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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 21242 matches for " James Mills "
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A combined GIS and stereo vision approach to identify building pixels in images and determine appropriate color terms
Philip James Bartie,Femke Reitsma,Steven Mills
Journal of Spatial Information Science , 2011,
Abstract: Color information is a useful attribute to include in a building's description to assist the listener in identifying the intended target. Often this information is only available as image data, and not readily accessible for use in constructing referring expressions for verbal communication. The method presented uses a GIS building polygon layer in conjunction with street-level captured imagery to provide a method to automatically filter foreground objects and select pixels which correspond to building facades. These selected pixels are then used to define the most appropriate color term for the building, and corresponding fuzzy color term histogram. The technique uses a single camera capturing images at a high frame rate, with the baseline distance between frames calculated from a GPS speed log. The expected distance from the camera to the building is measured from the polygon layer and refined from the calculated depth map, after which building pixels are selected. In addition significant foreground planar surfaces between the known road edge and building facade are identified as possible boundary walls and hedges. The output is a dataset of the most appropriate color terms for both the building and boundary walls. Initial trials demonstrate the usefulness of the technique in automatically capturing color terms for buildings in urban regions.
Patterned Nanofoam Fabrication from a Variety of Materials via Femtosecond Laser Pulses  [PDF]
James A. Grant-Jacob, Benita S. Mackay, James A. G. Baker, Yunhui Xie, Michael D. T. McDonnell, Daniel J. Health, Matthew Praeger, Robert W. Eason, Ben Mills
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2019.103015
Abstract: High-repetition-rate femtosecond lasers enable the precise production of nanofoam from a wide range of materials. Here, the laser-based fabrication of nanofoam from silicon, borosilicate glass, sodalime glass, gallium lanthanum sulphide and lithium niobate is demonstrated, where the pore size of the nanofoam is shown to depend strongly on the material used, such that the pore width and nanofibre width appear to increase with density and thermal expansion coefficient of the material. In addition, the patterning of nanofoam on a glass slide, with fabricated pattern pixel resolution of ~35 μm, is demonstrated.
A Rapid Method of Assessing the Photocatalytic Activity of Thin Films Using an Ink Based on the Redox Dye 2,6-Dichloroindophenol
Andrew Mills,Mark McGrady,Jishun Wang,James Hepburn
International Journal of Photoenergy , 2008, DOI: 10.1155/2008/504945
Abstract: An indicator ink based on the redox dye 2,6-dichloroindophenol (DCIP) is described, which allows the rapid assessment of the activity of thin, commercial photocatalytic films, such as Activ. The ink works via a photoreductive mechanism, DCIP being reduced to dihydro-DCIP within ca. 7.5 minutes exposure to UVA irradiation of moderate intensity (ca. 4.8 mW cm?2). The kinetics of photoreduction are found to be independent of the level of dye present in the ink formulation, but are highly sensitive to the level of glycerol. This latter observation may be associated with a solvatochromic effect, whereby the microenvironment in which the dye finds itself and, as a consequence, its reactivity is altered significantly by small changes in the glycerol content. The kinetics of photoreduction also appear linearly dependent on the UVA light intensity with an observed quantum efficiency of ca. 1.8×10?3.
Conflict and health: a paradigm shift in global health and human rights
Sonal Singh, James J Orbinski, Edward J Mills
Conflict and Health , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1752-1505-1-1
Abstract: War is one of the world's most serious threats to health. The lives of millions around the world are caught between the vicious spiral of violent conflict and poor health. Health professionals around the world have been participating in the emerging discipline of health and human rights [4]. They have attempted to tackle some of these issues through advocacy and participation in global health challenges such as access to medicines for HIV and other neglected diseases [5]. Although intuitively appealing, the legal complexities of health and human rights principles, and poorly formulated evidence in advancing the cause of global health, have reduced human rights arguments to lofty ideals that are widely quoted in academic circles but seldom implemented. The forces of globalization responsible for the spread of some of the advances of the last century have raised discontent among people around the world on several important issues. It is not a coincidence that nations that endure some of the most violent and protracted conflicts also suffer some of the worst health indicators [6]. It is also not a coincidence that, for example, trade rules, increased economic globalization, and a lack of evidence-based interventions have impacted both positively and negatively on the ability of countries to respond to the HIV/AIDS pandemic and other disease conditions [7].Health professionals, and most current medical journals barring a few exceptions – The Lancet, PLoS Medicine, BMC International Health and Human Rights – have been effectively neutral in the debate on why the health of the majority of the world's population continues to wane while failing to meet its full potential. We believe health professionals have a duty to report on health and human rights among vulnerable populations.One of the most controversial issues within the humanitarian community is the use of evidence to inform humanitarian responses. Data collection is one of the areas of humanitarianism that has the m
Hantavirus del nuevo mundo: Ecología y epidemiología de un virus emergente en latinoamérica The New-World Hantaviruses: Ecology and epidemiology of an emerging virus in Latin America
Henry Puerta,César Cantillo,James Mills,Brian Hjelle
Medicina (Buenos Aires) , 2006,
Abstract: Los hantavirus son un grupo de patógenos emergentes (familia Bunyaviridae; género Hantavirus) identificados como agentes etiológicos de la Fiebre Hemorrágica con Síndrome Renal (FHSR) en Europa y Asia y el Síndrome Cardiopulmonar por Hantavirus (SCPH) en las Américas. La FHSR está relacionada con roedores de las subfamilias Murinae y Arvicolinae y el SCPH con roedores de las subfamilias Sigmodontinae y Arvicolinae. Desde la identificación del SCPH en los EE.UU. en 1993, muchos casos de SCPH y un número cada vez mayor de hantavirus y sus roedores reservorios han sido identificados en Centro y Sud América. Estudios epidemiológicos han demostrado diferencias notables en las seroprevalencias de anticuerpos en humanos y roedores reservorios que oscilan entre el 1% y más del 40%. Hasta ahora han sido notificados en toda América más de 1500 casos de SCPH y aproximadamente más de 15 variantes de hantavirus genética y serológicamente distintos asociados a roedores sigmodontinos. Las formas clínicas leves-autolimitadas, moderadas y graves de la enfermedad, los antecedentes de transmisión persona a persona y una incidencia mayor de manifestaciones clínicas extrapulmonares que se diferencian de la enfermedad clásica descrita por primera vez en EE.UU., son aspectos importantes sobre la epidemiología de los hantavirus y el SCPH en Latinoamérica; sin embargo, la historia completa de los hantavirus está aún por escribirse, debido a la naturaleza dinámica de estos virus y sus patologías, y a la complejidad de los factores que intervienen en su aparición, establecimiento y diseminación en poblaciones humanas y animales. Latinoamérica continúa representando la porción del continente con una oportunidad única y desafiante para el estudio de la relación de los hantavirus con sus huéspedes reservorios naturales y las interacciones virus-roedor-humano. Probablemente más hantavirus podrían ser descritos en el futuro, y serían necesarios más datos para entender su diversidad y evolución. The hantaviruses are a group of emerging rodent-borne pathogens (family Bunyaviridae; Genus Hantavirus) that are etiologic agents for hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Europe and Asia and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) in the Americas. HFRS is associated with rodents of the family Muridae, subfamilies Murinae and Arvicolinae; HPS is associated with rodents of the subfamily Sigmodontinae. Since the identification of HCPS in USA in 1993, a large number of cases of HPS and an increasing number of hantaviruses and rodent reservoir hosts have been identified in Central and S
Laser-Based Fabrication of Nanofoam inside a Hollow Capillary  [PDF]
Alexander F. Courtier, James A. Grant-Jacob, Rand Ismaeel, Daniel J. Heath, Gilberto Brambilla, William J. Stewart, Robert W. Eason, Ben Mills
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2017.812060
Abstract: Highly porous nanofoam can be fabricated via multiphoton ablation of a material by raster-scanning femtosecond laser pulses over the material surface. Here, we show the fabrication of nanofoam on the inside surface of a hollow silica capillary that has an inner and outer diameter of 640 and 700 μm respectively. A thin layer of nanofoam was fabricated over ~70% of the inner surface of the capillary. Ray-tracing simulations were used to determine the positional corrections required to account for refraction on the curved surface and also to explain the inability to fabricate nanofoam on the side walls of the capillary.
Evaluation of common genetic variants in 82 candidate genes as risk factors for neural tube defects
Pangilinan Faith,Molloy Anne M,Mills James L,Troendle James F
BMC Medical Genetics , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2350-13-62
Abstract: Background Neural tube defects (NTDs) are common birth defects (~1 in 1000 pregnancies in the US and Europe) that have complex origins, including environmental and genetic factors. A low level of maternal folate is one well-established risk factor, with maternal periconceptional folic acid supplementation reducing the occurrence of NTD pregnancies by 50-70%. Gene variants in the folate metabolic pathway (e.g., MTHFR rs1801133 (677 C > T) and MTHFD1 rs2236225 (R653Q)) have been found to increase NTD risk. We hypothesized that variants in additional folate/B12 pathway genes contribute to NTD risk. Methods A tagSNP approach was used to screen common variation in 82 candidate genes selected from the folate/B12 pathway and NTD mouse models. We initially genotyped polymorphisms in 320 Irish triads (NTD cases and their parents), including 301 cases and 341 Irish controls to perform case–control and family based association tests. Significantly associated polymorphisms were genotyped in a secondary set of 250 families that included 229 cases and 658 controls. The combined results for 1441 SNPs were used in a joint analysis to test for case and maternal effects. Results Nearly 70 SNPs in 30 genes were found to be associated with NTDs at the p < 0.01 level. The ten strongest association signals (p-value range: 0.0003–0.0023) were found in nine genes (MFTC, CDKN2A, ADA, PEMT, CUBN, GART, DNMT3A, MTHFD1 and T (Brachyury)) and included the known NTD risk factor MTHFD1 R653Q (rs2236225). The single strongest signal was observed in a new candidate, MFTC rs17803441 (OR = 1.61 [1.23-2.08], p = 0.0003 for the minor allele). Though nominally significant, these associations did not remain significant after correction for multiple hypothesis testing. Conclusions To our knowledge, with respect to sample size and scope of evaluation of candidate polymorphisms, this is the largest NTD genetic association study reported to date. The scale of the study and the stringency of correction are likely to have contributed to real associations failing to survive correction. We have produced a ranked list of variants with the strongest association signals. Variants in the highest rank of associations are likely to include true associations and should be high priority candidates for further study of NTD risk.
Ramifications Associated with Child Abuse  [PDF]
Hannah Mills, Elizabeth McCarroll
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2012.24036
Abstract: The incidence of child abuse has become quite prevalent and may be referred to as a global phenomenon (Pala, Unalacak, & Unluoglu, 2011). In terms of a global phenomenon, it may be significant to assess negative ramifications that are in existence for children’s overall social, emotional, and cognitive maturation (DeOliveira, Bailey, Moran, & Pederson, 2004). Specifically, preschool children who are abused within their home environments are less likely to detect variations in emotional expressions as compared to preschoolers who have not been abused (Pollak, Cicchetti, Hornung, & Reed, 2000). In regards to the domain of cognitive development, children who are reared in abusive home environments are likely to display overactive behaviors and exhibit less concentration (Schatz, Smith, Borkowski, Whitman, & Keogh, 2008). In relation, children reared in abusive environments are less likely to perform at high levels in regards to their math and reading abilities (Crozer & Barth, 2005). Thus, the act of child abuse may also be better well understood by assessing parenting styles and how they play a role with affecting the type of behaviors they elicit towards their children (Baumrind, 1994). For instance, specific traits or factors related to individuals’ parenting abilities, such as stress, depression, domestic violence, incarceration, and psychological difficulties may be more likely to abuse their children as opposed to parents who do not obtain these traits or factors (Nair, Schular, Black, Kettinger, & Harrington, 2003). Implications in regards to the prevalence of child abuse may be quite significant, especially considering psychological ramifications that may surface due to the act of children’s exposure to abuse (Johnson et al., 2002). For instance, children may be more likely to suppress, or internalize their emotions due to the exposure to child abuse and they may be more likely to externalize, or exhibit certain behaviors in an outward fashion towards others due to the immersion within environments comprised of child abuse (Schatz, Smith, Borkowski, Whitman, & Keogh, 2008). Furthermore, professionals who obtain the knowledge about child abuse may better serve families and children who have experienced abuse within their lives.
Use of an In-Class Sensory Activity Schedule for a Student with Autism: Critical Case Study  [PDF]
Caroline Mills, Christine Chapparo
Creative Education (CE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2016.77102
Abstract: Many students with autism and intellectual disability demonstrate atypical sensory behaviours which impact on their schooling. Few studies provide empirical support for teachers using planned sensory activities in special education classrooms. Aim: To determine whether a classroom based Sensory Activity Schedule (SAS) improves behavioural outcomes for one student with ASD who demonstrated atypical sensory processing and associated challenging behaviour. Methods: Critical case study methods were used to describe changes in the frequency of challenging behaviour “incidents” recorded for one eight year old student with autism over one school term during implementation of a Sensory Activity Schedule. Results: There was a reduction in the reported frequency of challenging behaviour incidents which were associated with sensory triggers over one school term. Conclusion: When applied with caution, in context, and with appropriate training, a Sensory Activity Schedule was associated with a reduction in challenging behaviour incidents for one student with autism during classroom activities.
Pandemic Influenza: Risk of Multiple Introductions and the Need to Prepare for Them
Christina E Mills,James M Robins,Carl T Bergstrom,Marc Lipsitch
PLOS Medicine , 2006, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0030135
Abstract:
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