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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 417003 matches for " James M. Kilner "
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Topological inference for EEG and MEG
James M. Kilner,Karl J. Friston
Statistics , 2010, DOI: 10.1214/10-AOAS337
Abstract: Neuroimaging produces data that are continuous in one or more dimensions. This calls for an inference framework that can handle data that approximate functions of space, for example, anatomical images, time--frequency maps and distributed source reconstructions of electromagnetic recordings over time. Statistical parametric mapping (SPM) is the standard framework for whole-brain inference in neuroimaging: SPM uses random field theory to furnish $p$-values that are adjusted to control family-wise error or false discovery rates, when making topological inferences over large volumes of space. Random field theory regards data as realizations of a continuous process in one or more dimensions. This contrasts with classical approaches like the Bonferroni correction, which consider images as collections of discrete samples with no continuity properties (i.e., the probabilistic behavior at one point in the image does not depend on other points). Here, we illustrate how random field theory can be applied to data that vary as a function of time, space or frequency. We emphasize how topological inference of this sort is invariant to the geometry of the manifolds on which data are sampled. This is particularly useful in electromagnetic studies that often deal with very smooth data on scalp or cortical meshes. This application illustrates the versatility and simplicity of random field theory and the seminal contributions of Keith Worsley (1951--2009), a key architect of topological inference.
Bayesian Comparison of Neurovascular Coupling Models Using EEG-fMRI
Maria J. Rosa ,James M. Kilner,Will D. Penny
PLOS Computational Biology , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002070
Abstract: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), with blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) contrast, is a widely used technique for studying the human brain. However, it is an indirect measure of underlying neuronal activity and the processes that link this activity to BOLD signals are still a topic of much debate. In order to relate findings from fMRI research to other measures of neuronal activity it is vital to understand the underlying neurovascular coupling mechanism. Currently, there is no consensus on the relative roles of synaptic and spiking activity in the generation of the BOLD response. Here we designed a modelling framework to investigate different neurovascular coupling mechanisms. We use Electroencephalographic (EEG) and fMRI data from a visual stimulation task together with biophysically informed mathematical models describing how neuronal activity generates the BOLD signals. These models allow us to non-invasively infer the degree of local synaptic and spiking activity in the healthy human brain. In addition, we use Bayesian model comparison to decide between neurovascular coupling mechanisms. We show that the BOLD signal is dependent upon both the synaptic and spiking activity but that the relative contributions of these two inputs are dependent upon the underlying neuronal firing rate. When the underlying neuronal firing is low then the BOLD response is best explained by synaptic activity. However, when the neuronal firing rate is high then both synaptic and spiking activity are required to explain the BOLD signal.
Relationship between Activity in Human Primary Motor Cortex during Action Observation and the Mirror Neuron System
James M. Kilner, Jennifer L. Marchant, Chris D. Frith
PLOS ONE , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0004925
Abstract: The attenuation of the beta cortical oscillations during action observation has been interpreted as evidence of a mirror neuron system (MNS) in humans. Here we investigated the modulation of beta cortical oscillations with the viewpoint of an observed action. We asked subjects to observe videos of an actor making a variety of arm movements. We show that when subjects were observing arm movements there was a significant modulation of beta oscillations overlying left and right sensorimotor cortices. This pattern of attenuation was driven by the side of the screen on which the observed movement occurred and not by the hand that was observed moving. These results are discussed in terms of the firing patterns of mirror neurons in F5 which have been reported to have similar properties.
Dysconnectivity in the Frontoparietal Attention Network in Schizophrenia
Jonathan P. Roiser,Rebekah Wigton,James M. Kilner,Nicholas Hon,Karl J. Friston,Eileen M. Joyce
Frontiers in Psychiatry , 2013, DOI: 10.3389/fpsyt.2013.00176
Abstract: Cognitive impairment is common in patients with schizophrenia, and even those with relatively preserved function perform worse than healthy volunteers (HVs) on attentional tasks. This is consistent with the hypothesis that connectivity – in the frontoparietal network (FPN) activated during attention – is disrupted in schizophrenia. We examined attentional effects on connectivity in the FPN, in schizophrenia, using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Twenty-three HVs and 19 first-episode schizophrenia patients were scanned during a simple visual change test, known to activate the FPN, in which attention was monitored and directed with an orthogonal flicker-detection task. Dynamic causal modeling (DCM) of evoked responses was used to assess effective connectivity – and its modulation by changes in the attended stimulus dimension – in the following network: higher visual area; temporoparietal junction (TPJ); intraparietal sulcus (IPS); dorsal anterior cingulate cortex; and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex. The final MEG analysis included 18 HVs and 14 schizophrenia patients. While all participants were able to maintain attention, HVs responded slightly, but non-significantly, more accurately than schizophrenia patients. HVs, but not schizophrenia patients, exhibited greater cortical responses to attended visual changes. Bayesian model comparison revealed that a DCM with attention dependent changes in both top-down and bottom-up connections best explained responses by patients with schizophrenia, while in HVs the best model required only bottom-up changes. Quantitative comparison of connectivity estimates revealed a significant group difference in changes in the right IPS-TPJ connection: schizophrenia patients showed relative reductions in connectivity during attended stimulus changes. Crucially, this reduction predicted lower intelligence. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that functional dysconnections in the FPN contribute to cognitive impairment in schizophrenia.
Female Burying Beetles Benefit from Male Desertion: Sexual Conflict and Counter-Adaptation over Parental Investment
Giuseppe Boncoraglio, Rebecca M. Kilner
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0031713
Abstract: Sexual conflict drives the coevolution of sexually antagonistic traits, such that an adaptation in one sex selects an opposing coevolutionary response from the other. Although many adaptations and counteradaptations have been identified in sexual conflict over mating interactions, few are known for sexual conflict over parental investment. Here we investigate a possible coevolutionary sequence triggered by mate desertion in the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides, where males commonly leave before their offspring reach independence. Rather than suffer fitness costs as a consequence, our data suggest that females rely on the male's absence to recoup some of the costs of larval care, presumably because they are then free to feed themselves on the carcass employed for breeding. Consequently, forcing males to stay until the larvae disperse reduces components of female fitness to a greater extent than caring for young singlehandedly. Therefore we suggest that females may have co-evolved to anticipate desertion by their partners so that they now benefit from the male's absence.
Egg Speckling Patterns Do Not Advertise Offspring Quality or Influence Male Provisioning in Great Tits
Mary Caswell Stoddard, Annette L. Fayet, Rebecca M. Kilner, Camilla A. Hinde
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0040211
Abstract: Many passerine birds lay white eggs with reddish brown speckles produced by protoporphyrin pigment. However, the function of these spots is contested. Recently, the sexually selected eggshell coloration (SSEC) hypothesis proposed that eggshell color is a sexually selected signal through which a female advertises her quality (and hence the potential quality of her future young) to her male partner, thereby encouraging him to contribute more to breeding attempts. We performed a test of the SSEC hypothesis in a common passerine, the great tit Parus major. We used a double cross-fostering design to determine whether males change their provisioning behavior based on eggshell patterns they observe at the nest. We also tested the assumption that egg patterning reflects female and/or offspring quality. Because birds differ from humans in their color and pattern perception, we used digital photography and models of bird vision to quantify egg patterns objectively. Neither male provisioning nor chick growth was related to the pattern of eggs males observed during incubation. Although heavy females laid paler, less speckled eggs, these eggs did not produce chicks that grew faster. Therefore, we conclude that the SSEC hypothesis is an unlikely explanation for the evolution of egg speckling in great tits.
Chemistry and structure of homoepitaxial SrTiO$_3$ films and their influence on oxide-heterostructure interfaces
M. L. Reinle-Schmitt,C. Cancellieri,A. Cavallaro,S. J. Leake,E. Pomjakushina,J. A. Kilner,P. R. Willmott
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1039/c3nr06456e
Abstract: The properties of single-crystal SrTiO$_{3}$ substrates and homoepitaxial SrTiO$_{3}$ films grown by pulsed laser deposition have been compared, in order to understand the loss of interfacial conductivity when more than a critical thickness of nominally homoepitaxial SrTiO$_{3}$ is inserted between a LaAlO$_{3}$ film and a SrTiO$_{3}$ substrate. In particular, the chemical composition and the structure of homoepitaxial SrTiO$_{3}$ investigated by low-energy ion-scattering and surface x-ray diffraction, show that for insulating heterointerfaces, a Sr-excess is present between the LaAlO$_{3}$ and homoepitaxial SrTiO$_{3}$. Furthermore, an increase in the out-of-plane lattice constant is observed in LaAlO$_{3}$, indicating that the conductivity both with and without insertion of SrTiO$_{3}$ thin film originates from a Zener breakdown associated with the polar catastrophe. When more than a critical thickness of homoepitaxial SrTiO$_{3}$ is inserted between LaAlO$_3$ and SrTiO$_3$, the electrons transferred by the electronic reconstruction are trapped by the formation of a Sr-rich secondary phase and Sr-vacancies. The migration of Sr towards the surface of homoepitaxial STO and accompanying loss of interfacial conductivity can be delayed by reducing the Sr-content in the PLD target.
EEG and MEG Data Analysis in SPM8
Vladimir Litvak,Jérémie Mattout,Stefan Kiebel,Christophe Phillips,Richard Henson,James Kilner,Gareth Barnes,Robert Oostenveld,Jean Daunizeau,Guillaume Flandin,Will Penny,Karl Friston
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/852961
Abstract: SPM is a free and open source software written in MATLAB (The MathWorks, Inc.). In addition to standard M/EEG preprocessing, we presently offer three main analysis tools: (i) statistical analysis of scalp-maps, time-frequency images, and volumetric 3D source reconstruction images based on the general linear model, with correction for multiple comparisons using random field theory; (ii) Bayesian M/EEG source reconstruction, including support for group studies, simultaneous EEG and MEG, and fMRI priors; (iii) dynamic causal modelling (DCM), an approach combining neural modelling with data analysis for which there are several variants dealing with evoked responses, steady state responses (power spectra and cross-spectra), induced responses, and phase coupling. SPM8 is integrated with the FieldTrip toolbox , making it possible for users to combine a variety of standard analysis methods with new schemes implemented in SPM and build custom analysis tools using powerful graphical user interface (GUI) and batching tools. 1. Introduction Statistical parametric mapping (SPM) is a free and open source academic software distributed under GNU General Public License. The aim of SPM is to communicate and disseminate methods for neuroimaging data analysis to the scientific community that have been developed by the SPM coauthors associated with the Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging, UCL Institute of Neurology. The origins of SPM software go back to 1990, when SPM was first formulated for the statistical analysis of positron emission tomography (PET) data [1, 2]. The software incorporated several important theoretical advances, such as the use of general linear model (GLM) to describe, in a generic way, a variety of experimental designs [3] and random field theory (RFT) to solve the problem of multiple comparisons arising from the application of mass univariate tests to images with multiple voxels [4]. As functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) gained popularity later in the decade, SPM was further developed to support this new imaging modality, introducing the notion of a hemodynamic response function and associated convolution models for serially correlated time series. This formulation became an established standard in the field and most other free and commercial packages for fMRI analysis implement variants of it. In parallel, increasingly more sophisticated tools for registration, spatial normalization, and segmentation of functional and structural images were developed [5]. In addition to finessing fMRI and PET analyses, these methods made it possible to
Sustainable Tourism and Management for Coral Reefs: Preserving Diversity and Plurality in a Time of Climate Change  [PDF]
M. James C. Crabbe
Journal of Service Science and Management (JSSM) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jssm.2010.32031
Abstract: Coral reefs throughout the world are under severe challenges from a variety of anthropogenic and environmental factors. In a period of climate change, where mobility and tourism are under threat, it is useful to demonstrate the value of eco- and research-tourism to individuals and to cultures, and how diversity and pluralism in sustainable environments may be preserved. Here we identify the ways in which organisations use research tourism to benefit ecosystem diversity and conservation, show how an Earthwatch project has produced scientific information on the fringing reefs of North Jamaica, and how a capacity-building programme in Belize developed specific action plans for ecotourism. We discuss how implementation of those plans can help research tourism and preserve ecosystem diversity in times of climate change.
Comparison of Two Reef Sites on the North Coast of Jamaica over a 15-Year Period  [PDF]
M. James C. Crabbe
American Journal of Climate Change (AJCC) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ajcc.2016.51002
Abstract: This paper compares two reef sites near Discovery Bay, Jamaica, Dairy Bull and Dancing Lady, from 2000 to 2015. At Dairy Bull reef, with low macroalgal cover (8% in 2002 falling to 1% in 2015) and significant number of Diadema antillarum urchins (c. 5 m-2), live coral cover increased from 13% ± 5% in 2006 after the bleaching event in 2005, to 31% ± 7% in 2008, while live Acropora cervicornis increased from 2% ± 2% in 2006 to 28% ± 5% in 2015. Coral cover levels were at least maintained until 2015, owing mostly to a slight increase in A. cervicornis. Dancing Lady reef however was dominated by macroalgae throughout this period (cover of c. 76% ± 7%), with no D. antillarum and showed little decrease in the already low (6% ± 1%) coral cover in 2005. Growth rates for Siderastrea siderea were similar for both sites (7 mm·yr-1), while growth rates of A. cervicornis and A. palmata were 120.0 ± 30 mm·yr-1 and 71.0 ± 29 mm·yr-1 respectively at Dairy Bull in 2015. At Dancing Lady reef, A. cervicornis colonies which were present from 2003 to 2005 had disappeared in 2006, possibly as a result of the mass bleaching event. It appears that A. cervicornis was the most impacted species during the 2005 bleaching event, but was also the species that recovered fastest after its decline at Dairy Bull.
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