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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 314950 matches for " James J Moon "
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EphrinA1-targeted nanoshells for photothermal ablation of prostate cancer cells
Andre M Gobin,James J Moon,Jennifer L West
International Journal of Nanomedicine , 2008,
Abstract: Andre M Gobin, James J Moon, Jennifer L WestDepartment of Bioengineering, Rice University, Houston, TX, USAAbstract: Gold-coated silica nanoshells are a class of nanoparticles that can be designed to possess strong absorption of light in the near infrared (NIR) wavelength region. When injected intravenously, these nanoshells have been shown to accumulate in tumors and subsequently mediate photothermal treatment, leading to tumor regression. In this work, we sought to improve their specificity by targeting them to prostate tumor cells. We report selective targeting of PC-3 cells with nanoshells conjugated to ephrinA1, a ligand for EphA2 receptor that is overexpressed on PC-3 cells. We demonstrate selective photo-thermal destruction of these cells upon application of the NIR laser.Keywords: nanoshell, near infrared, photothermal treatment, prostate cancer
Antigen-Displaying Lipid-Enveloped PLGA Nanoparticles as Delivery Agents for a Plasmodium vivax Malaria Vaccine
James J. Moon, Heikyung Suh, Mark E. Polhemus, Christian F. Ockenhouse, Anjali Yadava, Darrell J. Irvine
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0031472
Abstract: The parasite Plasmodium vivax is the most frequent cause of malaria outside of sub-Saharan Africa, but efforts to develop viable vaccines against P. vivax so far have been inadequate. We recently developed pathogen-mimicking polymeric vaccine nanoparticles composed of the FDA-approved biodegradable polymer poly(lactide-co-glycolide) acid (PLGA) “enveloped” by a lipid membrane. In this study, we sought to determine whether this vaccine delivery platform could be applied to enhance the immune response against P. vivax sporozoites. A candidate malaria antigen, VMP001, was conjugated to the lipid membrane of the particles, and an immunostimulatory molecule, monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA), was incorporated into the lipid membranes, creating pathogen-mimicking nanoparticle vaccines (VMP001-NPs). Vaccination with VMP001-NPs promoted germinal center formation and elicited durable antigen-specific antibodies with significantly higher titers and more balanced Th1/Th2 responses in vivo, compared with vaccines composed of soluble protein mixed with MPLA. Antibodies raised by NP vaccinations also exhibited enhanced avidity and affinity toward the domains within the circumsporozoite protein implicated in protection and were able to agglutinate live P. vivax sporozoites. These results demonstrate that these VMP001-NPs are promising vaccines candidates that may elicit protective immunity against P. vivax sporozoites.
Dental Aesthetics: A Study Comparing Patients’ Own Opinions with Those of Dentists  [PDF]
Richard John Moon, Brian James Millar
Open Journal of Stomatology (OJST) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojst.2017.74016
Abstract: Objective: A beautiful smile is perceived as important but the components that contribute to the patient’s concept of a beautiful smile have not been fully investigated. Hence this study aimed to compare the views of patients on their own dental aesthetics with those of a group of dentists. It also assessed the patients’ willingness to undergo aesthetic treatment. Methods: Fifty patients, who ranged in age from 24 to 76 years, completed self-assessment questionnaires. Photographs were taken of these patients, which were subsequently assessed by six dentists using a questionnaire with visual analogue scale to assess each parameter. Results: Significant differences (p < 0.05) were found between the opinions of the dentists and the patients. Older patients were generally more satisfied with their smile than the dentists. Eighty-six percent of the patients were willing to undergo aesthetic treatment, although factors such as the complexity of treatment, time involved, discomfort and financial costs, deterred many. The cost of treatment was the main deterrent. The younger patients were least likely to be put off treatment. Conclusion: Patients’ views of their own smile differed from the dentists’ opinion. Those who were the least satisfied and were most likely to undergo aesthetic treatment were in the younger age groups. Satisfaction increased with age and older patients were less likely to seek the aesthetic treatment.
Classification methods for the development of genomic signatures from high-dimensional data
Hojin Moon, Hongshik Ahn, Ralph L Kodell, Chien-Ju Lin, Songjoon Baek, James J Chen
Genome Biology , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/gb-2006-7-12-r121
Abstract: Providing guidance on specific therapies for pathologically distinct tumor types to maximize efficacy and minimize toxicity is important for cancer treatment [1,2]. For acute leukemia, for instance, different subtypes show very different responses to therapy, reflecting the fact that they are molecularly distinct entities, although they have very similar morphological and histopathological appearance [1]. Thus, accurate classification of tumor samples is essential for efficient cancer treatment on a target population of patients. Microarray technology has been increasingly used in cancer research because of its potential for classification of tissue samples based only on gene expression data, without prior and often subjective biological knowledge [1,3,4]. Much research involving microarray data analysis is focused on distinguishing between different cancer types using gene expression profiles from disease samples, thereby allowing more accurate diagnosis and effective treatment of each patient.Gene expression data might also be used to improve disease prognosis in order to prevent some patients from having to undergo painful unsuccessful therapies and unnecessary toxicity. For example, adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer after surgery could reduce the risk of distant metastases; however, seventy to eighty percent of patients receiving this treatment would be expected to survive metastasis-free without it [5,6]. The strongest predictors for metastases, such as lymph node status and histological grade, fail to classify accurately breast tumors according to their clinical behavior [6,7].Predicting patient response to therapy or the toxic potential of drugs based on high-dimensional data are common goals of biomedical studies. Classification algorithms can be used to process high-dimensional genomic data for better prognostication of disease progression and better prediction of response to therapy to help individualize clinical assignment of treatment. The predicti
Sex-Specific Genomic Biomarkers for Individualized Treatment of Life-Threatening Diseases
Hojin Moon,Karen L. Lopez,Grace I. Lin,James J. Chen
Disease Markers , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/393020
Abstract: Numerous studies have demonstrated sex differences in drug reactions to the same drug treatment, steering away from the traditional view of one-size-fits-all medicine. A premise of this study is that the sex of a patient influences difference in disease characteristics and risk factors. In this study, we intend to exploit and to obtain better sex-specific biomarkers from gene-expression data. We propose a procedure to isolate a set of important genes as sex-specific genomic biomarkers, which may enable more effective patient treatment. A set of sex-specific genes is obtained by a variable importance ranking using a combination of cross-validation methods. The proposed procedure is applied to three gene-expression datasets. 1. Introduction Personalized medicine is defined by the use of genomic signatures of patients to assign effective therapies in order to achieve the best medical outcomes for individual patients, thus improving public health. Despite the variety of clinical, morphological, and molecular parameters used to classify human malignancies, patients receiving the same diagnosis can have markedly different clinical courses and treatment responses. Since there is no simple way to determine who will have an adverse reaction, the current system of “one-size-fits-all-” diagnoses is simply not good enough. An increasing number of studies have demonstrated sex differences in drug reactions to the same drug treatment. Migeon [1] implied that males and females responded differently to drug treatments and that sex plays a key role in cancer. In addition, females are historically less studied subjects due to the complication of estrous cycle, and therefore such studies would further benefit women’s health and promote public health. Recent advancements in biotechnology have accelerated the search for molecular biomarkers useful in the diagnosis and treatment of disease. Molecular biomarkers of disease risk and status are critical to an accurate treatment by identifying patients most likely to benefit from particular drugs or experience adverse reactions. Because medicine is always practiced on individuals rather than populations, the goal is to change the assignment of therapies from a population-based approach to an individualized approach. Gene-expression data can be used to identify patients with a good disease prognosis, thereby preventing some patients from unnecessary therapies and toxicity. For example, gene-expression profiling was used to predict clinical outcomes in pediatric patients with acute myeloid leukemia and to find genes whose aberrant
Sets Characterized by Missing Sums and Differences in Dilating Polytopes
Thao Do,Archit Kulkarni,Steven J. Miller,David Moon,Jake Wellens,James Wilcox
Mathematics , 2014,
Abstract: A sum-dominant set is a finite set $A$ of integers such that $|A+A| > |A-A|$. As a typical pair of elements contributes one sum and two differences, we expect sum-dominant sets to be rare in some sense. In 2006, however, Martin and O'Bryant showed that the proportion of sum-dominant subsets of $\{0,\dots,n\}$ is bounded below by a positive constant as $n\to\infty$. Hegarty then extended their work and showed that for any prescribed $s,d\in\mathbb{N}_0$, the proportion $\rho^{s,d}_n$ of subsets of $\{0,\dots,n\}$ that are missing exactly $s$ sums in $\{0,\dots,2n\}$ and exactly $2d$ differences in $\{-n,\dots,n\}$ also remains positive in the limit. We consider the following question: are such sets, characterized by their sums and differences, similarly ubiquitous in higher dimensional spaces? We generalize the integers in a growing interval to the lattice points in a dilating polytope. Specifically, let $P$ be a polytope in $\mathbb{R}^D$ with vertices in $\mathbb{Z}^D$, and let $\rho_n^{s,d}$ now denote the proportion of subsets of $L(nP)$ that are missing exactly $s$ sums in $L(nP)+L(nP)$ and exactly $2d$ differences in $L(nP)-L(nP)$. As it turns out, the geometry of $P$ has a significant effect on the limiting behavior of $\rho_n^{s,d}$. We define a geometric characteristic of polytopes called local point symmetry, and show that $\rho_n^{s,d}$ is bounded below by a positive constant as $n\to\infty$ if and only if $P$ is locally point symmetric. We further show that the proportion of subsets in $L(nP)$ that are missing exactly $s$ sums and at least $2d$ differences remains positive in the limit, independent of the geometry of $P$. A direct corollary of these results is that if $P$ is additionally point symmetric, the proportion of sum-dominant subsets of $L(nP)$ also remains positive in the limit.
Pregnancy Outcomes at Kasungu Maternity Ward in Central Malawi—A Review of Maternity Ward Register  [PDF]
Joo Heon Park, Jin Sik Song, James G. Kim, Changhyun Han, Diane J. Moon, Byungchan Kim, James Kachingwe, George Talama
Advances in Reproductive Sciences (ARSci) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/arsci.2019.73007
Abstract: Health care services during pregnancy and childbirth and after delivery are important for the survival and wellbeing of both the mother and the infant. The pregnancy outcomes at Kasungu District Hospital Maternity Ward have not been documented. Additionally, MDHS does not capture data regarding, prematurity, APGAR scores, and causes of maternal deaths and causes of neonatal deaths. Using Kasungu District Hospital Maternity Ward register, we aimed to describe the pregnancy outcomes at Kasungu Maternity Ward. From March 2016 to February 2017, data were available for 10,842 deliveries. The calculated Perinatal Mortality Rate (PMR) was about 77/1000 births and the Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) was 318 deaths per 100,000 live births. The Spontaneous Vertex Delivery (SVD) rate was 86% and the caesarean section rate was 10%. 1734 (16%) of all deliveries were premature borne between 28 and 36 gestation weeks. 1182 (11%) deliveries had missing APGAR scores and 81 neonates were born with 5 min Apgar scores less than 7. Adverse pregnancy outcomes occur at Kasungu Hospital Maternity Ward. More effort and resources are needed to decrease their occurrence.
Functional Identification of Api5 as a Suppressor of E2F-Dependent Apoptosis In Vivo
Erick J Morris,William A Michaud,Jun-Yuan Ji,Nam-Sung Moon,James W Rocco,Nicholas J Dyson
PLOS Genetics , 2006, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.0020196
Abstract: Retinoblastoma protein and E2-promoter binding factor (E2F) family members are important regulators of G1-S phase progression. Deregulated E2F also sensitizes cells to apoptosis, but this aspect of E2F function is poorly understood. Studies of E2F-induced apoptosis have mostly been carried out in tissue culture cells, and the analysis of the factors that are important for this process has been restricted to the testing of a few candidate genes. Using Drosophila as a model system, we have generated tools that allow genetic modifiers of E2F-dependent apoptosis to be identified in vivo and developed assays that allow effects on E2F-induced apoptosis to be studied in cultured cells. Genetic interactions show that dE2F1-dependent apoptosis in vivo involves dArk/Apaf1 apoptosome-dependent activation of both initiator and effector caspases and is sensitive to levels of Drosophila inhibitor of apoptosis-1 (dIAP1). Using these approaches, we report the surprising finding that apoptosis inhibitor-5/antiapoptosis clone-11 (Api5/Aac11) is a critical determinant of dE2F1-induced apoptosis in vivo and in vitro. This functional interaction occurs in multiple tissues, is specific to E2F-induced apoptosis, and is conserved from flies to humans. Interestingly, Api5/Aac11 acts downstream of E2F and suppresses E2F-dependent apoptosis without generally blocking E2F-dependent transcription. Api5/Aac11 expression is often upregulated in tumor cells, particularly in metastatic cells. We find that depletion of Api5 is tumor cell lethal. The strong genetic interaction between E2F and Api5/Aac11 suggests that elevated levels of Api5 may be selected during tumorigenesis to allow cells with deregulated E2F activity to survive under suboptimal conditions. Therefore, inhibition of Api5 function might offer a possible mechanism for antitumor exploitation.
Hybridische zelfpositionering en performance in Breytenbachs reisverhalen
J Moon
Tydskrif vir letterkunde , 2011,
Abstract: This article focuses on the hybrid self-representation and liminal self-positioning of Breyten Breytenbach as presented in his two travelogues, Return to Paradise (1993) and Dog Heart (1998). Firstly, the form of travel writing is shown to be a suitable genre for the manifestation of a nomadic or ‘travelling’ subject. Secondly, his liminal self-positioning toward Afrikaner society reflects the problem of identity in post-apartheid South Africa, as well as the writer’s performance of a future agency for rehabilitating the collective self within a new South African community. Breytenbach is seen to manifest his cultural identity on the one hand, while attempting to position this identity within the multicultural society on the other. Article text in Afrikaans.
Robust Antigen Specific Th17 T Cell Response to Group A Streptococcus Is Dependent on IL-6 and Intranasal Route of Infection
Thamotharampillai Dileepan equal contributor ,Jonathan L. Linehan equal contributor,James J. Moon,Marion Pepper,Marc K. Jenkins ?,Patrick P. Cleary ?
PLOS Pathogens , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1002252
Abstract: Group A streptococcus (GAS, Streptococcus pyogenes) is the cause of a variety of clinical conditions, ranging from pharyngitis to autoimmune disease. Peptide-major histocompatibility complex class II (pMHCII) tetramers have recently emerged as a highly sensitive means to quantify pMHCII-specific CD4+ helper T cells and evaluate their contribution to both protective immunity and autoimmune complications induced by specific bacterial pathogens. In lieu of identifying an immunodominant peptide expressed by GAS, a surrogate peptide (2W) was fused to the highly expressed M1 protein on the surface of GAS to allow in-depth analysis of the CD4+ helper T cell response in C57BL/6 mice that express the I-Ab MHCII molecule. Following intranasal inoculation with GAS-2W, antigen-experienced 2W:I-Ab-specific CD4+ T cells were identified in the nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) that produced IL-17A or IL-17A and IFN-γ if infection was recurrent. The dominant Th17 response was also dependent on the intranasal route of inoculation; intravenous or subcutaneous inoculations produced primarily IFN-γ+ 2W:I-Ab+ CD4+ T cells. The acquisition of IL-17A production by 2W:I-Ab-specific T cells and the capacity of mice to survive infection depended on the innate cytokine IL-6. IL-6-deficient mice that survived infection became long-term carriers despite the presence of abundant IFN-γ-producing 2W:I-Ab-specific CD4+ T cells. Our results suggest that an imbalance between IL-17- and IFN-γ-producing CD4+ T cells could contribute to GAS carriage in humans.
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