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A molecular study on cutaneous leishmaniasis lesions in Khuzestan province (South west of Iran)
Jasem Saki,Shahram Khademvatan
Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology , 2011,
Abstract: Introduction and objective: One of the most likely factors influencing on the clinical manifestations of cutaneous leishmaniasis, is genetic variability of Leishmania parasites that is currently controversial. The aim of this study was to identify the possible correlation between clinical cutaneous lesions and genetic of the causative Leishmania agents in Khuzestan, south west of Iran.Materials and methods: Fourteen samples from patients with different size of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) lesions referred to health centers and medical diagnosis laboratories of Ahvaz, Dashteazadegan, Shush, Hendijan and Ramhormoz were collected and studied by mini-exonePCR-RFLP and sequencing methods. The diameter of lesions was measured by a blinded caliper and flexible ruler.Results: Enzyme electrophoretic analysis of different isolates of L. major and L. tropica separated from lesions with different sizes have revealed no heterogeneity in this species, whereas alignment of the mini-exonesequencing isolates revealed 97-99% identity and 2-8 nucleotide substitution. Identity was 99% in isolates obtained from Lesions with near Sizes. Conclusion: This study revealed nucleotides substitutions among sequences of causative agents for different size of lesions. In order to find any correlation between genetic and clinical manifestation in CL, a comprehensive study with more samples from more geographical area is needed. Significance and impact of the study. Information about relationship between the parasite's genetic variability and the clinical form of CL may help us to understand the pathway and a molecular target for devising effective treatment.
Miltefosine induces metacaspase and PARP genes expression in Leishmania infantum
Khademvatan, Shahram;Gharavi, Mohammad Javad;Saki, Jasem;
Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-86702011000500005
Abstract: objectives: apoptosis is the process of programmed cell death (pcd) that occurs in both animal and plant cells. protozoan parasites possess metacaspase and these caspase-related proteases could be involved in the pcd pathways in these organisms. therefore we analyzed the activities of metacaspase and parp genes in leishmania infantum (mcan/ir/96/lon49) treated with miltefosine. materials and methods: anti-leishmania activity of miltefosine was studied by treatment of cultured promastigotes with various concentration of miltefosine. mtt assay and annexin-v fluos staining by using facs flow cytometry methods were used. cytotoxic potential of hepc on the amastigots of l.infantum was evaluated in j774 cell line. in addition, metacaspase and parp genes expression of treated l. infantum were studied. results: miltefosine led to dose-dependent death of l. infantumwith features compatible with apoptosis. over expression of metacaspase and parp was seen 6 hr after treatment. conclusions: our study showed that miltefosine exerts cytotoxic effect on l. infantum via an apoptotic-related mechanism.
Comparison of Traditional Methods and PCR for Diagnosis of Cutaneous
Shahram Khademvatan,Jasem Saki,Sharif Maraghi
Zahedan Journal of Research in Medical Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Background: The usual method for laboratory diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis was the direct observation of parasites under a light microscope. Although this method has high specificity, it has low sensitivity. The purpose of this study is to compare three methods of direct observation, culture and Mini-exon-PCR to diagnose cutaneous leishmaniasis in Khuzestan province. This study intends to compare sensitivity of PCR approach with sensitivity of the existing traditional methods to diagnose cutaneous leishmaniasis using Mini-exon gene.Materials and Methods: A total 216 skin biopsies prepared from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis were studied though direct method, culture in NNN, culture in RPMI 1640 and Mini-exon-PCR and the sensitivity of these methods were compared with each other. In this study Mini-exon-PCR was considered as the gold standard method.Results: Results showed that 46.7% with direct method, 35.1% with culture method in RPMI 1640, 57.8% with culture method in NNN and 70.3% with PCR were positive. Sensitivity was obtained 66.4% for microscopic observation, 50% for culture in RPMI1640, and 82.2% for culture in NNN and 100% for PCR.Conclusion: This study showed that PCR on samples stored in normal saline has higher sensitivity and specificity than other traditional methods (p>0.05). Thus, Mini-exon-PCR on samples in normal saline is a reliable method to diagnose cutaneous leishmaniasis, especially in cases where the diagnosis is negative with the other methods.
INOS and IFN? Gene Expression in Leishmania major-Infected J774 Cells Treated With Miltefosine
Shahram Khademvatan,Mohammad Javad Gharavi,Elham Yousefi,Jasem Saki
International Journal of Pharmacology , 2011,
Abstract: Miltefosine is the new drug of choice for the treatment of leishmaniasis. The aim of this work was to study the molecular mechanisms and immunomudolatory properties of miltefosine in J774 cell line infected with the Leishmania major (MRHO/IR/75/ER) parasite. In this experimental study infected J774 cell line by L. major, treated by miltefosine and incubated for 72 h. Total RNA was extracted and cDNA was synthesis. RT- PCR was used for study of IFN? and iNOS gene expression. IFN? and iNOS proteins were analyzed by Western blotting. Cell culture supernatant was examined by ELISA for of IL12 and IL10 concentration. After 4 h incubation, miltefosine increased iNOS and IFN? gene expression in L. major infected J774 cell line. Western blot analysis of extracted cell proteins showed 130 and 17 kDa of bonds related to iNOS and IFN?, respectively. After 48 h treatment with miltefosine, analysis of cell supernatant with ELISA showed a significant increase of IL12 but no change in IL10 Cytokine. Study showed that miltefosine in addition to its direct effect can improve cellular immunity with rising of IFN? and of iNOS genes expression that are able to activate macrophages.
Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) through Surface Infiltration in the Azraq Basin / Jordan  [PDF]
Marwan Alraggad, Hind Jasem
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2010.212125
Abstract: Until the early 1990s the Azraq basin in Jordan was covered by a huge wetland in the central parts representing a source of fresh water for all purposes. The presence of such wetland in the desert created a natural pathway for migratory birds. Man made and natural impacts caused severe depletion of this basin and the oasis disappeared in the early 1990s. Under a GIS environment MAR layers were prepared for the Azraq basin. MAR mapping showed a very high and high potentials over 20.55% and 61.63% of the total basin area respectively; while the low potential areas represent only 4.03% of the total area.
Assessing Groundwater Vulnerability in Azraq Basin Area by a Modified DRASTIC Index  [PDF]
Alsharifa Hind Jasem, Marwan Alraggad
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2010.211112
Abstract: Groundwater is the main source for water supply in Jordan. Surface water is limited due to low precipitation rates. Studying groundwater vulnerability helps to protect this main source of depletion and degradation for present and coming generations. Different vulnerability indices were built taking into consideration the different environmental setting of the different areas for which these indices were established. Environmental and weather conditions are very important factors in determination groundwater vulnerability hence arid to semi arid areas conditions must be taken into account in applying different indices. The reason after selecting Azraq as a rest point is related directly to the availability of fresh water resources in the form of the wetland supported by many potential springs making Azraq a rich environment for economic activities. A modified DRASTIC vulnerability index was applied to Azraq basin area due to its special climate and wetland area conditions. The index takes the special landuse and the different groundwater depths into consideration and suggests a few measures to alleviate the vulnerability of the groundwater resources due to overexploitation and human activities changing the value of landuse. Azraq basin represents four different vulnerability classes, ranging from Low to very high vulnerability class. The lower vulnerability class areas are distributed in theareas with high depth to water table and low recharge areas with low human activities. The higher vulnerability classes are shown in the areas with high possibility of the pollutants to reach the groundwater. The modified DRASTIC index added the value of the human activity and the structural features in the area which give a more ease to pollutant to permit the aquifer.
Measurement of Air Pollution in Kuwait City Using Passive Samplers  [PDF]
Jasem M. Al-Awadhi
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences (ACS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/acs.2014.42028

Measurements of gaseous SO2, NO, NO2, H2S, O3, NH3 and VOCs, in Kuwait city using IVL passive sampler technology, were obtained on monthly basis during the period from March 2011 to February 2012 at 10 locations. The results of this study reveal that those compounds had low concentrations compared to Kuwait Environment Public Authority standards for residential areas. It is found that nitrogen oxides, benzene and xylene were mostly emitted from motor vehicles; in contrast, industrial sources including oil industries were a major contributor to sulfur dioxide and toluene pollution. Higher concentrations of NOx and SOwere recorded during winter season where the inversion layer is quite pronounced thus trapping more pollutants in ambient air, while higher O3 values were recorded in summer period; the hot season in Kuwait. The spatial distributions of the measured gaseous air pollutants were extremely consistent with the influence of the prevailing wind direction NW. In general and except for PM10

The Effect of a Single Shrub on Wind Speed and Nabkhas Dune Development: A Case Study in Kuwait  [PDF]
Jasem M. Al-Awadhi
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2014.51004

Thirty coastal nabkhas were selected for morphometrical measurements. The studied nabkhas were mostly elongated, with an average total length of about 12.9 m, an average width of 3.4 m, and an average height of 1.2 m. Optical porosity of nabkha shrub crown was measured and no apparent relationship with the horizontal size of trapped wind laden sand was found. A simple wind tunnel experiment was carried out to investigate the horizontal wind-flow distribution across a pro-typed shrub. The results of the experiment revealed that the degree of wind sheltering might extend up to a downwind distance approximately equal to 4.5 times the height of the shrub, where an effective velocity recovery started.

Somatotype Components, Aerobic Fitness and Grip Strength in Kuwaiti Males and Females  [PDF]
Jasem Ramadan Alkandari, Mario Barac Nieto
Health (Health) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/health.2016.813135
Abstract: Introduction and Objective: We investigated the association of endo-, meso- and ecto-morphic components of somatotype with aerobic power, mid-trunk flexibility and grip strength. Methods: Healthy male (n = 226) and female (n = 86) subjects, aged 9 - 55 years, sedentary (n = 154) or participating in sports (n = 158) were studied. Anthro-pometrics (height, weight, 8 skin folds, arm and calf circumferences, elbow and knee diameters), maximal exercise O2 uptake, mid trunk flexibility, right and left grip strength were measured. Results: Sedentary adult females were endomorphic with mesomorph tendency, and had low aerobic power (27.8 ± 0.6 ml/Kg·min) and low (48.7 ± 1 Kg) grip strength. Sedentary males (young and adults) and Sports adult males were mesomorph with endomorphic tendency. Sports junior males were balanced mesomorph. Aerobic power was 54.1 ± 0.9 ml/Kg·min in sports young males, 53.8 ± 0.9 ml/Kg·min in sports adult males, 41.2 ± 4.3 ml/Kg·min in sedentary young males, and 39.5 ± 1 ml/Kg·min in sedentary adult males. Grip strength was 89.9 ± 1.7 Kg in sports adult males, 86.7 ± 2 Kg in sedentary adult males, 75.6 ± 2.2 Kg in sports junior males and 52 ± 9.1 Kg in young sedentary males. Step-wise multiple regression analysis of somatotype components on aerobic power revealed dominant negative contribution (P < 0.001) of endomorphy (r2 = 0.57, 57%), and small but significant positive contributions of mesomorphy (0.6%) and ectomorphy (0.6%): Aerobic power = [56.1 - 4.3 (endomorphy) + (mesomorphy) + 1.4 (ectomorphy)] ± 9.1 SEE. Height and somatotype components accounted for 69% of the variance (R2) in grip strength; height had greatest contribution (60%): Grip Strength = [1.7 (Height) - 6.5 (ectomorphy) - 3.4 (endomorphy) - 2 (mesomorphy) - 200] ± 12.9 SEE. Measured variables accounted for <2% of flexibility variance. Conclusion: Endomorphy contributes greatly and negatively to variance in aerobic power. Body height was the anthropometric variable with the greatest positive association with the variance in grip strength. Flexibility appears to be unrelated to somatotype components.
Peak O2 Uptake Correlates with Fat Free Mass in Athletes but Not in Sedentary Subjects  [PDF]
Jasem Ramadan AlKandari, Mario Barac Nieto
Health (Health) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/health.2019.111005
Abstract: Objective: To characterize relationships between peak O2 uptake (VO2max) and fat free mass (FFM) in adult sedentary and in young and adult athletes. Methods: Healthy adult male sedentary workers or students reporting no regular physical activity in the last six months (n = 61, 31.0 ± 0.95 years) and young (n = 63, 15.8 ± 0.16 years) or adult (n = 85, 25.9 ± 0.48 years) males athletes were studied. Sports were classified according to their MET intensity. Bruce’s treadmill protocol served to measure VO2max. Weight and seven skin-fold thicknesses were used to estimate body density and FFM. Subjects signed informed-consent forms before the tests. Results: The significant correlations (R2 = 0.48, p < 0.01) between FFM and VO2max or of log FFM with log VO2max (R2 = 0.53, p < 0.01) in young athletes were lower in adult athletes (R2 = 0.34 & 0.30), and not significant (R2 = 0.19 & 0.17, p > 0.05) in sedentary subjects. Stepwise multiple regression analysis (R2 = 0.65) indicated that VO2max depended on FFM, heart rates and MET intensity of practiced sport in athletes. In sedentary subjects VO2max was insignificantly (R2 = 0.18) related to flexibility. Discussion: Skin-fold based FFM reliably reflects maximally active muscle mass in young athletes, to a lesser extent in adult athletes but not in adult sedentary subjects. In sedentary, VO2max is often limited by local pain and fatigue and does not reflect the capacity of the oxygen extraction system. In sedentary, varying proportions of surface fat, muscle and bone increase variability in the relationship between skinfolds and FFM.
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