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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 21364 matches for " James Pearson "
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Distinguishing WV Quine and Donald Davidson
James Pearson
Journal for the History of Analytical Philosophy , 2011, DOI: 10.4148/jhap.v1i1.1293
Abstract: Given W.V. Quine’s and Donald Davidson’s extensive agreement about much of the philosophy of language and mind, and the obvious methodological parallels between Quine’s radical translation and Davidson’s radical interpretation, many—including Quine and Davidson—are puzzled by their occasional disagreements. I argue for the importance of attending to these disagreements, not just because doing so deepens our understanding of these influential thinkers, but because they are in fact the shadows thrown from two distinct conceptions of philosophical inquiry: Quine’s “naturalism” and what I call Davidson’s “humanism.” The clash between Quine and Davidson thus provides valuable insight into the history of analytic naturalism and its malcontents.
The Gromov-Lawson-Rosenberg conjecture for cocompact Fuchsian groups
James F. Davis,Kimberly Pearson
Mathematics , 2002,
Abstract: We prove the Gromov-Lawson-Rosenberg conjecture for cocompact Fuchsian groups, thereby giving necessary and sufficient conditions for a closed spin manifold of dimension greater than four with fundamental group cocompact Fuchsian to admit a metric of positive scalar curvature.
A comparison of the musculoskeletal assessments of the shoulder girdles of professional rugby players and professional soccer players
Horsley Ian G,Pearson James,Green Ann,Rolf Christer
Sports Medicine, Arthroscopy, Rehabilitation, Therapy & Technology , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1758-2555-4-32
Abstract: Objective To identify posture types that exist in professional rugby players, and compare them with a population of non-overhead athletes in order to identify possible relationships towards the potential for shoulder injuries. Design Observational design Setting: Sports Medicine Clinic Participants: Convenience sample Methodology: Static assessment of posture was carried out in standing, active and passive range of glenohumeral motion, and isometric strength was carried out in accordance with previously recorded protocols. Interventions Nil Outcome Measures: Observational classification of posture, active and passive range of glenohumeral joint range of motion, isometric strength of selected muscle groups, selected muscle flexibility and Hawkins and Neer impingement tests. Results There was a significant difference on range of motion between the two groups (0.025–0.000), isometric middle (0.024–0.005), and lower trapezius (0.01–0.001). Conclusion: There were significant differences between strength and flexibility of muscles around the shoulder girdle between professional rugby players and a control group of professional non-overhead athletes.
Bacterial Hash Function Using DNA-Based XOR Logic Reveals Unexpected Behavior of the LuxR Promoter
Brianna Pearson,Kin H. Lau,Alicia Allen,James Barron
Interdisciplinary Bio Central , 2011,
Abstract: Introduction: Hash functions are computer algorithms that protect information and secure transactions. In response to the NIST’s "International Call for Hash Function”, we developed a biological hash function using the computing capabilities of bacteria. We designed a DNA-based XOR logic gate that allows bacterial colonies arranged in a series on an agar plate to perform hash function calculations. Results and Discussion: In order to provide each colony with adequate time to process inputs and perform XOR logic, we designed and successfully demonstrated a system for time-delayed bacterial growth. Our system is based on the diffusion of -lactamase, resulting in destruction of ampicillin. Our DNA-based XOR logic gate design is based on the opposition of two promoters. Our results showed that Plux and POmpC functioned as expected individually, but Plux did not behave as expected in the XOR construct. Our data showed that, contrary to literature reports, the Plux promoter is bidirectional. In the absence of the 3OC6 inducer, the LuxR activator can bind to the Plux promoter and induce backwards transcription. Conclusion and Prospects: Our system of time delayed bacterial growth allows for the successive processing of a bacterial hash function, and is expected to have utility in other synthetic biology applications. While testing our DNA-based XOR logic gate, we uncovered a novel function of Plux. In the absence of autoinducer 3OC6, LuxR binds to Plux and activates backwards transcription. This result advances basic research and has important implications for the widespread use of the Plux promoter.
Value distribution and spectral theory of Schrodinger operators with L^2-sparse potentials
S. V. Breimesser,James D. E. Grant,D. B. Pearson
Mathematics , 2002, DOI: 10.1016/S0377-0427(02)00587-3
Abstract: We apply the methods of value distribution theory to the spectral asymptotics of Schrodinger operators with L^2-sparse potentials.
Cross-kingdom patterns of alternative splicing and splice recognition
Abigail M McGuire, Matthew D Pearson, Daniel E Neafsey, James E Galagan
Genome Biology , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/gb-2008-9-3-r50
Abstract: All eukaryotes we studied exhibit RIs, which appear more frequently than previously thought. CEs are also present in all kingdoms and most of the organisms in our analysis. We observe that the ratio of CEs to RIs varies substantially among kingdoms, while the ratio of competing 3' acceptor and competing 5' donor sites remains nearly constant. In addition, we find the ratio of CEs to RIs in each organism correlates with the length of its introns. In all 14 fungi we examined, as well as in most of the 9 protists, RIs far outnumber CEs. This differs from the trend seen in 13 multicellular animals, where CEs occur much more frequently than RIs. The six plants we analyzed exhibit intermediate proportions of CEs and RIs.Our results suggest that most extant eukaryotes are capable of recognizing splice sites via both ID and ED, although ED is most common in multicellular animals and ID predominates in fungi and most protists.Intron splicing occurs in all domains of life, but the splicing methods employed and the frequencies of splicing vary among organisms. Bacteria and archaea lack the spliceosomal pathway and splice infrequently via self-splicing introns. Among unicellular eukaryotes, there is substantial range in splicing frequency [1,2]. Many early-branching eukaryotes, including the protists Giardia, Cryptosporidia, Trypanosoma, Entamoeba, and Trichomonas, have few or no introns. Only 5% of genes are spliced in Saccharomyces cerevisiae [3], a yeast, while the average number of introns per gene among other fungi is generally low (with a few noteworthy exceptions). Their average intron density ranges from just over one in Schizosaccharomyces pombe to approximately five in Cryptococcus neoformans [4]. Protists have similarly low rates of splicing. In contrast, multicellular animals often have large numbers of introns (over seven per gene in vertebrates), while plants have intermediate numbers of introns (approximately four per gene in Oryza sativa and Arabidopsis thaliana
SplicerAV: a tool for mining microarray expression data for changes in RNA processing
Timothy J Robinson, Michaela A Dinan, Mark Dewhirst, Mariano A Garcia-Blanco, James L Pearson
BMC Bioinformatics , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2105-11-108
Abstract: Data from these and other gene expression microarrays can now be mined for changes in transcript isoform abundance using a program described here, SplicerAV. Using in vivo and in vitro breast cancer microarray datasets, SplicerAV was able to perform both gene and isoform specific expression profiling within the same microarray dataset. Our reanalysis of Affymetrix U133 plus 2.0 data generated by in vitro over-expression of HRAS, E2F3, beta-catenin (CTNNB1), SRC, and MYC identified several hundred oncogene-induced mRNA isoform changes, one of which recognized a previously unknown mechanism of EGFR family activation. Using clinical data, SplicerAV predicted 241 isoform changes between low and high grade breast tumors; with changes enriched among genes coding for guanyl-nucleotide exchange factors, metalloprotease inhibitors, and mRNA processing factors. Isoform changes in 15 genes were associated with aggressive cancer across the three breast cancer datasets.Using SplicerAV, we identified several hundred previously uncharacterized isoform changes induced by in vitro oncogene over-expression and revealed a previously unknown mechanism of EGFR activation in human mammary epithelial cells. We analyzed Affymetrix GeneChip data from over 400 human breast tumors in three independent studies, making this the largest clinical dataset analyzed for en masse changes in alternative mRNA processing. The capacity to detect RNA isoform changes in archival microarray data using SplicerAV allowed us to carry out the first analysis of isoform specific mRNA changes directly associated with cancer survival.The key postulate that one gene encodes one polypeptide chain (one enzyme) has been overhauled with the discovery that one gene can generate multiple RNA transcripts (and indirectly many different polypeptide chains) through a process referred to as alternative mRNA processing [1]. Alternative processing defines a range of events, including alternative splicing and alternative polyaden
Do computerised clinical decision support systems for prescribing change practice? A systematic review of the literature (1990-2007)
Sallie-Anne Pearson, Annette Moxey, Jane Robertson, Isla Hains, Margaret Williamson, James Reeve, David Newby
BMC Health Services Research , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6963-9-154
Abstract: We searched Medline, Embase and PsychINFO for publications from 1990-2007 detailing CDSS prescribing interventions. Pairs of independent reviewers extracted the key features and prescribing outcomes of methodologically adequate studies (experiments and strong quasi-experiments).56 studies met our inclusion criteria, 38 addressing initiating, 23 monitoring and three stopping therapy. At the time of initiating therapy, CDSSs appear to be somewhat more effective after, rather than before, drug selection has occurred (7/12 versus 12/26 studies reporting statistically significant improvements in favour of CDSSs on = 50% of prescribing outcomes reported). CDSSs also appeared to be effective for monitoring therapy, particularly using laboratory test reminders (4/7 studies reporting significant improvements in favour of CDSSs on the majority of prescribing outcomes). None of the studies addressing stopping therapy demonstrated impacts in favour of CDSSs over comparators. The most consistently effective approaches used system-initiated advice to fine-tune existing therapy by making recommendations to improve patient safety, adjust the dose, duration or form of prescribed drugs or increase the laboratory testing rates for patients on long-term therapy. CDSSs appeared to perform better in institutional compared to ambulatory settings and when decision support was initiated automatically by the system as opposed to user initiation. CDSSs implemented with other strategies such as education were no more successful in improving prescribing than stand alone interventions. Cardiovascular disease was the most studied clinical target but few studies demonstrated significant improvements on the majority of prescribing outcomes.Our understanding of CDSS impacts on specific aspects of the prescribing process remains relatively limited. Future implementation should build on effective approaches including the use of system-initiated advice to address safety issues and improve the monitorin
Neglected Tropical Diseases of Oceania: Review of Their Prevalence, Distribution, and Opportunities for Control
Kevin Kline,James S. McCarthy,Mark Pearson,Alex Loukas,Peter J. Hotez
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001755
Abstract: Among Oceania's population of 35 million people, the greatest number living in poverty currently live in Papua New Guinea (PNG), Fiji, Vanuatu, and the Solomon Islands. These impoverished populations are at high risk for selected NTDs, including Necator americanus hookworm infection, strongyloidiasis, lymphatic filariasis (LF), balantidiasis, yaws, trachoma, leprosy, and scabies, in addition to outbreaks of dengue and other arboviral infections including Japanese encephalitis virus infection. PNG stands out for having the largest number of cases and highest prevalence for most of these NTDs. However, Australia's Aboriginal population also suffers from a range of significant NTDs. Through the Pacific Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis, enormous strides have been made in eliminating LF in Oceania through programs of mass drug administration (MDA), although LF remains widespread in PNG. There are opportunities to scale up MDA for PNG's major NTDs, which could be accomplished through an integrated package that combines albendazole, ivermectin, diethylcarbamazine, and azithromycin, in a program of national control. Australia's Aboriginal population may benefit from appropriately integrated MDA into primary health care systems. Several emerging viral NTDs remain important threats to the region.
Continuous Monitoring of Turning in Patients with Movement Disability
Mahmoud El-Gohary,Sean Pearson,James McNames,Martina Mancini,Fay Horak,Sabato Mellone,Lorenzo Chiari
Sensors , 2014, DOI: 10.3390/s140100356
Abstract: Difficulty with turning is a major contributor to mobility disability and falls in people with movement disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease (PD). Turning often results in freezing and/or falling in patients with PD. However, asking a patient to execute a turn in the clinic often does not reveal their impairments. Continuous monitoring of turning with wearable sensors during spontaneous daily activities may help clinicians and patients determine who is at risk of falls and could benefit from preventative interventions. In this study, we show that continuous monitoring of natural turning with wearable sensors during daily activities inside and outside the home is feasible for people with PD and elderly people. We developed an algorithm to detect and characterize turns during gait, using wearable inertial sensors. First, we validate the turning algorithm in the laboratory against a Motion Analysis system and against a video analysis of 21 PD patients and 19 control (CT) subjects wearing an inertial sensor on the pelvis. Compared to Motion Analysis and video, the algorithm maintained a sensitivity of 0.90 and 0.76 and a specificity of 0.75 and 0.65, respectively. Second, we apply the turning algorithm to data collected in the home from 12 PD and 18 CT subjects. The algorithm successfully detects turn characteristics, and the results show that, compared to controls, PD subjects tend to take shorter turns with smaller turn angles and more steps. Furthermore, PD subjects show more variability in all turn metrics throughout the day and the week.
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