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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 185091 matches for " James E. Cloern "
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Projected Evolution of California's San Francisco Bay-Delta-River System in a Century of Climate Change
James E. Cloern, Noah Knowles, Larry R. Brown, Daniel Cayan, Michael D. Dettinger, Tara L. Morgan, David H. Schoellhamer, Mark T. Stacey, Mick van der Wegen, R. Wayne Wagner, Alan D. Jassby
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0024465
Abstract: Background Accumulating evidence shows that the planet is warming as a response to human emissions of greenhouse gases. Strategies of adaptation to climate change will require quantitative projections of how altered regional patterns of temperature, precipitation and sea level could cascade to provoke local impacts such as modified water supplies, increasing risks of coastal flooding, and growing challenges to sustainability of native species. Methodology/Principal Findings We linked a series of models to investigate responses of California's San Francisco Estuary-Watershed (SFEW) system to two contrasting scenarios of climate change. Model outputs for scenarios of fast and moderate warming are presented as 2010–2099 projections of nine indicators of changing climate, hydrology and habitat quality. Trends of these indicators measure rates of: increasing air and water temperatures, salinity and sea level; decreasing precipitation, runoff, snowmelt contribution to runoff, and suspended sediment concentrations; and increasing frequency of extreme environmental conditions such as water temperatures and sea level beyond the ranges of historical observations. Conclusions/Significance Most of these environmental indicators change substantially over the 21st century, and many would present challenges to natural and managed systems. Adaptations to these changes will require flexible planning to cope with growing risks to humans and the challenges of meeting demands for fresh water and sustaining native biota. Programs of ecosystem rehabilitation and biodiversity conservation in coastal landscapes will be most likely to meet their objectives if they are designed from considerations that include: (1) an integrated perspective that river-estuary systems are influenced by effects of climate change operating on both watersheds and oceans; (2) varying sensitivity among environmental indicators to the uncertainty of future climates; (3) inevitability of biological community changes as responses to cumulative effects of climate change and other drivers of habitat transformations; and (4) anticipation and adaptation to the growing probability of ecosystem regime shifts.
The Case for a Pragmatic Qualitative Appraisal Framework for Local Economic Development  [PDF]
James E. Rowe
Modern Economy (ME) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/me.2014.57070

This paper develops a theoretical framework and rationale for an alternative post-structuralist approach to assessing economic development strategies. This research applies Deleuzian philosophical concepts in order to address the limitations of current assessment methodologies. The paper explores the history of and the reasons for the perceived failure of the Auckland Regional Economic Development Strategy (AREDS). This perceived failure led to the total de-territorialsiation of the organisation tasked with implementing the strategy. Deleuzian spatial concepts, such as flows, plateaus, rhizomes and lines of flight, are employed to develop metaphorical tools for assessing economic development strategies, initiatives and programmes. The framework developed is tested against AREDS. The paper concludes that such strategies and local initiatives should be assessed based on performance predicated on becoming instead of performance-measured outcomes.

Evidence of Bat Sacrifice in Ancient Maya Cave Ritual  [PDF]
James E. Brady
Archaeological Discovery (AD) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ad.2019.72006
Abstract: Excavations conducted in Naj Tunich, Petén, Guatemala encountered a number of slabs of speleothem curtains that were used as altars. Two of these contained bat skeletons suggesting that bats had been sacrificed as part of ceremonies carried out in the cave. A review of the archaeological literature documents that remains of bats has been reported in burials, caches, and constructions. Naj Tunich, however, is the first instance of sacrifice occurring in a cave which raises the problem of distinguishing between cultural as opposed to natural deposition. A series of propositions are advanced for dealing with the issue.
Subsurface Facies Analysis of the Late Cambrian Mt. Simon Sandstone in Western Ohio (Midcontinent North America)  [PDF]
Aram Saeed, James E. Evans
Open Journal of Geology (OJG) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojg.2012.22004
Abstract: The Cambrian Mt. Simon Sandstone (MSS) is a possible unconventional gas reservoir in the Illinois, Michigan, and Appalachian Basins, but comparatively little is known about the unit. This study used core and well logs from two deep exploratory wells to interpret the depositional environment of the MSS under western Ohio, where the MSS is about 120 m thick and found 1060 m below ground surface. In western Ohio, the MSS unconformably overlies the Precambrian Middle Run Formation, is conformably overlain by the Cambrian Eau Claire Formation, and has a distinctive gamma-ray log-signature. In well DGS-2627, the MSS consists of tan, friable, moderately sorted, rounded, coarse- to very coarse-grained siliceous quartz arenite with minor heterolithic sandstone-mudstone couplets (rhythmites) and quartz granule conglomerate. Features indicative of tidally-influenced, shallow marine settings include tidal rhythmites, lenticular-, flaser-, and wavy-bedding, herringbone cross-bedding, mud-drapes, tidal bundles, reactivation surfaces, intraclasts, and bioturbation. The unit generally coarsens- and thickens-upward, and is interpreted as migration of a tidally-influenced transgressive barrier sequence. A subsurface facies model for the MSS is developed by interpreting geophysical logs and cores from DGS-2627l, and this model is semi-quantitatively tested by first interpreting well BP-4 using geophysical logs alone, then confirming the results using core.
Channel Evolution of Sandy Reservoir Sediments Following Low-Head Dam Removal, Ottawa River, Northwestern Ohio, U.S.A.  [PDF]
Nathan Harris, James E. Evans
Open Journal of Modern Hydrology (OJMH) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojmh.2014.42004
Dozens of low-head dams are removed annually for reasons of obsolescence, financial liability, public safety, or as part of aquatic ecosystem restoration. Prior to removing a dam, hydrologic and sedimentologic studies are used to predict channel changes that would occur after the proposed dam removal. One commonly used predictive approach is a channel evolution model (CEM). However, most CEMs assume that the reservoir has trapped cohesive silts and muds. This study looks at the effects of low-head dam removal on a reservoir in filled with sand-rich sediment. The Secor Dam (2.5 m tall, 17 m wide) was constructed on the Ottawa River in northwestern Ohio (USA) during 1928 and was removed in 2007. High resolution channel cross-sections were measured at 17 locations prior to dam removal and re-measured every approximately 30 days for 6 months following the removal. Sediment sampling, sediment traps, substrate sampling, differential GPS tracking of channel bed forms and sediment coring were also used to characterize the channel sediment response to dam removal. Breaching of the dam produced a diffuse nickzone which was the width of the channel and about 10 m in length. One initial response was downstream migration of a sediment wave at rates up to 0.5 m/hr. The overall effect was erosion of the former reservoir to a distance of 150 m upstream of the former dam. Portions of the former reservoir were incised >1 m. Within the first 6 months after removal, approximately 800 m3 of sand had been mobilized from the former reservoir, transported downstream past the former dam, and had primarily in-filled pre-existing pools within a reach approximately 150 m downstream of the former dam. This behavior significantly differs from the predicted results of current CEMs which anticipate a first flush of suspended sediment and minor deposition of bed load materials in the channel downstream of the former dam.
Shallow-Water Origin of a Devonian Black Shale, Cleveland Shale Member (Ohio Shale), Northeastern Ohio, USA  [PDF]
Saeed Alshahrani, James E. Evans
Open Journal of Geology (OJG) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojg.2014.412048
Abstract: Black shales are usually interpreted to require anoxic bottom waters and deeper water sedimentation. There has long been a debate about whether the Devonian Cleveland Shale Member of the Ohio Shale (CSM) was deposited in shallow- or deep-water depositional environments. This study looked at the CSM at 3 stratigraphic sections and 5 well cores in northeastern Ohio. The CSM mostly consists of sapropelite (interbedded carbonaceous black mudstones and gray calcareous claystones). The black and gray “shales” are rhythmically bedded at micro- (<1 cm thick), meso- (<10 cm thick) and macro-scales (10s of cm thick) and represent changes in organic matter content (ranging from 7% - 20% TOC). Three types of event layers are interbedded with the mudrocks: 1) tempestites, 2) proximal turbidites, and 3) hyperpycnites. Individual tempestites and turbidites are laterally continuous ≥35 km, while hyperpycnites are too thin (<1 cm) to trace laterally. Tempestites consist of hummocky stratified sandstones with groove casts and escape burrows overlain by planar laminated sandstones with wave ripples at the top. Tempestites average 13 cm thick, but can be amalgamated up to 45 cm thick, and are more common in the lower half of the unit. Turbidites are incomplete Bouma sequences that average 6 cm thick, show evidence of combined flow (“wave-modified turbidites”), and are more common toward the top of the unit. Hyperpycnites (density underflows from river discharge) consist of inverse-to-normal graded sandy or silty microlaminae that have been studied primarily by using petrography and SEM. Condensed sections in the CSM are probable firmgrounds with carbonate concretions, and indicate intervals of low sedimentation rates. The evidence shows that the CSM depositional environment was receiving siliciclastics from the northeast (e.g., Catskill delta), and that the coarser-grained clastic sediment was primarily transported as density underflows (turbidites and hyperpycnites). However, significant storm deposits (tempestites) within the CSM indicate erosion and redeposition occurred on a muddy clastic marine shelf at paleo-water depths less than storm-weather wave base (probably ≤50 m depth).
Another Way to Use the Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA)  [PDF]
James Smit, Dennis E. Feierman
Open Journal of Anesthesiology (OJAnes) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojanes.2016.64011
Abstract: The laryngeal mask airway (LMA) has changed airway management. Besides its use as an airway conduit, it is also used to help obtain a secure airway, i.e., it is used to facilitate the placement of an endotracheal tube. We describe a new technique to use in potential difficult pediatric airway.
A Tri-Squared Analysis to Establish the Need for a Statistical Framework for K-20 Faculty as Academic Leaders  [PDF]
James E. Osler II, Philliph M. Mutisya
Creative Education (CE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2013.48A004
Abstract: This paper provides an in-depth interchange on an innovative statistical model used in a research study. The Tri-Squared Statistic was the novel statistical methodology used in the study to analyze data and determined the validity and reliability of research hypotheses that focus on the need for statistical metrics and methodologies designed to empower faculty in K-20 education as dynamically innovative research scientists who create instruments to validate a variety of ground-breaking and cutting edge solutions that they implement to improve learning. The paper addresses a critical need for innovative research methodology that conducted a research study aimed at verifying the Tri-Squared Test as the ideal statistical framework to empower faculty as leaders in academic research from a holistic problem-solving approach.
Isolation and Identification of Fungal Endophytes from Grasses along the Oregon Coast  [PDF]
Ruth C. Martin, James E. Dombrowski
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2015.619313
Abstract: Fungal endophytes have been shown to improve abiotic and biotic stress response in plants. Grasses growing along the Oregon coast are exposed to harsh conditions and may harbor endophytes that enable them to survive and grow under these conditions. Endophytic fungi were isolated from thirty-four grass plants representing eight different grass species at four different locations along the Oregon coast. The ITS-1, 5.8S, and ITS-2 regions of each isolate were amplified, sequenced, and used to perform a BLAST search against the nucleotide database collection at National Center for Biotechnology Information. One-hundred-eleven different fungal isolates were classified into thirtynine genera with two isolates that did not show a match greater than 95%. These endophytes will be investigated to determine their potential for improving the adaptability of grasses and other crop plants to grow in diverse environments where they are subjected to multiple biotic and abiotic stresses.
Numerical Solutions of Volterra Equations Using Galerkin Method with Certain Orthogonal Polynomials  [PDF]
James E. Mamadu, Ignatius N. Njoseh
Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics (JAMP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jamp.2016.42044
Abstract: This work is aim at providing a numerical technique for the Volterra integral equations using Galerkin method. For this purpose, an effective matrix formulation is proposed to solve linear Volterra integral equations of the first and second kind respectively using orthogonal polynomials as trial functions which are constructed in the interval [-1,1] with respect to the weight function w(x)=1+x2. The efficiency of the proposed method is tested on several numerical examples and compared with the analytic solutions available in the literature.
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