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activity throughout the school day may help reduce the risk of childhood
obesity. Semi-structured recess is a unique approach to create more physical
activity. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the physical
activity and enjoyment of urban school children during traditional unstructured
recess and semi-structured recess. Method: Children from the Southwestern US (N
= 165) wore a NL-1000 piezoelectric accelerometer during their 15-minute lunch
recess. Children participated in both their traditional unstructured (no
structure and no equipment) recess and semi-structured (organized games and
equipment) recess. An enjoyment scale was completed after both types of recess
formats. Results: During unstructured recess, children accumulated 1028 ± 356
steps and 4.59 ± 2.2 minutes of MVPA compared to 1156 ± 434 steps and 5.44 ± 2.76
minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) during semi-structured
recess. Paired sample t-tests
revealed that children took significantly more steps (t = −4.98; p < 0.001)
and MVPA (t = −5.940; p < 0.001) during semi-structured
recess. No significant differences were found for enjoyment (p = 0.847) between recesses.
Conclusions: It is important for schools to consider creative, semi-structured
recess opportunities to increase step counts and time in MVPA (while
papillomavirus is the most prevalent sexually transmitted infection in the
United States and is associated with 70% of cervical cancers as well as over
90% of genital warts. Although the HPV vaccine appears in the US immunization
schedule during adolescence, a large percentage of women reach adulthood
without being vaccinated. The Transtheoretical Model’s (TTM) Processes of Change
(POC) construct provides an assessment of participants’ experiences with HPV
vaccination and is a central component of computer-tailored interventions
designed to increase compliance with medical recommendations, such as vaccination.
This study describes development and validation of a POC measure for
increasing HPV vaccination among young adult women. Methods: Cross-sectional
measurement development was conducted using an online survey to reach a sample
of 340 female college students representing vaccinated and unvaccinated
women. Factor analytic structural equation modeling as well as evaluations of
the stage by POC were used to evaluate the validity of the POC measure.
Results: Confirmatory analyses supported the theoretically expected ten-factor,
fully correlated model as the best fit for the data. Expected Stage of Change
to POC relationships were also confirmed insofar as each POC was significantly
associated with Stage of Change, with the exception of dramatic relief.
Follow-up analyses suggested that individuals in the Precontemplation stage
used all POC less frequently than individuals in all other stages. Conclusions: The POC measure was found
to be internally and externally valid in a sample of college-attending women.
The POC measure developed may be used to tailor stage-matched interventions
that increase use of experiential and behavioral strategies important for
increasing HPV vaccination in this high-risk population.