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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 14074 matches for " Jan; Hayen "
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Patients with a future diagnosis of diabetes have higher drug use and costs: an analysis of community pharmacy data
Sandra De Coster,Gert Laekeman,Jan Lenie,Véronique Hayen
Endocrinology Studies , 2011, DOI: 10.4081/es.2011.e6
Abstract: This study explores whether patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus have higher drug use as compared to patients without diabetes over a time period prior to and after diagnosis of diabetes. A case-control study compared drug use of patients with a future diagnosis of diabetes (cases) with patients without a diagnosis (controls) based on community pharmacy records. Cases had used oral hypoglycaemic drugs during 2006. A repeated measures analysis calculated the mean number of packages and costs of drugs in cases during the two years prior to diagnosis and the first year following diagnosis and in control patients during three years. Volume of drug use was expressed as the number of packages consumed by a patient. Drug costs were based on the public price. Our dataset covered 2,697 patients (899 cases and 1,798 control patients). The mean annual number of packages and costs of drugs increased over time for cases and control patients (p<0.001). In patients with a future diagnosis of diabetes, the growth in drug use and costs over time was more pronounced than in control patients (p<0.001). Higher drug use and costs were mainly observed for cardiovascular drugs, antidepressant and antipsychotic drugs, and drugs related to gastric acid disorders. Patients with a future diagnosis of diabetes have higher drug use and costs prior to diagnosis than control patients. Drug use could be an indicator to trigger active monitoring for Type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Detecting pre-diabetes and the role of the pharmacist
Simoens,Steven; De Coster,Sandra; Lenie,Jan; Hayen,Véronique; Laekeman,Gert;
Pharmacy Practice (Internet) , 2011, DOI: 10.4321/S1886-36552011000200005
Abstract: objective: this study aims to use a pharmacoepidemiological approach to study the drug use of patients during the year prior to diabetes diagnosis (i.e. pre-diabetic patients) and control patients. drug use might reveal cardiovascular, metabolic and/or endocrinological changes and help to identify indicators for active monitoring of type 2 diabetes mellitus. methods: a retrospective case-control study compared drug use of patients with a future diagnosis of diabetes (experimental patients) with patients without a diabetes diagnosis (control patients) based on community pharmacy records. an experimental patient had used oral hypoglycaemic drugs during 2005 or 2006. experimental and control patients were matched in terms of age, gender and quarter of index date. drugs were selected based on possible comorbidities of diabetes. drug use was expressed as a binary variable, indicating whether or not a patient took specific drugs. drug use was compared between experimental patients during the year prior to diagnosis and control patients using the chi-squared test. results: our dataset covered 5,064 patients (1,688 experimental and 3,376 control patients). a higher probability of taking cardiovascular drugs was observed for specific subgroups of patients with pre-diabetes as compared to control patients: this trend was observed for men as well as for women, for various cardiovascular drug classes, and for different age groups (p<0.05), although it was not always statistically significant for the 29-38 age group. for each selected age and gender group, patients with pre-diabetes had a higher probability of taking a combination of a lipid-modifying agent and an antihypertensive drug than control patients (p<0.005). conclusions: using community pharmacy data, this study demonstrated that age and a characteristic drug use pattern could contribute to detecting pre-diabetes. there is a potential role for community pharmacists to follow up drug indicators of patients with a view t
Comparative Lipidomic Profiling of S. cerevisiae and Four Other Hemiascomycetous Yeasts
Eva-Maria Hein,Heiko Hayen
Metabolites , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/metabo2010254
Abstract: Glycerophospholipids (GP) are the building blocks of cellular membranes and play essential roles in cell compartmentation, membrane fluidity or apoptosis. In addition, GPs are sources for multifunctional second messengers. Whereas the genome and proteome of the most intensively studied eukaryotic model organism, the baker’s yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae), are well characterized, the analysis of its lipid composition is still at the beginning. Moreover, different yeast species can be distinguished on the DNA, RNA and protein level, but it is currently unknown if they can also be differentiated by determination of their GP pattern. Therefore, the GP compositions of five different yeast strains, grown under identical environmental conditions, were elucidated using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to negative electrospray ionization-hybrid linear ion trap-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry in single and multistage mode. Using this approach, relative quantification of more than 100 molecular species belonging to nine GP classes was achieved. The comparative lipidomic profiling of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces bayanus, Kluyveromyces thermotolerans, Pichia angusta, and Yarrowia lipolytica revealed characteristic GP profiles for each strain. However, genetically related yeast strains show similarities in their GP compositions, e.g., Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces bayanus.
Detecting pre-diabetes and the role of the pharmacist
Simoens S,De Coster S,Lenie J,Hayen V
Pharmacy Practice (Granada) , 2011,
Abstract: Objective: This study aims to use a pharmacoepidemiological approach to study the drug use of patients during the year prior to diabetes diagnosis (i.e. pre-diabetic patients) and control patients. Drug use might reveal cardiovascular, metabolic and/or endocrinological changes and help to identify indicators for active monitoring of Type 2 diabetes mellitus.Methods: A retrospective case-control study compared drug use of patients with a future diagnosis of diabetes (experimental patients) with patients without a diabetes diagnosis (control patients) based on community pharmacy records. An experimental patient had used oral hypoglycaemic drugs during 2005 or 2006. Experimental and control patients were matched in terms of age, gender and quarter of index date. Drugs were selected based on possible co-morbidities of diabetes. Drug use was expressed as a binary variable, indicating whether or not a patient took specific drugs. Drug use was compared between experimental patients during the year prior to diagnosis and control patients using the chi-squared test.Results: Our dataset covered 5,064 patients (1,688 experimental and 3,376 control patients). A higher probability of taking cardiovascular drugs was observed for specific subgroups of patients with pre-diabetes as compared to control patients: this trend was observed for men as well as for women, for various cardiovascular drug classes, and for different age groups (p<0.05), although it was not always statistically significant for the 29-38 age group. For each selected age and gender group, patients with pre-diabetes had a higher probability of taking a combination of a lipid-modifying agent and an antihypertensive drug than control patients (p<0.005).Conclusions: Using community pharmacy data, this study demonstrated that age and a characteristic drug use pattern could contribute to detecting pre-diabetes. There is a potential role for community pharmacists to follow up drug indicators of patients with a view to refer high-risk people for screening by a physician.
A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Utility-Based Quality of Life in Chronic Kidney Disease Treatments
Melanie Wyld ,Rachael Lisa Morton,Andrew Hayen,Kirsten Howard,Angela Claire Webster
PLOS Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001307
Abstract: Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a common and costly condition to treat. Economic evaluations of health care often incorporate patient preferences for health outcomes using utilities. The objective of this study was to determine pooled utility-based quality of life (the numerical value attached to the strength of an individual's preference for a specific health outcome) by CKD treatment modality. Methods and Findings We conducted a systematic review, meta-analysis, and meta-regression of peer-reviewed published articles and of PhD dissertations published through 1 December 2010 that reported utility-based quality of life (utility) for adults with late-stage CKD. Studies reporting utilities by proxy (e.g., reported by a patient's doctor or family member) were excluded. In total, 190 studies reporting 326 utilities from over 56,000 patients were analysed. There were 25 utilities from pre-treatment CKD patients, 226 from dialysis patients (haemodialysis, n = 163; peritoneal dialysis, n = 44), 66 from kidney transplant patients, and three from patients treated with non-dialytic conservative care. Using time tradeoff as a referent instrument, kidney transplant recipients had a mean utility of 0.82 (95% CI: 0.74, 0.90). The mean utility was comparable in pre-treatment CKD patients (difference = ?0.02; 95% CI: ?0.09, 0.04), 0.11 lower in dialysis patients (95% CI: ?0.15, ?0.08), and 0.2 lower in conservative care patients (95% CI: ?0.38, ?0.01). Patients treated with automated peritoneal dialysis had a significantly higher mean utility (0.80) than those on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (0.72; p = 0.02). The mean utility of transplant patients increased over time, from 0.66 in the 1980s to 0.85 in the 2000s, an increase of 0.19 (95% CI: 0.11, 0.26). Utility varied by elicitation instrument, with standard gamble producing the highest estimates, and the SF-6D by Brazier et al., University of Sheffield, producing the lowest estimates. The main limitations of this study were that treatment assignments were not random, that only transplant had longitudinal data available, and that we calculated EuroQol Group EQ-5D scores from SF-36 and SF-12 health survey data, and therefore the algorithms may not reflect EQ-5D scores measured directly. Conclusions For patients with late-stage CKD, treatment with dialysis is associated with a significant decrement in quality of life compared to treatment with kidney transplantation. These findings provide evidence-based utility estimates to inform economic evaluations of kidney therapies, useful for policy
A Longitudinal Analysis of the Stability of Household Money Demand  [PDF]
Jan Tin
Modern Economy (ME) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/me.2011.23046
Abstract: Past aggregate time-series studies, conducted under the assumption of a representative economic agent, frequently show that the demand for narrowly defined M1, especially non-interest-yielding demand deposit, is unstable during periods of financial innovations. Whether this is longitudinally the case among life-cycle savers is unclear. This study utilizes longitudinal data to take another look and find that volatility in the demand for non-interest-earning checking accounts in the mid and late 1990s is attributable solely to the portion held for the transactions motive. When the conventional Baumol-Tobin model is extended to include human capital and family formation variables representing the life-cycle motive, equilibrium money demand is a stable function of both economic and demographic variables.
A Spectral Method in Time for Initial-Value Problems  [PDF]
Jan Scheffel
American Journal of Computational Mathematics (AJCM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ajcm.2012.23023
Abstract: A time-spectral method for solution of initial value partial differential equations is outlined. Multivariate Chebyshev series are used to represent all temporal, spatial and physical parameter domains in this generalized weighted residual method (GWRM). The approximate solutions obtained are thus analytical, finite order multivariate polynomials. The method avoids time step limitations. To determine the spectral coefficients, a system of algebraic equations is solved iteratively. A root solver, with excellent global convergence properties, has been developed. Accuracy and efficiency are controlled by the number of included Chebyshev modes and by use of temporal and spatial subdomains. As examples of advanced application, stability problems within ideal and resistive magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) are solved. To introduce the method, solutions to a stiff ordinary differential equation are demonstrated and discussed. Subsequently, the GWRM is applied to the Burger and forced wave equations. Comparisons with the explicit Lax-Wendroff and implicit Crank-Nicolson finite difference methods show that the method is accurate and efficient. Thus the method shows potential for advanced initial value problems in fluid mechanics and MHD.
Operationalizing Sustainability Principles in the Engineering Profession  [PDF]
Jan Adamowski
Natural Resources (NR) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2012.34024
Abstract: The engineering profession has responded to the issue of sustainable development in two main ways. It has responded through public policy statements that acknowledge the magnitude of the problem in addition to pledging to steer engineering towards a more sustainable future, and it has also responded more directly through technological innovation. In this paper, these two responses will be explored with respect to the debate on how to operationalize sustainability principles in practical terms. This paper also attempts to provide the rationale for a philosophy of engineering ethics grounded in the notion of sustainable development. It is hoped that this would lead to a revised “social contract” that would enable engineers to engage more actively in political, technical, economic and social discussions and processes.
Chaos in Planar, Circular, Restricted Three-Body Problem  [PDF]
Jan Vrbik
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/am.2013.41008
Abstract:

In this article we analyze the motion of a test particle of a planar, circular, restricted three-body problem in resonance, using the Kustaanheimo-Stiefel formalism. We show that a good qualitative description of the motion can be reduced to three simple equations for semi-major axis, eccentricity and resonance angle. Studying these equations reveals the onset of chaos, and sheds a new light on its weak nature. The 7:4 resonance is used as an example.

Compound Means and Fast Computation of Radicals  [PDF]
Jan ?ustek
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/am.2014.516241
Abstract: In last decades, several algorithms were developed for fast evaluation of some elementary functions with very large arguments, for example for multiplication of million-digit integers. The present paper introduces a new fast iterative method for computing values \"\" with high accuracy, for fixed \"\" and \"\". The method is based on compound means and Padé approximations.
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