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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 416512 matches for " James M. Raymo "
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Marital Dissolution in Japan: Recent Trends and Patterns
James M. Raymo,Larry Bumpass,Miho Iwasawa
Demographic Research , 2004,
Abstract: Very little is known about recent trends in divorce in Japan. In this paper, we use Japanese vital statistics and census data to describe trends in the experience of marital dissolution across the life course, and to examine change over time in educational differentials in divorce. Cumulative probabilities of marital dissolution have increased rapidly across successive marriage cohorts over the past twenty years, and synthetic period estimates suggest that roughly one-third of Japanese marriages are now likely to end in divorce. Estimates of educational differentials also indicate a rapid increase in the extent to which divorce is concentrated at lower levels of education. While educational differentials were negligible in 1980, by 2000, women who had not gone beyond high school were far more likely to be divorced than those with more education.
Educational Differences in Divorce in Japan
James M. Raymo,Setsuya Fukuda,Miho Iwasawa
Demographic Research , 2013,
Abstract: BACKGROUND Evidence of a negative relationship between educational attainment and divorce in Japan is not consistent with predictions derived from standard theoretical emphases on the costs of divorce. OBJECTIVE Using marital history data from a cross-sectional survey, we estimated educational differences in divorce for two marriage cohorts: 1980-89 and 1990-2005. We also used 14 years of panel survey data to evaluate four possible explanations for the observed negative educational gradient. RESULTS Our results confirmed that educational attainment is inversely related to divorce in Japan, and showed that, in contrast to some previous findings, the negative relationship between women's education and divorce has not become stronger in recent years. Analyses of the panel data provided some support for hypotheses that focused on the role of economic strain and on cultural values regarding reputation or "face," but they also showed that the negative relationship between education and divorce remained strong even after controlling for a range of posited correlates. CONCLUSIONS Our failure to solve the theoretical puzzle motivating these analyses suggests that other types of contextual modification to standard theories of family change are required to explain the strong negative relationship between educational attainment and divorce in Japan. We discussed possible examples of such modifications, focusing on the patterns of selection into marriage and the central importance of investment in children's educational success in Japan's highly competitive educational system, while also offering more nuanced theorization regarding the role of reputation or "face".
Photoactivatable Fluorophores
Françisco M. Raymo
ISRN Physical Chemistry , 2012, DOI: 10.5402/2012/619251
Re-evaluation of the age model for North Atlantic Ocean Site 982 – arguments for a return to the original chronology
K. T. Lawrence,I. Bailey,M. E. Raymo
Climate of the Past Discussions , 2013, DOI: 10.5194/cpd-9-2217-2013
Abstract: Recently, the veracity of the published chronology for the Pliocene section of North Atlantic Ocean Drilling Program Site 982 was called into question. Here, we examine the robustness of the original age model as well as the proposed age model revision. The proposed revision is predicated on an apparent mis-identification of the depth to the Gauss-Matuyama (G/M) polarity chronozone reversal boundary (2.581 Ma) based on preliminary shipboard paleomagnetic data and offers a new chronology which includes a hiatus between ~ 3.2 and 3 Ma. However, an even more accurate shore-based, u-channel-derived polarity chronozone stratigraphy for the past ~ 2.7 Ma supports the shipboard composite stratigraphy and demonstrates that the original estimate of the depth of the G/M reversal in the Site 982 record is correct. Thus, the main justification forwarded to support the revised chronology is not valid. We demonstrate that the proposed revision results in a pronounced anomaly in sedimentation rates proximal to the proposed hiatus, erroneous assignment of marine-isotope stages in the Site 982 Pliocene benthic stable oxygen isotope stratigraphy, and a markedly worse correlation of proxy records between this site and other regional paleoclimate data. We conclude that the original chronology for Site 982 is a far more accurate age-model than that which arises from the published revision. We strongly recommend the use of the original chronology for all future work at Site 982.
Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer in Quantum Dot-Protein Kinase Assemblies
Ibrahim Yildiz,Xinxin Gao,Thomas K. Harris,Fran isco M. Raymo
Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology , 2007, DOI: 10.1155/2007/18081
Abstract: In search of viable strategies to identify selective inhibitors of protein kinases, we have designed a binding assay to probe the interactions of human phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1) with potential ligands. Our protocol is based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) and organic dyes. Specifically, we have expressed and purified the catalytic kinase domain of PDK1 with an N-terminal histidine tag [His6-PDK1(ΔPH)]. We have conjugated this construct to CdSe-ZnS core-shell QDs coated with dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA) and tested the response of the resulting assembly to a molecular dyad incorporating an ATP ligand and a BODIPY chromophore. The supramolecular association of the BODIPY-ATP dyad with the His6-PDK1(ΔPH)-QD assembly encourages the transfer of energy from the QDs to the BODIPY dyes upon excitation. The addition of ATP results in the displacement of BODIPY-ATP from the binding domain of the His6-PDK1(ΔPH) conjugated to the nanoparticles. The competitive binding, however, does not prevent the energy transfer process. A control experiment with QDs, lacking the His6-PDK1(ΔPH), indicates that the BODIPY-ATP dyad adsorbs nonspecifically on the surface of the nanoparticles, promoting the transfer of energy from the CdSe core to the adsorbed BODIPY dyes. Thus, the implementation of FRET-based assays to probe the binding domain of PDK1 with luminescent QDs requires the identification of energy acceptors unable to interact nonspecifically with the surface of the nanoparticles.
Target atmospheric CO2: Supporting material
J. Hansen,M. Sato,P. Kharecha,D. Beerling,R. Berner,V. Masson-Delmotte,M. Pagani,M. Raymo,D. L. Royer,J. C. Zachos
Physics , 2008, DOI: 10.2174/1874282300802010217
Abstract: Additional material supporting the article "Target atmospheric CO2: Where should humanity aim?"
Sustainable Tourism and Management for Coral Reefs: Preserving Diversity and Plurality in a Time of Climate Change  [PDF]
M. James C. Crabbe
Journal of Service Science and Management (JSSM) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jssm.2010.32031
Abstract: Coral reefs throughout the world are under severe challenges from a variety of anthropogenic and environmental factors. In a period of climate change, where mobility and tourism are under threat, it is useful to demonstrate the value of eco- and research-tourism to individuals and to cultures, and how diversity and pluralism in sustainable environments may be preserved. Here we identify the ways in which organisations use research tourism to benefit ecosystem diversity and conservation, show how an Earthwatch project has produced scientific information on the fringing reefs of North Jamaica, and how a capacity-building programme in Belize developed specific action plans for ecotourism. We discuss how implementation of those plans can help research tourism and preserve ecosystem diversity in times of climate change.
Metapopulations and the Sinai Baton Blue (Pseudophilotes sinaicus Nakamura): an introduction
M James
Egyptian Journal of Biology , 2006,
Immigration and emigration in the Sinai Baton Blue butterfly: estimates from a single patch
M James
Egyptian Journal of Biology , 2006,
Abstract: The movement of individuals among patches of suitable habitat is a key process in metapopulation biology, but is very difficult to observe under natural conditions. Thus, many estimates of rates of movement are indirect and incomplete, and there is little empirical knowledge of the factors affecting immigration and emigration. I studied intensively a local population of Sinai Baton Blue butterflies in a discrete habitat patch. The study lasted the entire adult flight period, and involved almost every individual in the local population. Using these data I attempted to estimate the number of immigrants and emigrants, and identified an important factor affecting inter-patch movement. Early in the season, individuals were resident in the study patch for only a very short time; I assumed this was because they were emigrating, and thus estimated that at least 14% of the population emerging in the study patch emigrated. I assumed that butterflies not caught until they were relatively old, had immigrated to the patch (rather than being missed at a young age), and thus estimated that 13% of the population caught in the patch was composed of immigrants, most of which were females. Individuals assumed to be immigrants arrived in the patch throughout the adult flight period, but older individuals generally arrived later in the season. Timing of migration was almost certainly linked to phenology of the butterfly’s only hostplant, Sinai Thyme. Most butterflies remained in their natal patch. The degree of inter-patch movement estimated using this method was consistent with other metapopulation studies, and would suffice for this species to exist as a metapopulation.
Intra-patch movement in the Sinai Baton Blue butterfly: influence of micro-habitat and individual characteristics
M James
Egyptian Journal of Biology , 2006,
Abstract: Dispersal is a key process in metapopulation biology. The transfer of individuals among patches of suitable habitat has been widely studied, and rates of movement and the factors influencing these investigated. However, relatively few metapopulation studies have examined movement of individuals within a patch of habitat, and none of these have related intra-patch movement to inter-patch movement (dispersal). The intra-patch movement of a narrowly endemic butterfly Pseudophilotes sinaicus (Lycaenidae) that exists in a metapopulation structure was studied. It was found to be extremely sedentary, rarely moving more than 40 m in or between days, and occupying a very small area during its residency of the study patch. Its level of movement (distance between sightings) and the factors affecting this depended on its sex, and was primarily determined by the density of conspecifics in its immediate vicinity. Other factors also influenced movement, notably the phenology and size of hostplants in an individual’s immediate vicinity. Responding to these variables in a predictable way can be regarded as strategies enabling the butterfly to locate mates, food, and oviposition sites, and to escape resource depletion, and intraspecific competitors. These behavioural patterns are similar to mechanisms involved in dispersal of individuals among patches of habitat in fragmented landscapes.
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