The Seebeck coefficient S is a temperature- and material-dependent
property, which linearly and causally relates the temperature difference △T between the “hot” and “cold” junctions of a
thermoelectric power generator (TEC-PG) to the voltage difference△V. This phenomenon is the Seebeck effect (SE), and
can be used to convert waste heat into usable energy. This work investigates
the trends of the effective voltage output △V(t) and effective Seebeck coefficient S'(t) versus several hours of activity of a solid
state TEC-PG device. The effective Seebeck coefficientS'(t) here is related to a device, not just to a
material’s performance. The observations are pursued in an insulated
compartment in various geometrical and environmental configurations. The
results indicate that the SE does not substantially depend on the geometrical
and environmental configurations. However, the effective Seebeck coefficientS'(t) and the produced effective

Abstract:
Excitable membranes are an important type of nonlinear dynamical system and their study can be used to provide a connection between physical and biological circuits. We discuss two models of excitable membranes important in cardiac and neural tissues. One model is based on the Fitzhugh-Nagumo equations and the other is based on a three-transistor excitable circuit. We construct a circuit that simulates reentrant tachycardia and its treatment by surgical ablation. This project is appropriate for advanced undergraduates as a laboratory capstone project, or as a senior thesis or honors project, and can also be a collaborative project, with one student responsible for the computational predictions and another for the circuit construction and measurements.

Abstract:
The "classic" analogy of classical repulsive interactions via exchange of particles is revisited with a quantitative model and analyzed. This simple model based solely upon the principle of momentum conservation yields a nontrivial, conservative approximation at low energies while also including a type of "relativistic" regime in which the conservative formulation breaks down. Simulations are presented which are accessible to undergraduate students at any level in the physics curriculum as well as analytic treatments of the various regimes which should be accessible to advanced undergraduate physics majors.

Abstract:
Results are presented for the nonequilibrium dynamics of a quantum $XXZ$-spin chain whose spins are initially arranged in a domain wall profile via the application of a magnetic field in the $z$-direction which is spatially varying along the chain. The system is driven out of equilibrium in two ways: a). by rapidly turning off the magnetic field, b). by rapidly quenching the interactions at the same time as the magnetic field is turned off. The time-evolution of the domain wall profile as well as various two-point spin correlation functions is studied by the exact solution of the fermionic problem for the $XX$ chain and via a bosonization approach and a mean-field approach for the $XXZ$ chain. At long times the magnetization is found to equilibrate (reach the ground state value), while the two-point correlation functions in general do not. In particular, for quenches within the gapless $XX$ phase, the transverse spin correlation functions acquire a spatially inhomogeneous structure at long times whose details depend on the initial domain wall profile. The spatial inhomogeneity is also recovered for the case of classical spins initially arranged in a domain wall profile and shows that the inhomogeneities arise due to the dephasing of transverse spin components as the domain wall broadens. A generalized Gibbs ensemble approach is found to be inadequate in capturing this spatially inhomogeneous state.

Abstract:
We investigate dynamics arising after an interaction quench in the quantum sine-Gordon model for a one-dimensional system initially prepared in a spatially inhomogeneous domain wall state. We study the time-evolution of the density, current and equal time correlation functions using the truncated Wigner approximation (TWA) to which quantum corrections are added in order to set the limits on its validity. For weak to moderate strengths of the back-scattering interaction, the domain wall spreads out ballistically with the system within the light cone reaching a nonequilibrium steady-state characterized by a net current flow. A steady state current exists for a quench at the exactly solvable Luther-Emery point. The magnitude of the current decreases with increasing strength of the back-scattering interaction. The two-point correlation function of the variable canonically conjugate to the density reaches a spatially oscillating steady state at a wavelength inversely related to the current.

Abstract:
The effect of interactions on a system of fermions that are in a non-equilibrium steady state due to a quantum quench is studied employing the random-phase-approximation (RPA). As a result of the quench, the distribution function of the fermions is highly broadened. This gives rise to an enhanced particle-hole spectrum and over-damped collective modes for attractive interactions between fermions. On the other hand, for repulsive interactions, an undamped mode above the particle-hole continuum survives. The sensitivity of the result on the nature of the non-equilibrium steady state is explored by also considering a quench that produces a current carrying steady-state.

Abstract:
In reionized regions of the Universe, gas can only collapse to form stars in dark matter (DM) haloes which grow to be sufficiently massive. If star formation is prevented in the minihalo progenitors of such DM haloes at redshifts z >~ 20, then these haloes will not be self-enriched with metals and so may host Population (Pop) III star formation. We estimate an upper limit for the abundance of Pop III star clusters which thus form in the reionized Universe, as a function of redshift. Depending on the minimum DM halo mass for star formation, between of the order of one and of the order of a thousand Pop III star clusters per square degree may be observable at 2 <~ z <~ 7. Thus, there may be a sufficient number density of Pop III star clusters for detection in surveys such as the Deep-Wide Survey (DWS) to be conducted by the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). We predict that Pop III clusters formed after reionization are most likely to be found at z >~ 3 and within ~ 40 arcsec (~ 1 Mpc comoving) of DM haloes with masses of ~ 10^11 M_Sun, the descendants of the haloes at z ~ 20 which host the first galaxies that begin reionization. If the stellar initial mass function (IMF) is top-heavy the clusters may have sufficiently high luminosities in both Ly_alpha and He II lambda1640 to be detected and for constraints to be placed on the Pop III IMF. While a small fraction of DM haloes with masses as high as ~10^9 M_Sun at redshifts z <~ 4 are not enriched due to star formation in their progenitors, external metal enrichment due to galactic winds is likely to preclude Pop III star formation in a large fraction of otherwise unenriched haloes, perhaps even preventing star formation in pristine haloes altogether after reionization is complete.

Abstract:
Detection of the radiation emitted from some of the earliest galaxies will be made possible in the next decade, with the launch of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). A significant fraction of these galaxies may host Population (Pop) III star clusters. The detection of the recombination radiation emitted by such clusters would provide an important new constraint on the initial mass function (IMF) of primordial stars. Here I review the expected recombination line signature of Pop III stars, and present the results of cosmological radiation hydrodynamics simulations of the initial stages of Pop III starbursts in a first galaxy at z ~ 12, from which the time-dependent luminosities and equivalent widths of IMF-sensitive recombination lines are calculated. While it may be unfeasible to detect the emission from Pop III star clusters in the first galaxies at z > 10, even with next generation telescopes, Pop III star clusters which form at lower redshifts (i.e. at z < 6) may be detectable in deep surveys by the JWST.

Abstract:
The properties of the first galaxies are shaped in large part by the first generations of stars, which emit high energy radiation and unleash both large amounts of mechanical energy and the first heavy elements when they explode as supernovae. We survey the theory of the formation of the first galaxies in this context, focusing on the results of cosmological simulations to illustrate a number of the key processes that define their properties. We first discuss the evolution of the primordial gas as it is incorporated into the earliest galaxies under the influence of the high energy radiation emitted by the earliest stars; we then turn to consider how the injection of heavy elements by the first supernovae transforms the evolution of the primordial gas and alters the character of the first galaxies. Finally, we discuss the prospects for the detection of the first galaxies by future observational missions, in particular focusing on the possibility that primordial star-forming galaxies may be uncovered.

Abstract:
We calculate the amount of angular momentum that thermal photons carry out of a viscous black hole accretion disc, due to the strong Doppler shift imparted to them by the high orbital velocity of the radiating disc material. While the emission of radiation can not drive accretion on its own, we find that it does result in a loss of specific angular momentum, thereby contributing to an otherwise viscosity-driven accretion flow. In particular, we show that the fraction of the angular momentum that is lost to thermal emission at a radius r in a standard, multi-color disc is ~ 0.4r_s/r, where r_s is the Schwarzschild radius of the black hole. We briefly highlight the key similarities between this effect and the closely related Poynting-Robertson effect.