such as MCP-1. This study examines the effect of P. edulis extract on cellular production of MCP-1 and on the NF-κB and AP-1 pathways in response to treatment with palmitic acid (PA), a FFA. Methodology/Principal Findings MCP-1 protein was measured by cytometric bead assay. NF-κB and AP-1 nuclear localization was detected by colorimetric DNA-binding ELISA. Relative MCP-1 mRNA was measured by real-time quantitative PCR. Murine cells were treated with PA to induce inflammation. PA increased expression of MCP-1 mRNA and protein, and increased nuclear localization of NF-κB and AP-1. Adding bamboo extract (BEX) inhibited the effects of PA, reduced MCP-1 production, and inhibited nuclear translocation of NF-κB and AP-1 subunits. Compounds isolated from BEX inhibited MCP-1 secretion with different potencies. Conclusions/Significance PA induced MCP-1 production in murine adipose, muscle, and liver cells. BEX ameliorated PA-induced production of MCP-1 by inhibiting nuclear translocation of NF-κB and AP-1. Two O-methylated flavones were isolated from BEX with functional effects on MCP-1 production. These results may represent a possible therapeutic application of BEX and its compounds toward alleviating chronic inflammation caused by elevated circulatory FFAs.
Preserving Yeast Genetic Heritage through DNA Damage Checkpoint Regulation and Telomere Maintenance
Veronica Baldo,Jason Liang,Guoliang Wang,Huilin Zhou
Biomolecules , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/biom2040505
Abstract: In order to preserve genome integrity, extrinsic or intrinsic DNA damages must be repaired before they accumulate in cells and trigger other mutations and genome rearrangements. Eukaryotic cells are able to respond to different genotoxic stresses as well as to single DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), suggesting highly sensitive and robust mechanisms to detect lesions that trigger a signal transduction cascade which, in turn, controls the DNA damage response (DDR). Furthermore, cells must be able to distinguish natural chromosomal ends from DNA DSBs in order to prevent inappropriate checkpoint activation, DDR and chromosomal rearrangements. Since the original discovery of RAD9, the first DNA damage checkpoint gene identified in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, many genes that have a role in this pathway have been identified, including MRC1, MEC3, RAD24, RAD53, DUN1, MEC1 and TEL1. Extensive studies have established most of the genetic basis of the DNA damage checkpoint and uncovered its different functions in cell cycle regulation, DNA replication and repair, and telomere maintenance. However, major questions concerning the regulation and functions of the DNA damage checkpoint remain to be answered. First, how is the checkpoint activity coupled to DNA replication and repair? Second, how do cells distinguish natural chromosome ends from deleterious DNA DSBs? In this review we will examine primarily studies performed using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model system.
Weak existence of a solution to a differential equation driven by a very rough fBm
Davar Khoshnevisan,Jason Swanson,Yimin Xiao,Liang Zhang
Mathematics , 2013,
Abstract: We prove that if $f:\mathbb{R}\to\mathbb{R}$ is Lipschitz continuous, then for every $H\in(0,1/4]$ there exists a probability space on which we can construct a fractional Brownian motion $X$ with Hurst parameter $H$, together with a process $Y$ that: (i) is H\"older-continuous with H\"older exponent $\gamma$ for any $\gamma\in(0,H)$; and (ii) solves the differential equation $dY_t = f(Y_t) dX_t$. More significantly, we describe the law of the stochastic process $Y$ in terms of the solution to a non-linear stochastic partial differential equation.
Discretionary Fiscal Policy and the European Monetary Union  [PDF]
Jason Jones
Modern Economy (ME) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/me.2012.36095
Abstract: A model of circumstances that can lead to changes in the way a fiscal authority conducts policy after joining a monetary union is presented and empirically tested for the euro area. According to the model consolidation fatigue, shock asymmetry, or differences in the relative weight placed on output/price stabilization between the new and old monetary authority can lead to greater reliance on fiscal policy. Empirical evidence suggests that there has been a change in the conduct of fiscal policy in the euro area which is most likely due to consolidation fatigue and a stronger emphasis on price stabilization by the European Central Bank.
Genetic Relationships in Advanced Generation Hybrids Derived from Crosses between Texas (Poa arachnifera) and Kentucky (Poa pratensis) Bluegrass Using ISSR Markers  [PDF]
Jason Goldman
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2013.412303
Abstract:

Fertile, advanced generation hybrids derived from crosses between Texas (Poa arachnifera Torr.) and Kentucky (Poa pratensis L.) bluegrass have been selected. The hybrids are currently being evaluated for low-input turf potential. Since they are derived from hand-harvested seed from first-generation hybrids located in field nurseries their exact genetic origin is unknown. This experiment was conducted to determine if there are still genetic relationships among the advanced generation hybrids and some of the Texas and Kentucky parents in their pedigrees. Four Inter Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) primer combinations resolved on 6% nondenaturing polyacrylamide gels resulted in 179 polymorphic bands that were scored to create a genetic similarity matrix and dendrogram based on Jaccard’s coefficient. The clustering of the advanced generation hybrids was generally in agreement with what would be expected based on their pedigrees and indicated it was more likely to select a fertile hybrid from an advanced generation, rather than the F1 generation.

Sickrole Compliance and Sickrole Deviance among Tuberculosis Patients on Treatment in Kanyama, a Zambian Shanty Compound  [PDF]
Jason Mwanza
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2016.61001
Abstract: Background: Kanyama compound has had a DOTS community based programme since 2012 where TB supporters in the community have been fostering the DOTS programme. Prior to this study, research had not been done using Parsonian sickrole behaviour concept to determine the pattern of deviance especially the sickrole behavioural responses on the part of people who were on TB treatment. Methods: This was an exploratory study and the study sample was drawn from a large mixed methods study (quan + QUAL) comprising of 457 men and women ≥15 years. Enrolees were disproportionately sampled using systematic sampling from a population of 1126 men and women who were on multi drug therapy over a two-year period. Categorical and numeric data from the tool was cleaned and analyzed by using SPSS version 21 (Inc., Chicago, USA). Statistical analysis was done using Pearson’s Chi square test and ANOVA. A p value of <0.05 was considered to be significant. Results: 18.5% of the enrolees honoured medical appointments when due whereas 81.5% did not. There was a significant association p < 0.05 with case type and marital status. 39.6% of the enrolees honoured the medical regimen by taking the prescribed drugs, 33.3% failed to honour and 27.1% were not sure. There was a significant association p < 0.05 between case type and marital status. Conclusions: Strengthening DOTS programs at community level through volunteers to enhance patient adherence to TB treatment and giving personalised attention to men and women who may be at risk of developing secondary tuberculosis, or risk for drug resistance and even dying is recommended. There is evidence to laud the great effort being expended by volunteer community based tuberculosis supporters in ensuring that what DOTS stands for is met.
EC5S Ubiquitin Complex Is Recruited by KSHV Latent Antigen LANA for Degradation of the VHL and p53 Tumor Suppressors
Qi-Liang Cai,Jason S Knight,Suhbash C Verma,Philip Zald,Erle S Robertson
PLOS Pathogens , 2006, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.0020116
Abstract: Cellular protein degradation pathways can be utilized by viruses to establish an environment that favors their propagation. Here we report that the Kaposi's sarcoma–associated herpesvirus (KSHV)-encoded latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) directly functions as a component of the EC5S ubiquitin complex targeting the tumor suppressors von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) and p53 for degradation. We have characterized a suppressor of cytokine signaling box-like motif within LANA composed of an Elongin B and C box and a Cullin box, which is spatially located at its amino and carboxyl termini. This motif is necessary for LANA interaction with the Cul5–Elongin BC complex, to promote polyubiquitylation of cellular substrates VHL and p53 in vitro via its amino- and carboxyl-terminal binding domain, respectively. In transfected cells as well as KSHV-infected B lymphoma cells, LANA expression stimulates degradation of VHL and p53. Additionally, specific RNA interference–mediated LANA knockdown stabilized VHL and p53 in primary effusion lymphoma cells. Thus, manipulation of tumor suppressors by LANA potentially provides a favorable environment for progression of KSHV-infected tumor cells.
An alternative method for quantifying coronary artery calcification: the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis (MESA)
C Jason Liang, Matthew J Budoff, Joel D Kaufman, Richard A Kronmal, Elizabeth R Brown
BMC Medical Imaging , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2342-12-14
Abstract: Chest CT scans were obtained from 6814 participants in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). The SWCS and the AS were calculated for each of the scans. Cox proportional hazards models and linear regression models were used to evaluate the associations of the scores with CHD events and CHD risk factors. CHD risk factors were summarized using a linear predictor.Among all participants and participants with AS > 0, the SWCS and AS both showed similar strongly significant associations with CHD events (hazard ratios, 1.23 and 1.19 per doubling of SWCS and AS; 95% CI, 1.16 to 1.30 and 1.14 to 1.26) and CHD risk factors (slopes, 0.178 and 0.164; 95% CI, 0.162 to 0.195 and 0.149 to 0.179). Even among participants with AS = 0, an increase in the SWCS was still significantly associated with established CHD risk factors (slope, 0.181; 95% CI, 0.138 to 0.224). The SWCS appeared to be predictive of CHD events even in participants with AS = 0, though those events were rare as expected.The SWCS provides a valid, continuous measure of CAC suitable for quantifying the extent of atherosclerosis without a threshold, which will be useful for examining novel genetic and environmental risk factors for atherosclerosis.
Live-Cell Imaging of the Association of STAT6-GFP with Mitochondria
Rasel Khan, Jason E. Lee, Yang-Ming Yang, Feng-Xia Liang, Pravin B. Sehgal
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0055426
Abstract: The transcription factor STAT3 has been previously reported to be associated with mitochondria. However, we have been unable to visualize an association of STAT3-GFP, STAT3-DsRed or STAT3-Flag with mitochondria in human Hep3B hepatocytes thus far even though an association of these molecules with other cytoplasmic organelles (endosomes) was readily demonstrable. We then addressed the broader question of a possible association of other STAT-family of proteins with mitochondria by first using immunolocalization assays in Hep3B and human pulmonary arterial endothelial and smooth muscle cells. Strong anti-STAT6-immunolocalization with mitochondria was apparent in fluorescence and electron microscopy assays of cells first washed with a digitonin-sucrose buffer to remove bulk soluble STAT proteins. In live-cell imaging studies, STAT6-GFP, but not N1-GFP, was observed to constitutively colocalize with MitoTracker- and tetramethylrhodamine ethyl ester (TMRE)-positive mitochondria, and with mitochondrial F1-ATPase when assayed by immunofluorescence after fixation. This association was Tyr-phosphorylation independent in that a STAT6 truncated protein (STAT61-459-GFP) which lacked the SH2 domain (517–632) and the cytokine-activated Y641 phosphorylation site also accumulated in MitoTracker-positive mitochondria. This was consistent with the unexpected discovery that anti-STAT6-immunofluoresence also associated with mitochondria in mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) from both wild-type and the STAT6SH2-/SH2- mouse. MEFs from the latter mouse, which had been engineered in 1996 to be deleted in the STAT6 SH2 domain (amino acids 505–584) expressed an immune-specific ~50 kDa protein detectable in whole cell and mitochondria-enriched fractions. Taken together, the present data provide the first definitive evidence of the association of any STAT-protein family member with mitochondria - that of STAT6.
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