Abstract:
In this paper we prove that periodic boundary-value problems (BVPs) for delay differential equations are locally equivalent to finite-dimensional algebraic systems of equations. We rely only on regularity assumptions that follow those of the review by Hartung et al. (2006). Thus, the equivalence result can be applied to differential equations with state-dependent delays (SD-DDEs), transferring many results of bifurcation theory for periodic orbits to this class of systems. We demonstrate this by using the equivalence to give an elementary proof of the Hopf bifurcation theorem for differential equations with state-dependent delays. This is an alternative and extension to the original Hopf bifurcation theorem for SD-DDEs by Eichmann (2006).

Abstract:
Coupled wave equations are popular tool for investigating longitudinal dynamical effects in semiconductor lasers, for example, sensitivity to delayed optical feedback. We study a model that consists of a hyperbolic linear system of partial differential equations with one spatial dimension, which is nonlinearly coupled with a slow subsystem of ordinary differential equations. We first prove the basic statements about the existence of solutions of the initial-boundary-value problem and their smooth dependence on initial values and parameters. Hence, the model constitutes a smooth infinite-dimensional dynamical system. Then we exploit the particular slow-fast structure of the system to construct a low-dimensional attracting invariant manifold for certain parameter constellations. The flow on this invariant manifold is described by a system of ordinary differential equations that is accessible to classical bifurcation theory and numerical tools such as AUTO.

Abstract:
Time delayed feedback control is one of the most successful methods to discover dynamically unstable features of a dynamical system in an experiment. This approach feeds back only terms that depend on the difference between the current output and the output from a fixed time T ago. Thus, any periodic orbit of period T in the feedback controlled system is also a periodic orbit of the uncontrolled system, independent of any modelling assumptions. It has been an open problem whether this approach can be successful in general, that is, under genericity conditions similar to those in linear control theory (controllability), or if there are fundamental restrictions to time-delayed feedback control. We show that there are no restrictions in principle. This paper proves the following: for every periodic orbit satisfying a genericity condition slightly stronger than classical linear controllability, one can find control gains that stabilise this orbit with extended time-delayed feedback control. While the paper's techniques are based on linear stability analysis, they exploit the specific properties of linearisations near autonomous periodic orbits in nonlinear systems, and are, thus, mostly relevant for the analysis of nonlinear experiments.

Abstract:
Several authors, most prominently Jared Diamond (1997, Guns, Germs and Steel), have investigated biogeographic determinants of human history and civilization. The timing of the transition to an agricultural lifestyle, associated with steep population growth and consequent societal change, has been suggested to be affected by the availability of suitable organisms for domestication. These factors were shown to quantitatively explain some of the current global inequalities of economy and political power. Here, we advance this approach one step further by looking at climate and soil as sole determining factors.

Abstract:
We demonstrate with a minimal example that in Filippov systems (dynamical systems governed by discontinuous but piecewise smooth vector fields) stable periodic motion with sliding is not robust with respect to stable singular perturbations. We consider a simple dynamical system that we assume to be a quasi-static approximation of a higher-dimensional system containing a fast stable subsystem. We tune a system parameter such that a stable periodic orbit of the simple system touches the discontinuity surface: this is the so-called grazing-sliding bifurcation. The periodic orbit remains stable, and its local return map becomes piecewise linear. However, when we take into account the fast dynamics the local return map of the periodic orbit changes qualitatively, giving rise to, for example, period-adding cascades or small-scale chaos.

Abstract:
Models of global climate phenomena of low to intermediate complexity are very useful for providing an understanding at a conceptual level. An important aspect of such models is the presence of a number of feedback loops that feature considerable delay times, usually due to the time it takes to transport energy (for example, in the form of hot/cold air or water) around the globe. In this paper we demonstrate how one can perform a bifurcation analysis of the behaviour of a periodically-forced system with delay in dependence on key parameters. As an example we consider the El-Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO), which is a sea surface temperature oscillation on a multi-year scale in the basin of the Pacific Ocean. One can think of ENSO as being generated by an interplay between two feedback effects, one positive and one negative, which act only after some delay that is determined by the speed of transport of sea-surface temperature anomalies across the Pacific. We perform here a case study of a simple delayed-feedback oscillator model for ENSO (introduced by Tziperman et al, J. Climate 11 (1998)), which is parametrically forced by annual variation. More specifically, we use numerical bifurcation analysis tools to explore directly regions of delay-induced resonances and other stability boundaries in this delay-differential equation model for ENSO.

Abstract:
We study properties of basic solutions in systems with dime delays and $S^1$-symmetry. Such basic solutions are relative equilibria (CW solutions) and relative periodic solutions (MW solutions). It follows from the previous theory that the number of CW solutions grows generically linearly with time delay $\tau$. Here we show, in particular, that the number of relative periodic solutions grows generically as $\tau^2$ when delay increases. Thus, in such systems, the relative periodic solutions are more abundant than relative equilibria. The results are directly applicable to, e.g., Lang-Kobayashi model for the lasers with delayed feedback. We also study stability properties of the solutions for large delays.

Abstract:
If one wants to explore the properties of a dynamical system systematically one has to be able to track equilibria and periodic orbits regardless of their stability. If the dynamical system is a controllable experiment then one approach is a combination of classical feedback control and Newton iterations. Mechanical experiments on a parametrically excited pendulum have recently shown the practical feasibility of a simplified version of this algorithm: a combination of time-delayed feedback control (as proposed by Pyragas) and a Newton iteration on a low-dimensional system of equations. We show that both parts of the algorithm are uniformly stable near the saddle-node bifurcation: the experiment with time-delayed feedback control has uniformly stable periodic orbits, and the two-dimensional nonlinear system which has to be solved to make the control non-invasive has a well-conditioned Jacobian.

Abstract:
A dynamical system is said to undergo rate-induced tipping when it fails to track its quasi-equilibrium state due to an above-critical-rate change of system parameters. We study a prototypical model for rate-induced tipping, the saddle-node normal form subject to time-varying equilibrium drift and noise. We find that both most commonly used early-warning indicators, increase in variance and increase in autocorrelation, occur not when the equilibrium drift is fastest but with a delay. We explain this delay by demonstrating that the most likely trajectory for tipping also crosses the tipping threshold with a delay and therefore the tipping itself is delayed. We find solutions of the variational problem determining the most likely tipping path using numerical continuation techniques. The result is a systematic study of the tipping delay in the plane of two parameters, distance from tipping threshold and noise intensity.

Abstract:
Szalai et al. (SIAM J. on Sci. Comp. 28(4), 2006) gave a general construction for characteristic matrices for systems of linear delay-differential equations with periodic coefficients. First, we show that matrices constructed in this way can have a discrete set of poles in the complex plane, which may possibly obstruct their use when determining the stability of the linear system. Then we modify and generalize the original construction such that the poles get pushed into a small neighborhood of the origin of the complex plane.