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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 142060 matches for " Jane K. Pittaway "
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Age-Related Changes in Physical Fall Risk Factors: Results from a 3 Year Follow-up of Community Dwelling Older Adults in Tasmania, Australia
Marie-Louise Bird,Jane K. Pittaway,Isobel Cuisick,Megan Rattray,Kiran D. K. Ahuja
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph10115989
Abstract: As the population ages, fall rates are expected to increase, leading to a rise in accidental injury and injury-related deaths, and placing an escalating burden on health care systems. Sixty-nine independent community-dwelling adults (60–85 years, 18 males) had their leg strength, physical activity levels and their annual fall rate assessed at two timepoints over three years, (summer 2010 and summer 2013) monitoring balance. Force platform measures of medio-lateral sway range increased significantly under conditions of eyes open (mean difference MD 2.5 cm; 95% CI 2.2 to 2.8 cm) and eyes closed (MD 3.2 cm; 95% CI 2.8 to 3.6 cm), respectively (all p < 0.001) indicating worsening static balance control. Dynamic balance showed similar changes ( p < 0.036). Leg strength was not significantly different between visits ( p > 0.26). Physical activity reduced significantly (MD ?909 Cal/week; 95% CI ?347 to ?1,470 Cal/week; p = 0.002) during the course of the study. Participants maintained aerobic activities, however resistance and balance exercise levels decreased non-significantly. The likelihood of falling was higher at the end of the study compared to the first timepoint (odds ratio 1.93, 95% CI 0.94 to 3.94; p = 0.07). Results of this study indicate that despite maintenance of leg strength there was an increase in medio-lateral sway over a relatively short time frame, with higher than expected increases in fall rates.
Make Vitamin D While the Sun Shines, Take Supplements When It Doesn′t: A Longitudinal, Observational Study of Older Adults in Tasmania, Australia
Jane K. Pittaway, Kiran D. K. Ahuja, Jeffrey M. Beckett, Marie-Louise Bird, Iain K. Robertson, Madeleine J. Ball
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0059063
Abstract: Low vitamin D status has been associated with a number of chronic conditions, particularly in older adults. The aim of this study was to identify how best to maintain optimum vitamin D status throughout the year in this high-risk population. The main objectives of the study were to assess seasonal vitamin D status; identify the main determinants of vitamin D status; determine if taking part in the study led to alterations in participant behaviour and vitamin D status. A longitudinal design across four consecutive seasons observed ninety-one 60–85 year old community-dwelling adults in Tasmania (41π S) over 13 consecutive months, with a follow-up assessment at next winter's end. Associations between solar UVB exposure, sun protection behaviours, dietary and supplemental vitamin D with serum 25(OH)D concentrations were assessed. Variation in serum 25(OH)D demonstrated an identical pattern to solar UVB, lagging 8–10 weeks. Serum 25(OH)D was positively associated with summer UVB (mean 15.9 nmol/L; 95%CI 11.8–19.9 nmol/L, p<0.001) and vitamin D supplementation (100–600 IU/day: 95%CI 10.2 nmol/L; 0.8–19.6 nmol/L; p = 0.03; 800 IU/day: 21.0 nmol/L; 95%CI 8.1–34.0 nmol/L; p = 0.001). Seasonal variation in serum 25(OH)D was greatly diminished in supplement users. The most common alteration in participant behaviour after the study was ingesting vitamin D supplements. Post-study vitamin D supplementation ?800 IU/day was seven times more likely than during the study resulting in mean difference in serum 25(OH)D between supplement and non-supplement users of 30.1 nmol/L (95%CI 19.4–40.8 nmol/L; p<0.001). The main limitation was homogeneity of participant ethnicity. Solar exposure in summer and ingestion of vitamin D supplements in other seasons are the most effective ways of achieving and maintaining year-round vitamin D sufficiency in older adults in the Southern hemisphere. Vitamin D supplementation has greatest effect on vitamin D status if ingested during and after winter, i.e. between the autumn and spring equinoxes.
The Association between Seasonal Variation in Vitamin D, Postural Sway, and Falls Risk: An Observational Cohort Study
Marie-Louise Bird,Keith D. Hill,Iain Robertson,Madeleine J. Ball,Jane K. Pittaway,Andrew D. Williams
Journal of Aging Research , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/751310
Abstract: Introduction. Low serum vitamin D levels are associated with increased postural sway. Vitamin D varies seasonally. This study investigates whether postural sway varies seasonally and is associated with serum vitamin D and falls. Methods. In a longitudinal observational study, eighty-eight independently mobile community-dwelling older adults (69.7 7.6 years) were evaluated on five occasions over one year, measuring postural sway (force platform), vitamin D levels, fall incidence, and causes and adverse outcomes. Mixed-methods Poisson regression was used to determine associations between measures. Results. Postural sway did not vary over the year. Vitamin D levels varied seasonally ( ), peaking in summer. Incidence of falls ( ) and injurious falls ( ) were lower in spring, with the highest fall rate at the end of autumn. Postural sway was not related to vitamin D ( ) or fall rates, but it was associated with fall injuries (IRR 1.59 (CI 1.14 to 2.24, ). Conclusions. Postural sway remained stable across the year while vitamin D varied seasonally. Participants with high values for postural sway demonstrated higher rates of injurious falls. This study provides important evidence for clinicians and researchers providing interventions measuring balance outcomes across seasons. 1. Introduction Balance impairment is an important fall-risk factor [1], and increases in range of postural sway in the mediolateral direction in older adults are associated with increased fall-risk and rates [2]. Postural sway has been shown in older adults to be strongly related to other measures of balance [3]. Multivariate analysis reveals serum vitamin D levels as an independent variable associated with postural sway [4]. In individuals with suboptimal levels of vitamin D, balance and strength improve after supplementation [5], in particular postural sway [6]. Epidemiological studies have shown that vitamin D levels show seasonal variation [7, 8]. Lowest levels of serum vitamin D are recorded towards the end of winter, approximately four weeks after the shortest day of the year [8]. Overall, vitamin D supplementation did not reduce rate of falls (RaR 1.00, 95% CI 0.90 to 1.11; seven trials; 9324 participants) or risk of falling (RR 0.96, 95% CI 0.89 to 1.03; 13 trials; 26, 747 participants) but may do so in people with lower vitamin D levels before treatment [9]. Older adults are at risk for lower levels of serum vitamin D because of age-related changes in UVB absorption and skin capacity to synthesize vitamin D, reduction in activation in the kidneys, and reduced expression of
Using an Online Interactive Game to Enhance the Learning Outcomes for First Year Tertiary Students  [PDF]
Susan Salter, Jane Pittaway, Karen Swabey, Mike Capstick, Tracy Douglas
Creative Education (CE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2012.326114
Abstract: Academics acknowledge that students are often unable to link and extend first year, first semester foundation material throughout their undergraduate degree. The use of a pedagogically sound interactive digital game-based learning (DGBL) resource to engage first year biological science students in recalling, linking and applying foundation knowledge and increasing their learning outcomes has been explored. According to the current literature there exists no evidence that DGBL resources have previously been used to address this transfer and linking of knowledge and core skills. Results from our study of student perceptions and student learning outcomes suggest that our creatively designed resource has effectively targeted a mixed cohort of students to retain, link and extend foundation knowledge. Our study also indicates that DGBL resources have a valid role in enabling students, many of whom are classed as “digital natives”, to demonstrate positive learning outcomes by successfully recalling and transferring unit content into new learning domains.
Little Smoky Woodland Caribou Calf Survival Enhancement Project
Kirkby G. Smith,Lois Pittaway
Rangifer , 2011,
Abstract: The Little Smoky woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus) herd is a boreal ecotype located in west central Alberta, Canada. This herd has declined steadily over the past decade and is currently thought to number approximately 80 animals. Factors contributing to the herds' decline appear related to elevated predator-caused mortality rates resulting from industrial caused landscape change. At current rates of decline, the herd is at risk of extirpation. A calf survival enhancement project was initiated in the first half of 2006 as a means of enhancing recruitment while other longer-term approaches were implemented. A total of 10 pregnant females were captured in early March and held in captivity until all calves were at least 3 weeks old. Before release, calves were radiocollared with expandable drop-off collars. Following release, survival of mother and offspring were tracked at intervals until the fall rut. Survival of penned calves was compared to "wild-born" calves at heel of non captive radiocollared females. This approach is compared to other techniques designed to increase recruitment in caribou.
Developing e-learning experiences and practices: the importance of context
Jane K. Seale
Research in Learning Technology , 2008, DOI: 10.3402/rlt.v16i1.10880
Abstract: This is my last editorial before I step down from the ALT-J editorial team. Rhona Sharpe and Frances Bell, will form the new ALT-J editorial team and I wish them the best of luck in developing the direction of ALT-J in the future. I would also like to thank the rest of outgoing editorial team, the ALT-J editorial board, the reviewers and authors that I have worked with over the last six issues of ALT-J, who each in their way has contributed to furthering our knowledge and understanding of the relationship between technology and learning.
La mise en recueil comme glose ? Le thème de la translatio studii dans le ms. Digby 23 de la Bibliothèque Bodléienne à Oxford
K. Sarah-Jane Murray
Babel : Littératures Plurielles , 2012,
Abstract: L’auteur étudie dans cet article comment la juxtaposition d’un texte philosophique, le Timée de Platon, et d’un texte narratif, la Chanson de Roland, dans le fameux manuscrit Digby 23 est l’occasion d’une mise en perspective d’une uvre par une autre. Placé sous le signe du mythe de l’Atlantide, ce recueil témoigne de l’influence des textes classiques sur les clercs de la France médiévale.
Comparison of two misoprostol regimens for cervical priming before surgical pregnancy termination at 13 to 16 weeks gestations  [PDF]
Dennis G. Chambers, Robin J. Willcourt, Anthony R. Laver, Jane K. Baird, Wye Y. Herbert
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2011.14036
Abstract: Background: The optimal regimen has still to be determined for the use of misoprostol in the surgical termination of pregnancy in the early second trimester. Objective: To compare the outcomes of two different regimens for cervical priming with misoprostol before dilatation and evacuation (D & E) in 13 weeks - 16 weeks gestation pregnancy terminations. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed of the medical records of two cohorts of 334 women each who were treated with either 3 sublingual doses of 2 misoprostol 200 µg tablets 30 minutes apart on admission or the same dosage preceded by 1 oral tablet of misoprostol 200 µg at home 3 hours before admission. Results: The addition of the home tablet of misoprostol increased the rate of one day completion of D & E from 97.3% to 100% (P = 0.004), and the overall mean theatre time for D&E was reduced by 12.3% in parous women (P = 0.001) and 6.4% in nulliparous women (P = 0.003) with the reduction being consistent across all gestations. Conclusions: This retrospective study showed that the addition of 1 oral tablet of misoprostol 200 µg at home 3 hours before admission to a regimen of 3 sublingual doses of 2 misoprostol 200 µg tablets 30 minutes apart on admission significantly increases the probability of all women at 13 weeks - 16 weeks gestation completing a termination of pregnancy in one day with a single D & E procedure and with a reduced theatre time.
Severe obstructive sleep apnea and long distance truck driving: A case report  [PDF]
Lisa N. Sharwood, Jane Elkington, Mark Stevenson, Soufiane Boufous, Keith K. Wong
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2012.22023
Abstract: Introduction: Untreated sleep disorders can increase driver crash risk by up to 7 fold, and truck drivers have a variety of risk factors for sleep disorders. Measures currently used to identify drivers at risk depend predominantly on the ability of the driver to identify and report themselves as sleepy. Methods: This case report presents a 54 year old long distance truck driver who participated in a case-control study, underwent at home breathing monitoring and was followed up with an in-depth interview. Results: Self-reported measures did not identify this driver as at risk of sleepiness or sleep apnea; yet he was subsequently diagnosed with severe sleep apnea using an at home monitor and polysomnography. Conclusions: Self-assessment of risk factors is insufficient as a screen for sleep apnea. General practitioners are in an ideal position to identify potential sleep apnea sufferers and can initiate the enquiry process that leads to diagnostic testing.
Valuing the Provisioning Services of Wetlands: Contrasting a Rural Wetland in Lesotho with a Peri-Urban Wetland in South Africa
Kathryn S. M. Lannas,Jane K. Turpie
Ecology and Society , 2009,
Abstract: Given that few studies have valued the provisioning services of temperate southern African wetlands, research on this topic was undertaken in a remote rural wetland, Letseng-la-Letsie, in Lesotho and a peri-urban wetland in Mfuleni, Cape Town. The objectives were to quantify incomes from wetland resources, assess the relative dependency of communities on wetland provisioning services, and estimate the total provisioning value of the wetlands. Data were collected from informal interviews and structured household surveys. Despite the different settings, both wetlands were used mainly for grazing livestock. The estimated total value added during 2007 from grazing was U.S. $180,078 for Letseng-la-Letsie and U.S. $540,286 for Mfuleni. Letseng-la-Letsie and Mfuleni were also used for hunting, and Mfuleni was partially cultivated. Even though the local wetlands were easier to access from Mfuleni, only 13% of households used them, compared with 65% in Letseng-la-Letsie. However, the households around Letseng-la-Letsie derived less of their income (6%) from the wetlands, compared with 82% in Mfuleni. This reflects the more specialized livelihood strategies in the urban compared with the rural setting, in which risk-spreading household production strategies were more prevalent. The loss of the wetland in Letseng-la-Letsie would therefore potentially affect more people but have less of an effect on the finances of individual households than in Mfuleni. It is estimated that U.S. $220/ha and U.S.$1765/ha is derived annually from wetland provisioning services in Letseng-la-Letsie and Mfuleni, respectively. A standard protocol is needed for valuing wetlands in southern Africa.
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