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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 186142 matches for " James E. Dale "
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The modelling of feedback in star formation simulations
James E. Dale
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1016/j.newar.2015.06.001
Abstract: I review the current state of numerical simulations of stellar feedback in the context of star formation at scales ranging from the formation of individual stars to models of galaxy formation including cosmic reionisation. I survey the wealth of algorithms developed recently to solve the radiative transfer problem and to simulate stellar winds, supernovae and protostellar jets. I discuss the results of these simulations with regard to star formation in molecular clouds, the interaction of different feedback mechanisms with each other and with magnetic fields, and in the wider context of galactic-- and cosmological--scale simulations.
Ionizing feedback from massive stars in massive clusters: Fake bubbles and untriggered star formation
James E. Dale,Ian Bonnell
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2011.18392.x
Abstract: We use Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics to simulate the formation of a massive (10^6Msun) stellar cluster system formed from the gravitational collapse of a turbulent molecular cloud. We investigate the hierarchical clustering properties of our model system and we study the influence of the photoionizing radiation produced by the system's multiple O-type stars on the evolution of the protocluster. We find that dense gas near the ionizing sources prevents the radiation from eroding the filaments in which most of the star formation occurs and that instead, ionized gas fills pre-existing voids and bubbles originally created by the turbulent velocity field.
On the spatial distributions of stars and gas in numerical simulations of molecular clouds
Richard J. Parker,James E. Dale
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: We compare the spatial distribution of stars which form in hydrodynamical simulations to the spatial distribution of the gas, using the $\mathcal{Q}$-parameter. The $\mathcal{Q}$-parameter enables a self-consistent comparison between the stars and gas because it uses a pixelated image of the gas as a distribution of points, in the same way that the stars (sink particles in the simulations) are a distribution of points. We find that, whereas the stars have a substructured, or hierarchical spatial distribution ($\mathcal{Q} \sim 0.4 - 0.7$), the gas is dominated by a smooth, concentrated component and typically has $\mathcal{Q} \sim 0.9$. We also find no statistical difference between the structure of the gas in simulations that form with feedback, and those that form without, despite these two processes producing visually different distributions. These results suggest that the link between the spatial distributions of gas, and the stars which form from them, is non-trivial.
Ionisation-induced star formation III: Effects of external triggering on the IMF in clusters
James E Dale,Ian A Bonnell
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2012.20709.x
Abstract: We report on Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of the impact on a turbulent $\sim2\times10^{3}$ M$_{\odot}$ star--forming molecular cloud of irradiation by an external source of ionizing photons. We find that the ionizing radiation has a significant effect on the gas morphology, but a less important role in triggering stars. The rate and morphology of star formation are largely governed by the structure in the gas generated by the turbulent velocity field, and feedback has no discernible effect on the stellar initial mass function. Although many young stars are to be found in dense gas located near an ionization front, most of these objects also form when feedback is absent. Ionization has a stronger effect in diffuse regions of the cloud by sweeping up low--density gas that would not otherwise form stars into gravitationally--unstable clumps. However, even in these regions, dynamical interactions between the stars rapidly erase the correlations between their positions and velocities and that of the ionization front.
Imprints of feedback in young gasless clusters?
Richard J. Parker,James E. Dale
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stt517
Abstract: We present the results of N-body simulations in which we take the masses, positions and velocities of sink particles from five pairs of hydrodynamical simulations of star formation by Dale et al. (2012, 2013) and evolve them for a further 10Myr. We compare the dynamical evolution of star clusters that formed under the influence of mass-loss driven by photoionization feedback, to the evolution of clusters that formed without feedback. We remove any remaining gas and follow the evolution of structure in the clusters (measured by the Q-parameter), half-mass radius, central density, surface density and the fraction of bound stars. There is little discernible difference in the evolution of clusters that formed with feedback compared to those that formed without. The only clear trend is that all clusters which form without feedback in the hydrodynamical simulations lose any initial structure over 10Myr, whereas some of the clusters which form with feedback retain structure for the duration of the subsequent N-body simulation. This is due to lower initial densities (and hence longer relaxation times) in the clusters from Dale et al. (2012, 2013) which formed with feedback, which prevents dynamical mixing from erasing substructure. However, several other conditions (such as supervirial initial velocities) also preserve substructure, so at a given epoch one would require knowledge of the initial density and virial state of the cluster in order to determine whether star formation in a cluster has been strongly influenced by feedback.
Did the Solar System form in a sequential triggered star formation event?
Richard J. Parker,James E. Dale
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: The presence and abundance of the short-lived radioisotopes (SLRs) $^{26}$Al and $^{60}$Fe during the formation of the Solar System is difficult to explain unless the Sun formed in the vicinity of one or more massive star(s) that exploded as supernovae. Two different scenarios have been proposed to explain the delivery of SLRs to the protosolar nebula: (i) direct pollution of the protosolar disc by supernova ejecta and (ii) the formation of the Sun in a sequential star formation event in which supernovae shockwaves trigger further star formation which is enriched in SLRs. The sequentially triggered model has been suggested as being more astrophysically likely than the direct pollution scenario. In this paper we investigate this claim by analysing a combination of $N$-body and SPH simulations of star formation. We find that sequential star formation would result in large age spreads (or even bi-modal age distributions for spatially coincident events) due to the dynamical relaxation of the first star-formation event(s). Secondly, we discuss the probability of triggering spatially and temporally discrete populations of stars and find this to be only possible in very contrived situations. Taken together, these results suggest that the formation of the Solar System in a triggered star formation event is as improbable, if not more so, than the direct pollution of the protosolar disc by a supernova.
Triggering, suppressing and redistributing star formation
James E. Dale,Barbara Ercolano,Ian Bonnell
Physics , 2012,
Abstract: We discuss three different ways in which stellar feedback may alter the outcome of star cluster formation: triggering or suppressing star formation, and redistributing the stellar population in space. We use detailed Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of HII regions in turbulent molecular clouds to show that all three of these may happen in the same system, making inferences about the effects of feedback problematic.
The fragmentation of expanding shells I: Limitations of the thin--shell approximation
James E. Dale,Richard Wunsch,Anthony Whitworth,Jan Palous
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2009.15213.x
Abstract: We investigate the gravitational fragmentation of expanding shells in the context of the linear thin--shell analysis. We make use of two very different numerical schemes; the FLASH Adaptive Mesh Refinement code and a version of the Benz Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics code. We find that the agreement between the two codes is excellent. We use our numerical results to test the thin--shell approximation and we find that the external pressure applied to the shell has a strong effect on the fragmentation process. In cases where shells are not pressure--confined, the shells thicken as they expand and hydrodynamic flows perpendicular to the plane of the shell suppress fragmentation at short wavelengths. If the shells are pressure--confined internally and externally, so that their thickness remains approximately constant during their expansion, the agreement with the analytical solution is better.
The fragmentation of expanding shells II: Thickness matters
Richard Wunsch,James E. Dale,Jan Palous,Anthony P. Whitworth
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2010.17045.x
Abstract: We study analytically the development of gravitational instability in an expanding shell having finite thickness. We consider three models for the radial density profile of the shell: (i) an analytic uniform-density model, (ii) a semi-analytic model obtained by numerical solution of the hydrostatic equilibrium equation, and (iii) a 3D hydrodynamic simulation. We show that all three profiles are in close agreement, and this allows us to use the first model to describe fragments in the radial direction of the shell. We then use non-linear equations describing the time-evolution of a uniform oblate spheroid to derive the growth rates of shell fragments having different sizes. This yields a dispersion relation which depends on the shell thickness, and hence on the pressure confining the shell. We compare this dispersion relation with the dispersion relation obtained using the standard thin-shell analysis, and show that, if the confining pressure is low, only large fragments are unstable. On the other hand, if the confining pressure is high, fragments smaller than predicted by the thin-shell analysis become unstable. Finally, we compare the new dispersion relation with the results of 3D hydrodynamic simulations, and show that the two are in good agreement.
First Investigation of the Combined Impact of Ionizing Radiation and Momentum Winds from a Massive Star on a Self-Gravitating Core
Judith Ngoumou,David Hubber,James E. Dale,Andreas Burkert
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/798/1/32
Abstract: Massive stars shape the surrounding ISM by emitting ionizing photons and ejecting material through stellar winds. To study the impact of the momentum from the wind of a massive star on the surrounding neutral or ionized material, we implemented a new HEALPix-based momentum conserving wind scheme in the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) code SEREN. A qualitative study of the impact of the feedback from an O7.5-like star on a self gravitating sphere shows that, on its own, the transfer of momentum from a wind onto cold surrounding gas has both a compressing and dispersing effect. It mostly affects gas at low and intermediate densities. When combined with a stellar source's ionizing UV radiation, we find the momentum driven wind to have little direct effect on the gas. We conclude that, during a massive star's main sequence, the UV ionizing radiation is the main feedback mechanism shaping and compressing the cold gas. Overall, the wind's effects on the dense gas dynamics and on the triggering of star formation are very modest. The structures formed in the ionization-only simulation and in the combined feedback simulation are remarkably similar. However, in the combined feedback case, different SPH particles end up being compressed. This indicates that the microphysics of gas mixing differ between the two feedback simulations and that the winds can contribute to the localized redistribution and reshuffling of gas.
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