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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 18581 matches for " Jarlath U. Umoh "
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Trial of Aspergillus fumigatus Vaccine in Broiler Chicks
Clara N. Kwanashie,Jarlath U. Umoh,Haruna M. Kazeem,Paul A. Abdu
Research Journal of Animal Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/rjnasci.2012.72.75
Abstract: There is a scarcity of information on the effect of vaccine against aspergillosis in Zaria and Kaduna areas. Thus, this study was conducted to determine the efficacy of an Aspergillus fumigatus germling vaccine. The methodologies used in this study included Aspergillus spore production, determination of LD50, preparation of the germling vaccine and testing the efficacy on broiler chicks. Three groups of 4 days old broilers were exposed to 4.2-5.8x108 cfu g-1 lung tissue of A. fumigatus. The calculated amount of A. fumigatus that killed 50% of the broilers was 5.8x107.4. A. fumigatus was recovered 4 weeks post exposure. A germling vaccine of A. fumigatus was administered to 4 days old broilers using the ocular route. The trial vaccine showed 40% protection when administered to chicks 2 weeks prior to challenge with A. fumigatus spores. It is recommended that levels of A. fumigatus spores should not rise to 5.8x107.4 cfu g-1 lung tissue in poultry houses. Adjuvants can be added to the vaccine to raise the level of protection using different routes of administration and vaccinating at an older age.
Occurrence of Aspergillus Species among Apparently Healthy Chickens in Poulty Farms in Kaduna State, Nigeria
Clara N. Kwanashie,Paul A. Abdu,Haruna M. Kazeem,Jarlath U. Umoh
Research Journal of Animal Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/rjnasci.2012.76.78
Abstract: The study was conducted to determine the occurrence of Aspergilllus species among apparently healthy birds in poultry farms. Trachea swabs were collected from a total of 1500 birds in 52 commercial (10% of birds in each poultry farm visited) poultry farms were sampled. Aspergillus sp. was isolated from 718 (47.87%) of the birds. Six species of Aspergillus were isolated viz: A. fumigatus made up 52.37% (376) of the Aspergillus isolates followed by A. flavus 21.87% (157), A. niger 11.42% (82), A. terreus 8.64% (62), A. restrictus 2.79% (20) and A. ochraceous 2.92% (21). Aspergillus species were isolated throughout the year though with a higher incidence during the rainy season compared to the dry season.
Knowledge, Attitude and Practice about Rabies among Children Receiving Formal and Informal Education in Samaru, Zaria, Nigeria.
Asabe Adamu Dzikwi,Ayuba Sini Ibrahim,Jarlath Udoudo Umoh
Global Journal of Health Science , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/gjhs.v4n5p132
Abstract: Every year, about 50,000 people die of rabies of which about 55% of the mortalities occur in Asia and over 40% in Africa. Children are victims of up to 50% of these mortalities. The figure is alarming and immediate action is required to stop this scourge. This study was carried out to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice about rabies among children attending primary schools located in the Ahmadu Bello University (ABU) premises and those outside the university as well as those receiving informal education. The participants for this study were children drawn by random selection from the schools chosen by purposive sampling. With the aid of questionnaires, information was obtained from a total of 477 children with 400 from formal educational settings among 3 schools, and 77 from quaranic schools (almajiris) in the informal setting. More children receiving formal education were aware about the disease (50.8%) than those receiving informal education (32.5%), likewise those residing within ABU quarters (71%) were better informed than those residing outside ABU quarters (43.3%). Among children in the formal schools, 25.9% obtained information from friends and at school (25.9%), while in the informal setting, 56% obtained information from friends and only 16% from school. With regards to attitude and practice, 75.5% of children receiving formal education came from homes where dogs were vaccinated against rabies and 23.3% of them play with dogs they know, while 11.1% of those receiving informal education vaccinate their dogs and fewer of them (14.3%) play with dogs known to them. Many children (65.7%) of those in formal schools know the role of dogs in rabies transmission, compared to only 8% in the informal schools. However, only 9.7% of children in formal schools associate both signs of furious and dumb form of rabies with the disease, compared with 28% in informal schools. Among children bitten by dogs, 87.5% of those receiving informal education received hospital treatment compared to 63.7% of those going to formal schools. About 13% in each of the two categories received traditional treatment. It is, therefore, important for children to be properly educated about rabies so that they can avoid dogs, recognise potential exposures, report to a responsible adult and pass on the knowledge to their peers.
Multi-drug Resistant Coagulase Positive Staphylococcus aureus from Live and Slaughtered Chickens in Zaria, Nigeria
Otalu Otalu,Kabir Junaidu,Okolocha Emmanuel Chukwudi,Umoh Veronica Jarlath
International Journal of Poultry Science , 2011,
Abstract: A total of 400 samples were collected from 200 live chickens and 200 slaughtered chickens and examined for the presence of S. aureus. The susceptibility of 13 coagulase positive Staphylococcus aureus isolates from chickens in Zaria, Nigeria to 12 antimicrobials was determined by disk diffusion method according to CLSI standards. Coagulase positive S. aureus isolates had 100% resistance to tetracycline, penicillin and erythromycin and were in addition resistant to other antibiotics including vancomycin (46.2%).
Sarcocystis infection in slaughtered cattle in Zango abattoir, Zaria, Nigeria
Ifeoma Nancy Obijiaku,Ikwe Ajog,Jarlath Udoudo Umoh,Idris Alao Lawal
Veterinary World , 2013, DOI: 10.5455/vetworld.2013.346-349
Abstract: Background: Sarcocystis infection is a parasitic zoonosis, which may cause acute and fatal clinical diseases in susceptible cattle. When raw or undercooked infected beef is consumed by man, it could result in intestinal sarcocystosis. Aim: This study aimed at determining the prevalence of Sarcocystis infection in slaughtered cattle in Zaria, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in which oesophagus and diaphragm samples were collected from 200 slaughtered cattle and analysed by pepsin-hydrochloric acid digestion and stained with Giemsa. Histological sections of tissues were prepared and stained with haematoxylin and eosin. Results: Eighty-five (42.5 %) were positive for Sarcocystis species. Sarcocysts ranged from 228.8 to 1215 μm in length and 46.93 to 114.40 μm in width. Sarcocysts were all microscopic in nature and 99.0 % had thin cyst wall (< 1 μm), while 4 % had thick cyst wall (3.61 to 7.22 μm). Sarcocystis cruzi and S. hominis were the identified species. Age, sex and breed were not determinants of the infection (p > 0.05). Seventy-five (88.2 %) and 56 (65.9 %) cattle had sarcocysts in the oesophagus and diaphragm respectively. There was a significant difference in the distribution of sarcocysts between the oesophagus and diaphragm (p < 0.05). Conclusion: This study has established in the study area the prevalence of Sarcocystis infection in cattle using tissue digestion method and histology. The identified species were of veterinary and public health importance. [Vet World 2013; 6(6.000): 346-349]
Seroprevalence, Seasonal Occurrence and Clinical Manifestation of Newcastle Disease in Rural Household Chickens in Plateau State, Nigeria
U. Musa,P.A. Abdu,I.I. Dafwang,J.U. Umoh
International Journal of Poultry Science , 2009,
Abstract: A study on seroprevalence, seasonal occurrence and clinical manifestation of Newcastle Disease Virus (ND) among rural household chickens and Live Birds Markets (LBM) was conducted using haemagglutination Inhibition Test (HI) and questionnaires. A total of 1, 208 chickens reared under extensive management system in four Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Plateau State were used for the study. The seroprevalence of ND virus antibodies in rural chickens showed that there was no statistically significant (p > 0.05) difference among the four LGAs and of the 1,208 sera tested, 51.9% had detectable antibodies to NDV but only 14.1% of the chickens had HI antibody titre of > 4log2 which was considered as protective. About 86.2% of the chickens sampled were at risk of suffering from clinical ND. Newcastle disease outbreaks occurred year round in the villages sampled with the highest incidence of 86.6% observed from November to March (Dry season) and September to October, 8.31% (Pre-dry season). During outbreaks of ND, infected birds exhibit the following major clinical signs; nervous signs (32.4%), weakness (16.6%), whitish/greenish diarrhea (16.2%), coughing/sneezing 13.6%, anorexia 9.39% and others 11.8%. It was concluded that the prevalence of ND in the four LGAs of Plateau State is high. At the time of the study over 80% of rural chickens in Plateau State were at risk of dying from ND when exposed to a virulent NDV. It is therefore recommended that vaccination and improved management practices as a means of prevention against ND before the period of outbreaks should be instituted.
Rural Poultry Populations and Strains in Two Agro-Ecological Zones of Nigeria
I.I. Dafwang,U. Musa,P.A. Abdu,J.U. Umoh
International Journal of Poultry Science , 2010,
Abstract: A study was conducted in Plateau State of Nigeria which has two distinct agro-ecological zones; a humid sub-temperate region in the North and a sub-humid hotter region that is part of the Northern Guinea Savanna ecological zone of Nigeria in the South. A sample of 1240 farmers from two Local Governments in each of the two ecological zones were surveyed to assess the poultry population and strains of birds as a prelude to the introduction of interventions for control of Newcastle Disease and other programs for improving rural poultry productivity. Results showed that the farmers owned an average of 20 chickens, 6 ducks, 0.3 turkeys, 1 pigeon and 1.2 guinea fowls per household. Each household reared two or more strains of chicken and most had different types of poultry in the same backyard. There were more Naked neck and long legged chickens in the hotter ecological zone but more Barred plumage strains in the cooler ecological zone.
Tuberculosis in Humans and Cattle in Jigawa State, Nigeria: Risk Factors Analysis
S. Ibrahim,S. I. B. Cadmus,J. U. Umoh,I. Ajogi,U. M. Farouk,U. B. Abubakar,A. C. Kudi
Veterinary Medicine International , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/865924
Abstract: A cross-sectional study was conducted from September 2008 to March 2009 to identify risk factors for BTB in cattle and humans in Jigawa State, Nigeria. A total of 855 cattle belonging to 17 households were subjected to comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CITT) while interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to obtains information on the risk factors. Twenty-two (22) respondent (5%) amongst the families sampled had TB or clinical signs suggestive of TB, while 9 (2%) had reactor cattle in their herds; However, no statistically significant association ( ) was observed between reactor cattle and human TB cases in the households. The habit of milk and meat consumption was found to be affected by occupation and location of the household residence. None of these risk factors (food consumption, living with livestock in the same house, and presence of BTB-positive cattle) were found to be statistically significant. 1. Introduction Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis, a member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC), which comprises the closely related M. tuberculosis, the major causative agent of human tuberculosis (TB) [1]. Worldwide TB caused about 2 million deaths and about 9 million new cases had been reported annually, with sub-Saharan Africa having the highest annual risk of infection with TB, probably catalyzed by the HIV/AIDS pandemic [2]. Globally, M. bovis accounts for 3.1 percent of all human TB cases [3]. However, the extent of M. bovis involvement in the global TB burden in Africa is still largely unknown. This can be partly explained by the fact that in humans, TB due to M. bovis is indistinguishable from that due to M. tuberculosis in terms of clinical signs, and radiological and pathological features [4]. In addition, most laboratories in sub-Saharan Africa do not have the capability to differentiate M. bovis from M. tuberculosis [5]. Although cattle are considered to be the main hosts of M. bovis, the disease has been reported in many other species, including humans, other domesticated animals, and wildlife [6]. Indeed, little information on risk factors of disease transmission to cattle, between cattle and from cattle to humans, is available from an African context. Most information are extrapolated from experiences in developed countries. For Africa, the most comprehensive studies done so far have been in Tanzania [7–9] and Uganda [10]. However, despite the lack of information, it is generally accepted that besides causing major economic losses and also poses a serious zoonotic
The effect of the interaction of various spawn grains with different culture medium on carpophore dry weights and stipe and pileus diameters of Lentinus squarrosulus
P I Nwanze, A U Khan, J B Ameh, V J Umoh
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2005,
Abstract: Lentinus squarrosulus, an indigenous mushroom specie commonly found growing on dead logs in the Zaria environ of Kaduna State was cultured on six different medium which were inoculated separately with three different spawn grains and amended with six different oils at five different rates. The interaction of spawn grains x culture medium had a highly significant effect on carpophore dry weight and stipe and pileus diameters of L. squarrosulus. The results reveal that the interaction of millet spawn x animal bedding and rice medium induced the widest stipe diameter while the interaction of corn spawn x animal bedding and rice medium induced the heaviest carpophore dry weight as well as the widest pileus diameter. African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 4 (7), pp. 615-619, 2005
The effects of the interaction of various oil types and rates on the mycelial wet and dry weights of Lentinus squarrosulus (Mont.) Singer and Psathyrella atroumbonata Pegler in submerged liquid cultures
P I Nwanze, A U Khan, J B Ameh, V J Umoh
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2005,
Abstract: Lentinus squarrosulus and Psathyrella atroumbonata, two edible indigenous mushroom species, were cultured in various different media supplemented with coconut, cotton, groundnut, butterfat, palm kernel and palm oil respectively, at 5 different rates. The interaction of the various oil types with different rates produced highly significant differences (p<0.01) in the mean mycelial wet and dry weights. The heaviest mean wet and dry mycelial weight of L. squarrosulus was induced by butterfat x 0.007 ml/ml while for P. atroumbonata it was cotton and coconut x 0.003 ml/ml, respectively. African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 4 (7), pp. 620-626, 2005
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