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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 21772 matches for " James Kay "
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Deficiency in Cardiac Dystrophin Affects the Abundance of the -/-Dystroglycan Complex
James Lohan,Kevin Culligan,Kay Ohlendieck
Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology , 2005, DOI: 10.1155/jbb.2005.28
Abstract: Although Duchenne muscular dystrophy is primarily categorised as a skeletal muscle disease, deficiency in the membrane cytoskeletal protein dystrophin also affects the heart. The central transsarcolemmal linker between the actin membrane cytoskeleton and the extracellular matrix is represented by the dystrophin-associated dystroglycans. Chemical cross-linking analysis revealed no significant differences in the dimeric status of the α-/β-dystroglycan subcomplex in the dystrophic mdx heart as compared to normal cardiac tissue. In analogy to skeletal muscle fibres, heart muscle also exhibited a greatly reduced abundance of both dystroglycans in dystrophin-deficient cells. Immunoblotting demonstrated that the degree of reduction in α-dystroglycan is more pronounced in matured mdx skeletal muscle as contrasted to the mdx heart. The fact that the deficiency in dystrophin triggers a similar pathobiochemical response in both types of muscle suggests that the cardiomyopathic complications observed in x-linked muscular dystrophy might be initiated by the loss of the dystrophin-associated surface glycoprotein complex.
The Evolution of an Ecosystem Approach: the Diamond Schematic and an Adaptive Methodology for Ecosystem Sustainability and Health
David Waltner-Toews,James Kay
Ecology and Society , 2005,
Abstract: Over the past 15 yr, an international network of researchers has developed and tested a methodology for integrating complex systems theories into sustainable development projects. Drawing on our best theoretical understanding of complex systems and combining it with best practices of community engagement drawn from a wide variety of sources, we have developed a methodology that is theoretically sound and practically effective. AMESH, an Adaptive Methodology for Ecosystem Sustainability and Health, has emerged from, and been tested in, Nepal, Kenya, Canada, and Peru.
Deficiency in Cardiac Dystrophin Affects the Abundance of the α -/β -Dystroglycan Complex
Lohan James,Culligan Kevin,Ohlendieck Kay
Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology , 2005,
Abstract: Although Duchenne muscular dystrophy is primarily categorised as a skeletal muscle disease, deficiency in the membrane cytoskeletal protein dystrophin also affects the heart. The central transsarcolemmal linker between the actin membrane cytoskeleton and the extracellular matrix is represented by the dystrophin-associated dystroglycans. Chemical cross-linking analysis revealed no significant differences in the dimeric status of the α -/β -dystroglycan subcomplex in the dystrophic mdx heart as compared to normal cardiac tissue. In analogy to skeletal muscle fibres, heart muscle also exhibited a greatly reduced abundance of both dystroglycans in dystrophin-deficient cells. Immunoblotting demonstrated that the degree of reduction in α -dystroglycan is more pronounced in matured mdx skeletal muscle as contrasted to the mdx heart. The fact that the deficiency in dystrophin triggers a similar pathobiochemical response in both types of muscle suggests that the cardiomyopathic complications observed in x -linked muscular dystrophy might be initiated by the loss of the dystrophin-associated surface glycoprotein complex.
Contributions to Seymour's Second Neighborhood Conjecture
James N. Brantner,Greg Brockman,Bill Kay,Emma E. Snively
Mathematics , 2008,
Abstract: Let D be a simple digraph without loops or digons. For any v in V(D) let N_1(v) be the set of all nodes at out-distance 1 from v and let N_2(v) be the set of all nodes at out-distance 2. We provide sufficient conditions under which there must exist some v in V(D) such that |N_1(v)| is less than or equal to |N_2(v)|, as well as examine properties of a minimal graph which does not have such a node. We show that if one such graph exists, then there exist infinitely many strongly-connected graphs having no such vertex.
Osteoporosis: A Disease of Men  [PDF]
Anu Garg, Samantha Kay
Health (Health) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/health.2018.101005
Abstract: Objective: The goal of this study was to evaluate osteoporosis screening practices in male patients aged 70 and older. Methods: A survey-based study was carried out over six months at an academic primary care institution in the Midwest. Results: Seventy-nine male patients and fifteen primary care physicians were surveyed. Less than 10% of males recalled being screened for osteoporosis. Two-thirds of physicians reported regularly screening males for osteoporosis. Conclusion: Elderly male patients are overwhelmingly under-screened and undertreated for osteoporosis.
Association of a functional microsatellite within intron 1 of the BMP5 gene with susceptibility to osteoarthritis
James M Wilkins, Lorraine Southam, Zehra Mustafa, Kay Chapman, John Loughlin
BMC Medical Genetics , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2350-10-141
Abstract: We genotyped 18 common polymorphisms including 8 microsatellites and 9 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 1 insertion/deletion (INDEL) from within highly conserved regions between human and mouse within intron 1 of BMP5. These markers were then tested for association to OA by a two-stage approach in which the polymorphisms were initially genotyped in a case-control cohort comprising 361 individuals with associated polymorphisms (P ≤ 0.05) then genotyped in a second case-control cohort comprising 1185 individuals.Two BMP5 intron 1 polymorphisms demonstrated association in the combined case-control cohort of 1546 individuals (765 cases and 781 controls): microsatellite D6S1276 (P = 0.018) and SNP rs921126 (P = 0.013). Functional analyses in osteoblastic, chondrocytic, and adipocytic cell lines indicated that allelic variants of D6S1276 have significant effects on the transcriptional activity of the BMP5 promoter in vitro.Variability in gene expression of BMP5 may be an important contributor to OA genetic susceptibility.Osteoarthritis (OA, MIM 165720) is the most common musculoskeletal disorder in developed countries [1]. Pathologically, OA is characterized by the focal degeneration of the smooth articular cartilage in any of the synovial joints of the body with the hand, spine, knee, and hip the most frequently affected joint sites [2]. In addition to cartilage damage, OA is associated with a variety of changes in other joint tissues, such as new bone formation at the joint margins (osteophytes), subchondral bone sclerosis, and joint capsule thickening, with effects also seen in the ligaments and peri-articular muscles and tendons [2,3].Although the underlying molecular mechanisms for disease initiation and progression are still not yet fully understood, epidemiological and population-based cohort studies have evidenced a significant genetic component to OA susceptibility [4]. Genome-wide linkage scans and large-scale association studies have had some success
A Diagrammatic Approach to Understanding Complex Eco-Social Interactions in Kathmandu, Nepal
R. Cynthia. Neudoerffer,David Waltner-Toews,James J. Kay,D. D. Joshi
Ecology and Society , 2005,
Abstract: As part of developing an international network of community-based ecosystem approaches to health, a project was undertaken in a densely populated and socio-economically diverse area of Kathmandu, Nepal. Drawing on hundreds of pages of narrative reports based on surveys, interviews, secondary data, and focus groups by trained Nepalese facilitators, the authors created systemic depictions of relationships between multiple stakeholder groups, ecosystem health, and human health. These were then combined to examine interactions among stakeholders, activities, concerns, perceived needs, and resource states (ecosystem health indicators). These qualitative models have provided useful heuristics for both community members and research scholars to understand the eco-social systems in which they live; many of the strategies developed by the communities and researchers to improve health intuitively drew on this systemic understanding. The diagrams enabled researchers and community participants to explicitly examine relationships and conflicts related to health and environmental issues in their community.
Crowdsourcing as a Novel Technique for Retinal Fundus Photography Classification: Analysis of Images in the EPIC Norfolk Cohort on Behalf of the UKBiobank Eye and Vision Consortium
Danny Mitry, Tunde Peto, Shabina Hayat, James E. Morgan, Kay-Tee Khaw, Paul J. Foster
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0071154
Abstract: Aim Crowdsourcing is the process of outsourcing numerous tasks to many untrained individuals. Our aim was to assess the performance and repeatability of crowdsourcing for the classification of retinal fundus photography. Methods One hundred retinal fundus photograph images with pre-determined disease criteria were selected by experts from a large cohort study. After reading brief instructions and an example classification, we requested that knowledge workers (KWs) from a crowdsourcing platform classified each image as normal or abnormal with grades of severity. Each image was classified 20 times by different KWs. Four study designs were examined to assess the effect of varying incentive and KW experience in classification accuracy. All study designs were conducted twice to examine repeatability. Performance was assessed by comparing the sensitivity, specificity and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Results Without restriction on eligible participants, two thousand classifications of 100 images were received in under 24 hours at minimal cost. In trial 1 all study designs had an AUC (95%CI) of 0.701(0.680–0.721) or greater for classification of normal/abnormal. In trial 1, the highest AUC (95%CI) for normal/abnormal classification was 0.757 (0.738–0.776) for KWs with moderate experience. Comparable results were observed in trial 2. In trial 1, between 64–86% of any abnormal image was correctly classified by over half of all KWs. In trial 2, this ranged between 74–97%. Sensitivity was ≥96% for normal versus severely abnormal detections across all trials. Sensitivity for normal versus mildly abnormal varied between 61–79% across trials. Conclusions With minimal training, crowdsourcing represents an accurate, rapid and cost-effective method of retinal image analysis which demonstrates good repeatability. Larger studies with more comprehensive participant training are needed to explore the utility of this compelling technique in large scale medical image analysis.
Difficult-to-Treat-Depression and GPs’ Role: Perceptions of Psychiatry Registrars  [PDF]
Kay M. Jones, Leon Piterman
Open Journal of Psychiatry (OJPsych) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojpsych.2014.44037
Abstract: Introduction: For patients, GPs are the most accessible medical resource in the community and are the gatekeepers to other community resources including psychiatrists. Qualifying as a psychiatrist in Australia involves completing a five-year training program that includes rotations in hospitals and community settings. The aims of this research were to 1) explore psychiatry registrars’ perceptions of difficult-to-treat-depression (DTTD) and 2) what they thought about the GPs’ role in this regard. Methods: A semi-structured interview schedule comprising six questions was used; 10 psychiatry registrars (6 females, 4 males) participated in a one-and-half-hour focus group. All were in their final year of training and undertaking a training post in a public hospital in Melbourne, Australia. Data were analysed using the Framework Method. Findings: Similar to GPs and GP trainees, psychiatry registrars’ perceptions and understanding of DTTD varied. While acknowledging limited experience in diagnosis and management, issues important to them included the utility of labels such as DTTD; patients distressed because of another diagnosis, substance abuse and/or life problems, the importance of accurate histories and notes, cost and limited availability of services particularly in the private sector, prescribing regimens, referring to allied health professionals, and suggesting/prescribing non pharmacological and/or complementary treatment. Also what was of concern was communication, both between health professionals and between health professionals and patients. Consensus was that treating depression in general practice is one of the hardest things for GPs to manage but there was value in using mental health plans. Discussion and Conclusion: While this cohort was small in number with limited experience, this study is the first to contribute to the literature that provides some insight into psychiatry registrars’ experiences and perceptions of DTTD. Outcomes may have implications for thepsychiatry training program and GPs who diagnose and manage patients with mental health problems.
Difficult-to-Treat-Depression and GPs’ Role: Perceptions of Psychologists  [PDF]
Kay M. Jones, Leon Piterman
Open Journal of Psychiatry (OJPsych) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojpsych.2015.51005
Abstract: Introduction: Since the Australian Government introduced the “Better Access to Mental Health Services” program in 2006, psychiatrists, psychologists and general practitioners (GPs) have become increasingly involved in service provision for people seeking help with mental health problems. The aim of this research was to a) explore psychologists’ perceptions of difficult to treat depression (DTTD) and b) explore what they thought about the GPs’ role in managing these patient given that most patients are referred to psychologist by GPs. Methods: A previously developed semi-structured interview schedule comprising six questions was used. Seven psychologists participated in a focus group held in Melbourne. Data were analysed using the framework method. Findings, including Discussion: While psychologists understood the term DTTD it was suggested that using different terms may limit understanding between health professionals. Rather than diagnosing, psychologists were more likely to conduct further assessment contextually to confirm GPs’ diagnosis. Communication with GPs was important, particularly when managing “long-term” and suicidal patients. Management included cognitive and behavioural interventions and referring to other mental health services, psychiatrists and/or other allied health professionals. Referral to psychiatrists could be difficult because of limited availability and for some patients, prohibitive costs. Although psychologists discussed non-pharmacological and/or complementary treatment options with patients, they were more likely to rely on GPs to discuss/prescribe these options. Conclusion: While generalisability may be limited, this study is the first to document some understanding of psychologists perceptions of DTTD and the importance of GPs and other health professionals’ role in managing this patient cohort.
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