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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 208282 matches for " James G. Linneman "
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Cataract research using electronic health records
Carol J Waudby, Richard L Berg, James G Linneman, Luke V Rasmussen, Peggy L Peissig, Lin Chen, Catherine A McCarty
BMC Ophthalmology , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2415-11-32
Abstract: Electronic algorithms were used to select individuals with cataracts in the Personalized Medicine Research Project database. These were analyzed for cataract prevalence, age at cataract, and previously identified risk factors.Cataract diagnoses and surgeries, though not type of cataract, were successfully identified using electronic algorithms. Age specific prevalence of both cataract (22% compared to 17.2%) and cataract surgery (11% compared to 5.1%) were higher when compared to the Eye Diseases Prevalence Research Group. The risk factors of age, gender, diabetes, and steroid use were confirmed.Using electronic health records can be a viable and efficient tool to identify cataracts for research. However, using retrospective data from this source can be confounded by historical limits on data availability, differences in the utilization of healthcare, and changes in exposures over time.When considering diseases that impact public health worldwide, few would outrank cataracts. Cataracts are the leading cause of blindness worldwide [1]. Global Burden of Disease 2004 from the World Health Organization ranks cataracts as fourth in disabling conditions in the world following hearing loss, refractive errors, and depression. It estimates the prevalence of moderate and severe disability due to cataracts to be 53.8 million for all ages worldwide [2].While cataracts may be congenital or result from a specific trauma, most cataracts are related to aging. As the age demographic shifts upward in the population, the incidence of age-related cataract will also increase. In the United States it is estimated that 17.2% of those age 40 and older have cataracts, and this rate is projected to increase by 50% by the year 2020 [3]. The prevalence of cataract surgery among Americans aged 40-years and older is estimated at 5.1%, and that is likely to increase by almost 60% by the year 2020 [3]. There is also the suggestion that with the predicted ozone depletion, the rate of cortical catar
Knowledge-Driven Multi-Locus Analysis Reveals Gene-Gene Interactions Influencing HDL Cholesterol Level in Two Independent EMR-Linked Biobanks
Stephen D. Turner,Richard L. Berg,James G. Linneman,Peggy L. Peissig,Dana C. Crawford,Joshua C. Denny,Dan M. Roden,Catherine A. McCarty,Marylyn D. Ritchie,Russell A. Wilke
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0019586
Abstract: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are routinely being used to examine the genetic contribution to complex human traits, such as high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Although HDL-C levels are highly heritable (h2~0.7), the genetic determinants identified through GWAS contribute to a small fraction of the variance in this trait. Reasons for this discrepancy may include rare variants, structural variants, gene-environment (GxE) interactions, and gene-gene (GxG) interactions. Clinical practice-based biobanks now allow investigators to address these challenges by conducting GWAS in the context of comprehensive electronic medical records (EMRs). Here we apply an EMR-based phenotyping approach, within the context of routine care, to replicate several known associations between HDL-C and previously characterized genetic variants: CETP (rs3764261, p = 1.22e-25), LIPC (rs11855284, p = 3.92e-14), LPL (rs12678919, p = 1.99e-7), and the APOA1/C3/A4/A5 locus (rs964184, p = 1.06e-5), all adjusted for age, gender, body mass index (BMI), and smoking status. By using a novel approach which censors data based on relevant co-morbidities and lipid modifying medications to construct a more rigorous HDL-C phenotype, we identified an association between HDL-C and TRIB1, a gene which previously resisted identification in studies with larger sample sizes. Through the application of additional analytical strategies incorporating biological knowledge, we further identified 11 significant GxG interaction models in our discovery cohort, 8 of which show evidence of replication in a second biobank cohort. The strongest predictive model included a pairwise interaction between LPL (which modulates the incorporation of triglyceride into HDL) and ABCA1 (which modulates the incorporation of free cholesterol into HDL). These results demonstrate that gene-gene interactions modulate complex human traits, including HDL cholesterol.
Tina Fetner, How The Religious Right Shaped Lesbian and Gay Activism
Thomas John Linneman
The Canadian Journal of Sociology , 2009,
Jerad S. Linneman,Matthew S. Allen,Michael W. Palmer
Oklahoma Native Plant Record , 2011,
Abstract: We studied species composition after Juniperus virginiana tree and litter removal in a central Oklahoma grassland. Tree removal had the most significant effect on stems per quadrat and vegetation cover. Litter removal effects were not as strong. However, stems per quadrat and vegetation cover in litter removal treatments were higher than in litter intact treatments. Species richness increased for all treatments in the first year post-treatment, after which species richness declined at every sampling period and in every treatment for the duration of the study. Absolute cover of typical prairie species increased in the cut with no litter treatment whereas cover ofwoody forest species increased in the no cut with no litter treatment. We suggest that even without prescribed fire, redcedar tree removal may result in a return of prairie vegetation.However, additional efforts besides tree removal may be required to restore some invaded grasslands.
Climate Change, Adaptive Strategies and Rural Livelihoods in Semiarid Tanzania  [PDF]
Richard Y. M. Kangalawe, James G. Lyimo
Natural Resources (NR) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2013.43034

Climate change is a global challenge to both sustainable livelihoods and economic development. In Tanzania as in most African countries, farming depends almost entirely on rainfall, a situation that makes agriculture and thus rural livelihoods especially in semiarid environments particularly vulnerable to climate change. This study analyses the impacts of climate change and variability on rural livelihoods with particular focus on agricultural production, food security and adaptive capacities in semiarid areas of Tanzania. The methods used in this study included focus group discussions, key informant interviews, household surveys and field observations. Results from the study indicate that communities understood climate change in terms of variability in rainfall patterns and amount, temperature patterns, wind, water availability, increased incidences of drought and decreased agricultural productivity. Communities in the study area acknowledged that while rainfall amounts have decreased over the last thirty years, temperatures have increased; an experience is also supported by meteorological data. Such changes were claimed to have reduced agricultural productivity particularly due to prolonged drought, inadequate and uneven distribution of rainfall as well as unpredictable onset and ending of rains. Stressors such as
crop diseases and pests, low soil fertility and inadequate extension services were also reported to contribute to the decline in agricultural productivity and re-occurrence of food insecurity. In response, communities have developed multiple adaptation strategies
, including growing of drought tolerant and early maturing crop varieties, increasing wetlands cultivation, water harvesting for small-scale irrigation and livestock keeping. However, households with limited livelihood assets are more vulnerable to the impacts of climate change and food insecurity. The study argues that diversification of adaptive strategies, such as water harvesting for small-scale irrigation, integration of livestock and crop production are crucial to ensuring sustainable livelihood in a

Paleodemographics of Child Sacrifice at Midnight Terror Cave: Reformulating the Emphasis of Maya Sacrificial Practices  [PDF]
Michael G. Prout, James E. Brady
Archaeological Discovery (AD) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ad.2018.61001
Abstract: Investigations of Midnight Terror Cave, Belize between 2008-2010 recovered a human osteological assemblage of over 10,000 bones, the largest reported for a cave in the southern Maya lowlands. Analysis indicates that approximately a quarter of the bones belong to subadults, which make up 43% of the minimum number of individuals (MNI). Determination of age at death produced a mortality curve that differs significantly from a normal curve with the numbers peaking between 5 - 10 years of age, when mortality is generally low. These figures are similar to those produced from the Cenote of Sacrifice at Chichen Itza. The large percentage of subadults suggests that children were much more important in Maya human sacrificial practices than generally recognized.
History and Philosophy of Science: a Phylogenetic approach
Lennox, James G.;
História, Ciências, Saúde-Manguinhos , 2001, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-59702001000400008
Abstract: in the aftermath of thomas kuhn's the structure of scientific revolutions, there was a great deal of discussion about the relationship between the history of science and the philosophy of science. a wider issue was at stake in these discussions: 'normativism' versus 'naturalism' in epistemology. if the history of science, at best, gives us reliable information about what actually occurred historically, how can it inform debates about such things as confirmation or explanation in philosophy of science? this essay makes a case for the centrality of historical investigation in the philosophy of science. i will defend what i term the 'phylogenetic' approach to the philosophy of science. i will argue that since the foundations and dominant methods of a particular scientific field are shaped by its history, studying that history can give us considerable insight into conceptual and methodological problems in a particular science. the case will be made both on general, philosophical grounds, and by compelling instantiation.
Ecological thinking: Four qualities
Kelly,James G.;
Análise Psicológica , 2010,
Abstract: the article proposes a journey on the ecological premises or attributes of ecological thinking. identifies its four main qualities and probes to demonstrate how at present there is some empirical evidence upon which such premises may be anchored. the first is focused on the interdependencies of persons and social environments, the second is that research methodologies may be congruent with the culture of place, the third that to the community psychologist is required to establish trust relationships, and the fourth that understanding a community means learning about oneself.
Polarization in the cosmic microwave background
Bartlett, James G.;
Brazilian Journal of Physics , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-97332006000700004
Abstract: cosmic microwave background (cmb) studies underpin our understanding of the universe and its history. until recently, we have relied principally on cmb temperature observations to build our standard cosmological model, but today the field forges ahead into its next frontier - cmb polarization anistropy. polarization measurements will furnish fresh and independent information on the primordial density perturbations and cosmological parameters, and they offer the exciting potential to detect primordial gravity waves, constrain dark energy and measure the neutrino mass scale. i review the science and long-term goals of cmb polarization measurements and discuss current results and future observational projects. a vigorous program of ground-based, suborbital and space-based (e.g., wmap and planck [2008]) experiments is guiding us towards a future space mission dedicated to high precision polarization measurements.
Gold technology in ancient Egypt
T. G. H. James
Gold Bulletin , 1972, DOI: 10.1007/BF03215160
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