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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1037 matches for " Jared Coffin Talbot "
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Genetic Analysis of Fin Development in Zebrafish Identifies Furin and Hemicentin1 as Potential Novel Fraser Syndrome Disease Genes
Thomas J. Carney ,Natália Martins Feitosa,Carmen Sonntag,Krasimir Slanchev,Johannes Kluger,Daiji Kiyozumi,Jan M. Gebauer,Jared Coffin Talbot,Charles B. Kimmel,Kiyotoshi Sekiguchi,Raimund Wagener,Heinz Schwarz,Phillip W. Ingham,Matthias Hammerschmidt
PLOS Genetics , 2010, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1000907
Abstract: Using forward genetics, we have identified the genes mutated in two classes of zebrafish fin mutants. The mutants of the first class are characterized by defects in embryonic fin morphogenesis, which are due to mutations in a Laminin subunit or an Integrin alpha receptor, respectively. The mutants of the second class display characteristic blistering underneath the basement membrane of the fin epidermis. Three of them are due to mutations in zebrafish orthologues of FRAS1, FREM1, or FREM2, large basement membrane protein encoding genes that are mutated in mouse bleb mutants and in human patients suffering from Fraser Syndrome, a rare congenital condition characterized by syndactyly and cryptophthalmos. Fin blistering in a fourth group of zebrafish mutants is caused by mutations in Hemicentin1 (Hmcn1), another large extracellular matrix protein the function of which in vertebrates was hitherto unknown. Our mutant and dose-dependent interaction data suggest a potential involvement of Hmcn1 in Fraser complex-dependent basement membrane anchorage. Furthermore, we present biochemical and genetic data suggesting a role for the proprotein convertase FurinA in zebrafish fin development and cell surface shedding of Fras1 and Frem2, thereby allowing proper localization of the proteins within the basement membrane of forming fins. Finally, we identify the extracellular matrix protein Fibrillin2 as an indispensable interaction partner of Hmcn1. Thus we have defined a series of zebrafish mutants modelling Fraser Syndrome and have identified several implicated novel genes that might help to further elucidate the mechanisms of basement membrane anchorage and of the disease's aetiology. In addition, the novel genes might prove helpful to unravel the molecular nature of thus far unresolved cases of the human disease.
Glassy dynamics in three-dimensional embryonic tissues
Eva-Maria Schoetz,Marcos Lanio,Jared A. Talbot,M. Lisa Manning
Quantitative Biology , 2013,
Abstract: Many biological tissues are viscoelastic, behaving as elastic solids on short timescales and fluids on long timescales. This collective mechanical behavior enables and helps to guide pattern formation and tissue layering. Here we investigate the mechanical properties of three-dimensional tissue explants from zebrafish embryos by analyzing individual cell tracks and macroscopic mechanical response. We find that the cell dynamics inside the tissue exhibit features of supercooled fluids, including subdiffusive trajectories and signatures of caging behavior. We develop a minimal, three-parameter mechanical model for these dynamics, which we calibrate using only information about cell tracks. This model generates predictions about the macroscopic bulk response of the tissue (with no fit parameters) that are verified experimentally, providing a strong validation of the model. The best-fit model parameters indicate that although the tissue is fluid-like, it is close to a glass transition, suggesting that small changes to single-cell parameters could generate a significant change in the viscoelastic properties of the tissue. These results provide a robust framework for quantifying and modeling mechanically-driven pattern formation in tissues.
Ulysse à la dérive : de déviations en faux-fuyants, un itinéraire élisabéthain Wandering with Ulysses: Interpretative Deviations in Elizabethan Texts
Charlotte Coffin
Revue LISA / LISA e-journal , 2009, DOI: 10.4000/lisa.382
Abstract: From Antiquity onwards, the Ulysses myth has been subject to contradictory interpretations, depending on whether his cunning intelligence is seen to indicate wisdom or deceitfulness, and whether the stress is laid on the Greek’s sly speeches or on his painful travels. Yet Elizabethan texts paradoxically deviate from this rich tradition as they often present a much simpler version of the hero, where the phrase “wise Ulysses” excludes any attempt at critical investigation. This article offers a survey of a variety of texts and genres, in order to show how both allegorical interpretations and rhetorical exploitations of the myth tend to erase ambivalence, whereas Shakespeare’s Troilus and Cressida fully explores its suggestions of the dangerous power of eloquence.
Bloom maps
David Talbot,John Talbot
Mathematics , 2007,
Abstract: We consider the problem of succinctly encoding a static map to support approximate queries. We derive upper and lower bounds on the space requirements in terms of the error rate and the entropy of the distribution of values over keys: our bounds differ by a factor log e. For the upper bound we introduce a novel data structure, the Bloom map, generalising the Bloom filter to this problem. The lower bound follows from an information theoretic argument.
DNA Markers for Selection of Late Blight Resistant Potato Breeding Lines  [PDF]
Shaohua Chen, Tudor Borza, Bohyun Byun, Robert Coffin, Joyce Coffin, Rick Peters, Gefu Wang-Pruski
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2017.86079
Abstract: Potato late blight, caused by the oomycete Phytophthora infestans, is one of the most devastating diseases in the agricultural sector around the world. Many genes (R genes) conferring resistance to late blight have been identified in various potato species and most of these R genes have been used in potato breeding. The aim of this study was to develop and validate PCR-based assays for the R genes Rpi-blb1, Rpi-blb2, Rpi-blb3 and Rpi-bt1, to distinguish between late blight resistant and late blight susceptible potato progeny in the given breeding background. A total of 100 breeding progeny were screened for the presence of these R genes and tested for resistance against P. infestans
Genetic relationships between Woodland and Barren ground caribou
Curtis Strobeck,John Coffin
Rangifer , 1996,
L’anthropologie criminelle en Italie
Jean-Christophe Coffin
Criminocorpus, Revue Hypermédia , 2006, DOI: 10.4000/criminocorpus.136
Abstract: L’Italie est le territoire de l’anthropologie criminelle dans la mesure où l’un de ses plus illustres représentants, si ce n’est le plus connu d’entre eux, le médecin Cesare Lombroso (1835-1909) y a fait toute sa carrière, essentiellement à partir de l’université de Turin. Et c’est de là qu’il a essaimé ses idées à travers une multitude d’articles, de très nombreux livres et à travers l’organisation de conférences et de congrès internationaux. Si l’anthropologie criminelle constitue de fait u...
La place de la psychiatrie dans les Archives d’anthropologie criminelle
Jean-Christophe Coffin
Criminocorpus, Revue Hypermédia , 2006, DOI: 10.4000/criminocorpus.122
Abstract: En 1886, lors de la parution du premier numéro des Archives d’anthropologie criminelle, la psychiatrie est déjà organisée en tant que discipline et constitue, à ce titre, une spécialité médicale. Une chaire de pathologie mentale et des maladies de l’encéphale a été fondée en 1879 à la faculté de médecine de Paris et les étudiants en médecine apprennent leur spécialité dans le cadre de l’asile pour aliénés, au chevet du malade. Depuis 1852, les aliénistes (tel est le nom courant à l’époque, ce...
Virions at the Gates: Receptors and the Host–Virus Arms Race
John M. Coffin
PLOS Biology , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1001574
Abstract: All viruses need to bind to specific receptor molecules on the surface of target cells to initiate infection. Virus–receptor binding is highly specific, and this specificity determines both the species and the cell type that can be infected by a given virus. In some well-studied cases, the virus-binding region on the receptor has been found to be unrelated to the receptor's normal cellular function. Resistance to virus infection can thus evolve by selection of mutations that alter amino acids in the binding region with minimal effect on normal function. This sort of positive selection can be used to infer the history of the host–virus “arms race” during their coevolution. In a new study, Demogines et al. use a combination of phylogenetic, structural, and virological analysis to infer the history and significance of positive selection on the transferrin receptor TfR1, a housekeeping protein required for iron uptake and the cell surface receptor for at least three different types of virus. The authors show that only two parts of the rodent TfR1 molecule have been subject to positive selection and that these correspond to the binding sites for two of these viruses—the mouse mammary tumor virus (a retrovirus) and Machupo virus (an arenavirus). They confirmed this result by introducing the inferred binding site mutations into the wild-type protein and testing for receptor function. Related arenaviruses are beginning to spread in human populations in South America as the cause of often fatal hemorrhagic fevers, and, although Demogines et al. could find no evidence of TfR1 mutations in this region that might have been selected as a consequence of human infection, the authors identified one such mutation in Asian populations that affects infection with these viruses.
Psychology and the Use of Intuitions in Philosophy
Brian Talbot
Studia Philosophica Estonica , 2009,
Abstract: There is widespread controversy about the use of intuitions in philosophy. In this paper I will argue that there are legitimate concerns about this use, and that these concerns cannot be fully responded to using the traditional methods of philosophy. We need an understanding of how intuitions are generated and what it is they are based on, and this understanding must be founded on the psychological investigation of the mind. I explore how a psychological understanding of intuitions is likely to impact a range of philosophical projects, from conceptual analysis to the study of (non-conceptual) "things themselves" to experimental philosophy.
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