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Racial/Ethnic Differences in Poststroke Rehabilitation Outcomes
Charles Ellis,Hyacinth I. Hyacinth,Jamie Beckett,Wuwei Feng,Marc Chimowitz,Bruce Ovbiagele,Dan Lackland,Robert Adams
Stroke Research and Treatment , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/950746
Abstract: Background. Significant racial and ethnic disparities in stroke incidence, severity, and morbidity have been consistently reported; however, less is known about potential differences in poststroke rehabilitation outcomes. Objective. To examine racial and ethnic differences in poststroke rehabilitation outcomes. Methods. We completed an in-depth search of Medline and several major journals dedicated to publishing research articles on stroke, rehabilitation, and racial-ethnic patterns of disease over a 10-year period (2003–2012). We identified studies that reported rehabilitation outcomes and the race or ethnicity of at least two groups. Results. 17 studies involving 429,108 stroke survivors met inclusion criteria for the review. The majority (94%) of studies examined outcomes between Blacks and Whites. Of those studies examining outcomes between Blacks and Whites, 59% showed that Blacks were generally less likely to achieve equivalent functional improvement following rehabilitation. Blacks were more likely to experience lower FIM gain or change scores (range: 1–60%) and more likely to have lower efficiency scores (range: 5–16%) than Whites. Conclusions. Black stroke survivors appear to generally achieve poorer functional outcomes than White stroke survivors. Future studies are warranted to evaluate the precise magnitude of these differences, whether they go beyond chance, and the underlying contributory mechanisms. 1. Background Stroke is a leading cause of long-term disability and the fourth leading cause of death in the US [1]. Estimates indicate that ~795,000 Americans experience a stroke each year [1]. Among those are non-Hispanic Blacks (Blacks) who are at twice the risk of first-ever stroke compared to non-Hispanic Whites (Whites) [2]. The age-adjusted risk of ischemic stroke is 0.88 in Whites, 1.49 in Hispanics, and 1.91 in Blacks [3]. Blacks are also more likely to experience a stroke at a younger age and more likely to become disabled and experience difficulties with daily living and activities [2]. Similarly, older Blacks and Hispanics are more likely to experience higher odds of one-year all-cause poststroke rehospitalization compared to Whites after adjusting for patient and hospital characteristics [4]. Interestingly, there has been a decrease in ischemic stroke incidence among Whites in the US; however the incidence of overall ischemic stroke among Blacks has remained virtually the same [5]. Studies continue to demonstrate a differential impact of stroke between racial/ethnic groups with minorities experiencing worse poststroke outcomes.
The membrane mucin MUC4 is elevated in breast tumor lymph node metastases relative to matched primary tumors and confers aggressive properties to breast cancer cells
Heather C Workman, Jamie K Miller, Ellen Q Ingalla, Rouminder P Kaur, Diane I Yamamoto, Laurel A Beckett, Lawrence JT Young, Robert D Cardiff, Alexander D Borowsky, Kermit L Carraway, Colleen Sweeney, Kermit L Carraway
Breast Cancer Research , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/bcr2364
Abstract: MUC4 expression levels in patient-matched normal and tumor breast tissue was initially examined by immunoblotting lysates of fresh frozen tissue samples with a highly specific preparation of anti-MUC4 monoclonal antibody 1G8. Immunohistochemical analysis was then carried out using tissue microarrays encompassing patient-matched normal breast tissue and primary tumors, and patient-matched lymph node metastases and primary tumors. Finally, shRNA-mediated knockdown was employed to assess the contribution of MUC4 to the cellular growth and malignancy properties of JIMT-1 breast cancer cells.Immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry revealed that MUC4 levels are suppressed in the majority (58%, p < 0.001) of primary tumors relative to patient-matched normal tissue. On the other hand, lymph node metastatic lesions from 37% (p < 0.05) of patients expressed higher MUC4 protein levels than patient-matched primary tumors. MUC4-positive tumor emboli were often found in lymphovascular spaces of lymph node metastatic lesions. shRNA-mediated MUC4 knockdown compromised the migration, proliferation and anoikis resistance of JIMT-1 cells, strongly suggesting that MUC4 expression actively contributes to cellular properties associated with breast tumor metastasis.Our observations suggest that after an initial loss of MUC4 levels during the transition of normal breast tissue to primary tumor, the re-establishment of elevated MUC4 levels confers an advantage to metastasizing breast tumor cells by promoting the acquisition of cellular properties associated with malignancy.Mucins comprise a large family of cell surface and secreted proteins most commonly expressed by epithelial cells [1], but they are also associated with other cell types such as the endothelial lining of vascular spaces [2,3]. Mucins are present on the apical surface of epithelial cells of gastro-intestinal, respiratory, breast, and reproductive tissues, and contribute to tissue lubrication, hydration, and protection. Muci
The BpTRU automatic blood pressure monitor compared to 24 hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in the assessment of blood pressure in patients with hypertension
Linda Beckett, Marshall Godwin
BMC Cardiovascular Disorders , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2261-5-18
Abstract: A quantitative analysis comparing blood pressure measured by the BpTRU device with the mean daytime blood pressure on 24 hour ABPM. The study was conducted by the Centre for Studies in Primary Care, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada on adult primary care patients who are enrolled in two randomized controlled trials on hypertension. The main outcomes were the mean of the blood pressures measured at the three most recent office visits, the initial measurement on the BpTRU-100, the mean of the five measurements on the BpTRU monitor, and the daytime average on 24 hour ABPM.The group mean of the three charted clinic measured blood pressures (150.8 (SD10.26) / 82.9 (SD 8.44)) was not statistically different from the group mean of the initial reading on BpTRU (150.0 (SD21.33) / 83.3 (SD12.00)). The group mean of the average of five BpTRU readings (140.0 (SD17.71) / 79.8 (SD 10.46)) was not statistically different from the 24 hour daytime mean on ABPM (141.5 (SD 13.25) / 79.7 (SD 7.79)). Within patients, BpTRU average correlated significantly better with daytime ambulatory pressure than did clinic averages (BpTRU r = 0.571, clinic r = 0.145). Based on assessment of sensitivity and specificity at different cut-points, it is suggested that the initial treatment target using the BpTRU be set at <135/85 mmHG, but achievement of target should be confirmed using 24 hour ABPM.The BpTRU average better predicts ABPM than does the average of the blood pressures recorded on the patient chart from the three most recent visits. The BpTRU automatic clinic blood pressure monitor should be used as an adjunct to ABPM to effectively diagnose and monitor hypertension.Hypertension is a continuous, independent, yet modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular, cerebrovascular and renal disease. It has been estimated that 62% of cerebrovascular disease and 49% of ischemic heart disease can be attributed to suboptimal blood pressure(BP) control [1].Since 24 hour ambulatory blood pressure
Hungarian views of the Bunjevci in Habsburg times and the inter-war period
Weaver Eric Beckett
Balcanica , 2011, DOI: 10.2298/balc1142077w
Abstract: The status and image of minorities often depends not on their self-perceptions, but on the official stance taken by the state in which they live. While identity is commonly recognized as malleable and personal, the official status of minorities is couched in stiff scientific language claiming to be authoritative. But as polities change, these supposedly scientific categorizations of minorities also change. Based on academic reports and parliamentary decisions, in Hungary today the Catholic South Slavs known as Bunjevci are officially regarded as an obscure branch of the Croatian nation. This has not always been the case. Early records of the Bunjevci categorized them in a variety of ways, most commonly as Catholic Serbs, Dalmatians, and Illyrians. In the nineteenth century Bunjevac elites were able to project to the Hungarian public a mythological positive historical image of the Bunjevci, delineating them from the negative stereotypes of other South Slavs. This positive image, fixed in encyclopaedias and maintained until the Second World War, represented the Bunjevci as Catholic Serbs who (unlike Croats or Orthodox Serbs) were constantly faithful to the Hungarian state and eager to assimilate. In the 1920s and 1930s traditional Hungarian stereotypes of Bunjevci protected them from abuses suffered by other South Slavs. As political relations transformed, official views of the Bunjevci also changed. With the massive upheaval during and after the Second World War, there was a change in accounts of who the Bunjevci were. The transformation from communism and the break-up of Yugoslavia have also evoked demands for changes in identity from some Bunjevci, and brought new impositions of identity upon them.
The Effects of the Metacognitive Cue of Fluency on Evaluations about Taste Perception  [PDF]
Antonia Mantonakis, Bryan Galiffi, Ummugulsum Aysan, Randi Beckett
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2013.43A046

The metacognitive cue of fluency is known to affect consumers’ evaluations and judgments (Schwarz, 2004). We questioned whether this effect extends to perceived taste experiences, and whether knowledge moderates the effect of fluency on taste evaluations. Across 3 experiments we demonstrate that the metacognitive cue of fluency is used by consumers in evaluating their taste experiences. Whereas disfluent cues are associated with lower taste evaluations for a utilitarian product (Experiment 1), disfluent cues are associated with higher taste evaluations for a hedonic product, especially for knowledgeable consumers (Experiment 2), when compared to a no-label (control) condition. Fluency cues that are intrinsic to the product (e.g., ingredients) however do not have the same effect on judgment about hedonic products (Experiment 3). These findings are important for designing product labels.

Successful Conservative Management of Trimethoprim Induced Life-Threatening Hyperkalaemia in a Patient with Pneumocystis jirovecii Pneumonia  [PDF]
Jamie Johnstone, Andrew Macduff
Case Reports in Clinical Medicine (CRCM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/crcm.2014.38103

Co-trimoxazole is a combination antibiotic made up of trimethoprim and sulphamethoxazole that is first line treatment for Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP). Hyperkalaemia is a relatively common side effect of the trimethoprim component of co-trimoxazole but it is not well recognised by clinicians. The mechanism of action causing hyperkalaemia due to trimethoprim is similar to the potassium sparing diuretic effect of amiloride. It has been suggested on this basis that the hyperkalaemia can be reversed by the administration of furosemide and 0.9% saline to promote kaliuresis. We present what we believe to be the first published case of successfully managing trimethoprim induced hyperkalaemia with furosemide and 0.9% saline allowing the continued use of co-trimoxazole to treat severe PJP.

Mechanisms by which circadian rhythm disruption may lead to cancer
M. Beckett,L. C. Roden
South African Journal of Science , 2010, DOI: 10.4102/sajs.v105i11/12.125
Abstract: Humans have evolved in a rhythmic environment and display daily (circadian) rhythms in physiology, metabolism and behaviour that are in synchrony with the solar day. Modern lifestyles have compromised the exposure to bright light during the day and dark nights, resulting in the desynchronisation of endogenously generated circadian rhythms from the external environment and loss of coordination between rhythms within the body. This has detrimental effects on physical and mental health, due to the misregulation and uncoupling of important cellular and physiological processes. Long-term shift workers who are exposed to bright light at night experience the greatest disruption of their circadian rhythms. Studies have shown an association between exposure to light at night, circadian rhythm disruption and an increased risk of cancer. Previous reviews have explored the relevance of light and melatonin in cancer, but here we explore the correlation of circadian rhythm disruption and cancer in terms of molecular mechanisms affecting circadian gene expression and melatonin secretion.
Applying Quantification of Qualitative Verbal Data to Asynchronous Written Discourse  [PDF]
Jamie Costley, Seung Lock Han
Creative Education (CE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2013.412A1001
Abstract: As more and more universities start to implement online components, the need to build online learning communities grows. An important and widely used type of online community is the internet forum. Internet forums operate asynchronously and each member can create threads and reply to others threads. Examination of each member’s writings can give valuable insight into the online community and the learning that is taking place within. This paper systematizes a method for researchers to investigate discussions on online forums. More specifically this paper lays out an 8-step process that a researcher may follow when investigating discussions on online forums.
The trypanosomatid evolution workshop London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
Stevens, Jamie;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2000, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02762000000400011
Abstract: the trypanosome evolution workshop, a joint meeting of the university of exeter and the london school of hygiene and tropical medicine, focused on topics relating to trypanosomatid and vector evolution. the meeting, sponsored by the wellcome trust, the special programme for research and training in tropical disease of world health organization and the british section of the society of protozoologists, brought together an international group of experts who presented papers on a wide range of topics including parasite and vector phylogenies, molecular methodology and relevant biogeographical data.
Are Big Schools Bad Schools?: Measuring the Effects of the Number and Size of Schools on District Costs and Student Achievement
Jamie Steiner
JPUR : Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research , 2011,
Abstract: As state governments shrink their budgets, more school districts are debating consolidation. In considering school consolidation, governments must evaluate costs per pupil and student achievement. Factors associated with costs per pupil include schools per district, district enrollment, income per individual, percent of pupils eligible for free lunch, pupil-teacher ratio, and average teacher salary. Factors associated with achievement include school enrollment, percent of pupils eligible for free lunch, suspension/expulsion rates, pupil-teacher ratio, and average teacher salary. This paper presents a regression model that analyzes the effects of school enrollment and schools per district on costs per pupil and standardized test passing rates in Indiana elementary and secondary schools. This model employed data from the Indiana Department of Education and the U.S. Internal Revenue Service. The results showed that districts with more schools had higher costs per pupil and that a school’s enrollment had no significant effect on student achievement. In addition, the results suggest that school consolidation could cut costs while not necessarily lowering student achievement levels.
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