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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 343393 matches for " James S. Ball "
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High Energy Hadron-Nucleus Cross Sections and Their Extrapolation to Cosmic Ray Energies
James S. Ball,Anthony Pantziris
Physics , 1995, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.53.1224
Abstract: Old models of the scattering of composite systems based on the Glauber model of multiple diffraction are applied to hadron-nucleus scattering. We obtain an excellent fit with only two free parameters to the highest energy hadron-nucleus data available. Because of the quality of the fit and the simplicity of the model it is argued that it should continue to be reliable up to the highest cosmic ray energies. Logarithmic extrapolations of proton-proton and proton-antiproton data are used to calculate the proton-air cross sections at very high energy. Finally, it is observed that if the exponential behavior of the proton-antiproton diffraction peak continues into the few TeV energy range it will violate partial wave unitarity. We propose a simple modification that will guarantee unitarity throughout the cosmic ray energy region.
Classical Electrodynamics with Dual Potentials
M. Baker,James S. Ball,F. Zachariasen
Physics , 1994,
Abstract: We present Dirac's method for using dual potentials to solve classical electrodynamics for an oppositely charged pair of particles, with a view to extending these techniques to non-Abelian gauge theories.
Comparion of Lattice and Dual QCD Results for Heavy Quark Potentials
M. Baker,James S. Ball,F. Zachariasen
Physics , 1997, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.56.4400
Abstract: Lattice results and Dual QCD results for all heavy quark potentials through order (quark mass)^${-2}$ are exhibited and compared. The agreement on the whole is quite good, confirming the validity of Dual QCD. NOTE: (The only important change in this replaced version is that Figure 6 has been replotted, because the lattice data used in the original was in the wrong units.)
Experimental Study of the Effects of Submerged Dikes on the Energy and Momentum Coefficients in Compound Channel  [PDF]
Alireza Keshavarzi, Mehdi Valizadeh, James Ball
Engineering (ENG) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2010.211108
Abstract: This paper aims to understand the flow structure around submerged dike in the main channel and flood plain of a compound cross section. The study undertaken to develop this understanding was carried out in a laboratory flume using a submerged vane installed at a 90 degree angle to the bank. In order to study the flow structures, the flow velocity was measured using a three-dimensional Acoustic Doppler Velocity meter (micro-ADV) with data collection rate of 50 Hz. These flow velocity measurements were taken at 500 points on a regular grid. As the tests were undertaken with turbulent flow, these conditions were subcritical. Furthermore, all the tests were undertaken using a fixed bed. The results obtained showed that the momentum transfer and the kinetic energy reduced in two directions. Also the energy and momentum coefficients decreased significantly with the installation of the submerged vane inside the main channel. Finally, streamlines were found to deviate from the side walls of channel into the main channel.
Critical Statistical Charge for Anyonic Superconductivity
James Ball,Wei Chen
Physics , 1996, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.54.3499
Abstract: We examine a criterion for the anyonic superconductivity at zero temperature in Abelian matter-coupled Chern-Simons gauge field theories in three dimensions. By solving the Dyson-Schwinger equations, we obtain a critical value of the statistical charge for the superconducting phase in a massless fermion-Chern-Simons model.
Physical activity and dietary behaviors of health clinic workers trying to lose weight  [PDF]
Tan Leng Goh, Trever Ball, Janet M. Shaw, James C. Hannon
Health (Health) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/health.2012.48079
Abstract: Health clinic workers are potential agents of change for weight loss to patients, yet their behaviors are not well known. This study examined physical activity (PA) levels and dietary habits of health clinic workers who were and who were not trying to lose weight. Participants were 64 community health clinic workers (58 females and 6 males). Moderate-to-vigorous intensity (MVI) time spent in PA was assessed by triaxial accelerometry over 7 consecutive days. Dietary habits and weight loss efforts were determined by a food frequency questionnaire. Differences in MVI and nutrition variables were assessed by One-way ANOVA, comparing those trying to lose weight and those not trying to lose weight. 48 out of 64 health clinic workers (approximately 75%) indicated that they were currently trying to lose weight. There were significant differences (p < 0.05) in Body Mass Index (BMI), daily energy (Kcal) and fat (g) intake between those trying to lose weight and those not trying to lose weight. There were no significant differences in MVI, daily sugar intake (g), vegetable and fruit servings, and daily fiber intake (g) between groups. Health clinic workers trying to lose weight appear to be engaging in some appropriate dietary but not PA behaviors.
New Role, New Country: introducing US physician assistants to Scotland
James Buchan, Fiona O'May, Jane Ball
Human Resources for Health , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1478-4491-5-13
Abstract: The evidence base for the use of PAs is examined, and ways in which an established role in one health system (the USA) could be introduced to another country, where the role is "new" and unfamiliar, are explored.The history of the development of the PA role in the US also highlights a sometimes somewhat problematic relationship between P nursing profession. The paper highlights that the concept of the PA role as a 'dependent practitioner' is not well understood or developed in the NHS, where autonomous practice within regulated professions is the norm. In the PA model, responsibility is shared, but accountability rests with the supervising physician. Clarity of role definition, and engendering mutual respect based on fair treatment and effective management of multi-disciplinary teams will be pre-requisites for effective deployment of this new role in the NHS in Scotland.This paper draws from research commissioned by the Scottish Executive Health Department (SEHD). It assesses the role of US style physician assistants (PAs), as a precursor to planned "piloting" of the PA role within the National Health Service (NHS) in Scotland. As such, it reports on the evidence base for the use of PAs, and then discusses how an established role in one health system (the USA) could be introduced to another country, where the role was "new" and unfamiliar. For a comprehensive assessment and description of the development of the PA role in the USA, see the core text by Hooker and Cawley [1].The primary focus of the paper is to identify lessons for consideration during planning and implementation of the planned "pilot", when a small number of US trained and based PAs were to be recruited to work in the NHS in Scotland for a period of up to two years. The recruitment phase was completed in autumn 2006, with the PAs beginning work in the NHS. The pilot phase will be subject to independent evaluation, and the expectation is that, if successful, the training of PAs will then be introduced
Incompatible sets of gradients and metastability
J. M. Ball,R. D. James
Mathematics , 2014, DOI: 10.1007/s00205-015-0883-9
Abstract: We give a mathematical analysis of a concept of metastability induced by incompatibility. The physical setting is a single parent phase, just about to undergo transformation to a product phase of lower energy density. Under certain conditions of incompatibility of the energy wells of this energy density, we show that the parent phase is metastable in a strong sense, namely it is a local minimizer of the free energy in an $L^1$ neighbourhood of its deformation. The reason behind this result is that, due to the incompatibility of the energy wells, a small nucleus of the product phase is necessarily accompanied by a stressed transition layer whose energetic cost exceeds the energy lowering capacity of the nucleus. We define and characterize incompatible sets of matrices, in terms of which the transition layer estimate at the heart of the proof of metastability is expressed. Finally we discuss connections with experiment and place this concept of metastability in the wider context of recent theoretical and experimental research on metastability and hysteresis.
A Review on 1st and 2nd Generation Bioethanol Production-Recent Progress  [PDF]
Radhakumari Muktham, Suresh K. Bhargava, Satyavathi Bankupalli, Andrew S. Ball
Journal of Sustainable Bioenergy Systems (JSBS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jsbs.2016.63008
Abstract: Today’s society is based on the use of fossil resources for transportation fuels. The result of unlimited consumption of fossil fuels is a severe depletion of the natural reserves and damage to the environment. Depleting fossil reserves and increasing demand for energy together with environmental concerns have motivated researchers towards the development of alternative fuels which are eco-friendly, renewable and economical. Bioethanol is one such dominant global renewable transport biofuel which can readily substitute fossil fuels. Conventionally, bioethanol has been produced from sucrose and starch rich feedstocks (edible agricultural crops and products) known as 1st generation bioethanol; however this substrate conflicts with food and feed production. As an alternative to 1st generation bioethanol, currently there is much focus on advancing a cellulosic bioethanol concept that utilizes lignocellulosic residues from agricultural crops and residues (such as bagasse, straw, stover, stems, leaves and deoiled seed residues). Efficient conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into bioethanol remains an area of active research in terms of pretreatment of the biomass to fractionate its constituents (cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin), breakdown of cellulose and hemicellulose into hexose and pentose sugars and co-fermentation of the sugars to ethanol. The present review discusses research progress in bioethanol production from sucrose, starch and cellulosic feedstocks. Development of efficient technology to convert lignocellulosic biomass into fermentable sugars and optimization of enzymatic hydrolysis using on-site/ in-house enzyme preparation are the key areas of development in lignocellulosic bioethanol production. Moreover, finding efficient fermenting microorganisms which can utilize pentose and hexose sugars in their metabolism to produce ethanol together with minimum foam and glycerol formation is also an important parameter in fermentation. Research has been focusing on the application of genetically modified strains, thermoanaerobes and mixed cultures of different strains in bioethanol production from sucrose, starch and lignocellulosic feedstocks.
Development of a plasma panel radiation detector: recent progress and key issues
Yiftah Silver,Robert Ball,James R. Beene,Yan Benhammou,Meny Ben-Moshe,J. W. Chapman,Tiesheng Dai,Erez Etzion,Claudio Ferretti,Nir Guttman,Peter S. Friedman,Daniel S. Levin,S. Ritt,Robert L. Varner,Curtis Weaverdyck,Bing Zhou
Physics , 2012,
Abstract: A radiation detector based on plasma display panel technology, which is the principal component of plasma television displays is presented. Plasma Panel Sensor (PPS) technology is a variant of micropattern gas radiation detectors. The PPS is conceived as an array of sealed plasma discharge gas cells which can be used for fast response (O(5ns) per pixel), high spatial resolution detection (pixel pitch can be less than 100 micrometer) of ionizing and minimum ionizing particles. The PPS is assembled from non-reactive, intrinsically radiation-hard materials: glass substrates, metal electrodes and inert gas mixtures. We report on the PPS development program, including simulations and design and the first laboratory studies which demonstrate the usage of plasma display panels in measurements of cosmic ray muons, as well as the expansion of experimental results on the detection of betas from radioactive sources.
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