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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2073 matches for " Jalal-Eddeen Abubakar Saleh "
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LLIN Ownership, Utilization, and Malaria Prevalence: An Outlook at the 2015 Nigeria Malaria Indicator Survey  [PDF]
Jalal-Eddeen Abubakar Saleh, Abdullahi Saddiq, Akubue Augustine Uchenna
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104280
Abstract:
Background: Malaria is a disease caused by an infected female Anopheles mosquito. Nigeria, one of the two epicenters of malaria transmission across the globe, contributes to 40 percent global malaria burden. The disease, considered a global priority, has an annual global death toll of around 400,000 people. The global reduction in malaria burden which is the result of direct scale-up of one of the core malaria interventions using the insecticide-treated nets (ITNs), has prevented around 663 million cases of malaria in the sub-Saharan Africa. The most cost-effective evidenced-based strategy against malaria and its unwanted consequences is sleeping under the LLINs; studies have proven this measure to confer adequate protection to the mother and her unborn child. Methods: Quantitative cross-sectional study using secondary data obtained during the 2015 Nigeria malaria indicator survey. The eligible participants in the survey were pregnant women and caregivers who had at least a child under the age of five years. The survey was conducted in October and November 2015 across the thirty-six states of the country including the Federal Capital Territory. Using SPSS version 24, correlation and regression analyses were run to check for any significant correlation between LLIN use and malaria prevalence. Results: The Pearson correlation is 0.866 (α = 0.026, p < 0.05) 2-tailed test, showing positive linear relationships between LLIN use and malaria prevalence across the six geo-political zones in 2015. The ANOVA test shows F value 21.510 (α = 0.017, p < 0.05) and Regression analysis, R-square 0.935; these further shows a significant correlation between LLIN use and malaria prevalence. In favour of the Alternative Hypothesis, the Null Hypothesis was rejected. However, LLIN ownership and malaria prevalence shows weak correlation with a Pearson correlation of 0.635, (α = 0.175, p < 0.05) 2-tailed test. Conclusion: The outcome of this study once again underscores LLIN as an important prevention tool against malaria and its unwanted consequences. The positive linear correlation on LLIN use and the decline in malaria prevalence underscores the need for governments at all levels to ease up LLIN access to reduce any intervention gaps to further reduce malaria morbidity and mortality and achieve malaria elimination across the country.
Behaviour of People Living with HIV Aids in Northeastern Nigeria  [PDF]
Mohammed Tahiru Bolori, Mary Olubisi Amodu, Isah Muhammad Ahmad, Haruna Yusuph, Jalal-Eddeen Abubakar Saleh
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1103944
Abstract:
Introduction: Human Behavior is important as one of the determinants of transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. The risk of getting infected with HIV as well as subsequent developments and reactions after the infection has a direct bearing on human behavior. Positive behavior change of HIV infection prevention is less than the level of awareness and knowledge pertaining the disease among PLWHA. Method: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out on PLWHA attending clinic at the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital. A structured interviewer administered questionnaire was used to collect data by systematic random sampling technique. The objective of the research was to understand more about the behaviour of PLWHA and make recommendations on how to improve the behavioral change communications among PLWHA to curb the menace of HIV infection. Results: The people living with HIV/AIDs may be knowledgeable and having high awareness on HIV/AIDS but may not necessarily reflect into good behaviors concerning, taking the right steps to prevent menaces of HIV infection. The behavior of PLWHA was found to have gaps that portend danger in regard to making life more miserable to victims and portend more risk of getting others infected. The gaps are mainly related to psychological issues (e.g., lack of enjoyment or with condom use), beliefs, stigma and financial issues. Conclusion: Counselling should be used to inculcate technic, good morals, attitude and practices among PLWHA to prevent them from deliberate or spontaneous attempts to infect others with the virus. Safer and satisfying sex can be promoted through expanding knowledge and awareness about HIV/AIDS and removing stigma among the general populace through community health education as well as through schools’ curricula. Empowerment of the youths in public and private settings discourages exchanging sexual intercourse for financial gains.
Investigation of a Suspected Malaria Outbreak in Sokoto State, Nigeria, 2016  [PDF]
Jalal-Eddeen Abubakar Saleh, Alemu Wondimagegnehu, Rex Mpazanje, Lynda Ozor, Sule Abdullahi
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104246
Abstract:
Background: Malaria, a vector borne disease that contributes to the 17 percent of the global burden of infectious diseases, is preventable, treatable and completely curable. The disease is endemic in Nigeria, staggering at 27 percent prevalence and contributes up to 29 percent of global burden of the disease. It contributes to the high child mortality in Nigeria, attributed 30 percent of under five deaths. In October 2016, WHO team in Nigeria in collaboration with Nigerian Centre for Disease Control investigated a suspected malaria outbreak in Sokoto state of northwestern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: We reviewed hospital records of 190 patients who presented to the health facility with febrile illness, investigated and treated from 3/10/2016 to 25/10/2016. Data used during the study included age, sex, residential address, signs and symptoms. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in the region of the outbreak to assess the knowledge of the community on malaria control measures. SPSS version 24 was used for the data analyses. Results: Out of the 190 cases, 168 (88.4%) tested positive for RDT and 22 (11.5%) tested negative. The age range of the cases was from three months to 70 years (median: 14 years), the sex distribution was 118 (62.1%) females and 72 (37.9%) males, and the CFR of the RDT positive cases was 2.97% (5/168) with M:F ratio of 1:4. A survey to assess the knowledge of the affected community on malaria preventive measures shows 59.5% (25/42) are aware of at least three out of four measures asked. Conclusion: Although government commitment to malaria control is commendable, this suspected outbreak has clearly brought to fore some gaps in the on-going malaria control in Sokoto state. Thus, there is a need for government to intensify health education programmes on environmental hygiene, state malaria control programme to strengthen awareness campaigns on malaria interventions as well as improve access to the available interventions especially for the more vulnerable members of the community.
Suspected Malaria Outbreak Investigations in Baure LGA, Katsina State, Nigeria  [PDF]
Jalal-Eddeen Abubakar Saleh, Abdullahi Saddiq, Haruna Ismaila Adamu, Rex Mpazanje, Bala Mohammed Audu
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105512
Abstract:
Background: Malaria, a disease that is endemic in Nigeria and contributing up to 25 per cent of infant mortality and 30 per cent of under-five mortality, is among the 17 per cent of the global burden of infectious diseases. Nigeria, which has 27 per cent malaria prevalence, is among the top eleven high-burden countries globally. In September 2018, a team headed by the World Health Or-ganisation in Nigeria investigated a suspected malaria outbreak in Baure local government area of Katsina state northwestern Nigeria. Methods: We reviewed clinical records of 30 patients who were presented to the health facility with febrile illness, investigated and treated from 10th-24th September 2018. The data used during the study included age, sex, residential address, signs and symptoms. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Epicentre of the suspected outbreak to assess the knowledge of the caregivers on malaria control measures and look at the coverage of the seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) running in the area for the third year. The data were analysed using Excel. Results: Out of the 30 reported cases, 27 (90%) were tested positive for RDT and 3 (10%) were tested negative. The age range of the cases was from three months to 70 years (median: 14 years), sex distribution F 16 (59%) and M 11 (41%) and CFR 3.7% (1/27). An SMC coverage survey shows that out of 86 HHs, 79 (91.86%) had SMC cards for the last two cycles of 2018. On the knowledge of caregivers on malaria preventive measures, 80% (8/10) were aware that mosquitoes transmit malaria, and 100% (10/10) had knowledge on at least one preventive measure against the disease. Conclusion: Although government commitment to malaria control is commendable, there is the need for state malaria control programme to intensify health education programmes on environmental hygiene, to strengthen awareness campaigns on the available malaria interventions and to improve access to the interventions especially for the more vulnerable members of the community.
Lots Quality Assurance Survey (LQAS) as a Strategy to Achieving Quality LLIN Campaigns: The Nigerian Experience  [PDF]
Jalal-Eddeen Abubakar Saleh, Akubue Augustine Uchenna, Dr. Abdullahi Saddiq, Alemu Wondimagegnehu, Rex Mpazanje, Dr. Bala Mohammed Audu
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104484
Abstract:
Background: Nigeria, in its quest to scale up coverage and utilization of LLINs as a strategy for malaria control, had the first long lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) mass campaign across the country between 2009-2013. The NMEP with support from its RBM partners successfully distributed over 57.7 million LLINs during the period representing over 90% of the national target. In spite this, and to achieve universal coverage, the country maintained a continuous distribution through multiple channels and in particular the antenatal care outlets and the expanded programme on immunization. The Nigerian government, with support from the Global Fund and through the National Malaria Elimination Programme (NMEP), Catholic Relief Services (CRS), and the Society for Family Health (SFH) and with technical support from the World Health Organization, once again launched the LLIN replacement campaign in some states across the country. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in five states that conducted the LLIN replacement campaign using the lots quality assurance survey (LQAS) tool developed by the World Health Organization. The period of the survey across the states is between August and December 2017. The LQAS questionnaires were administered to households (HHs) by the WHO field officers trained on the use of the tool at least one week after the campaign. A total of 240 HHs were selected from 24 settlements (clusters) in 24 wards of six LGAs (lots) from each of the five (5) states that rolled out the campaign. Data collected were double entered, cleaned, crosschecked, and the results analysed using the SPSS version 24. Results: With a total of 9740 people surveyed from 1200 HHs across the five states, the average redemption rate was 95.5% (95% CI, 91.6% - 98.8%), average retention rate was 98.4% (95% CI, 97.0% - 99.8%), average hanging rate was 82.6% (95% CI, 80.0% - 85.5%), and an average card ownership of 83.5% (95% CI, 78.6% - 88.2%). While the main source of information 35.4% (95% CI, 21.8% - 49.0%) about the LLIN campaign was the health workers, the reasons for those missed out were mainly due to team performance 32.2% (95% CI, 26.8% - 37.4%) and net cards not issued 27.4% (95% CI, 23.2% - 32.0%). Similarly, the Pearson correlation (0.942, α 0.017, p < 0.05, 2-tailed test), the ANOVA test (F value of 23.751, α 0.017, p < 0.05), and Regression analysis (R-square 0.888 and Durbin-Watson 2.487), all shows significant relationships between LLIN redemption and usage with a resultant rejection of the Null Hypothesis. Conclusion: The outcome of this research underscores the need to adopt and scale up the use of the LQAS tool to assess the quality of LLIN campaigns within the shortest possible time. While the LQAS has been in use by the WHO Expanded Programme on Immunization cluster during polio campaigns, this is the first time that the tool was deployed by the WHO malaria unit as a strategy to identify post LLIN campaign gaps immediately after implementation. The scaling up of this strategy would undoubtedly improve LLIN campaigns that would be conducted in the remaining states across the country so as to ensure that Nigeria achieve LLIN universal access in line with the Global Technical Strategy (GTS) framework toward malaria elimination.
Quality Assurance (QA) Tool in Public Health Campaigns: A Look at the 2017 LLIN Replacement Campaign in Nigeria  [PDF]
Jalal-Eddeen Abubakar Saleh, Wondimagegnehu Alemu, Akubue Augustine Uchenna, Abdullahi Saddiq, Rex Mpazanje, Bala Mohammed Audu
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104701
Abstract:
Background: Although there are various malaria intervention measures, the long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN) are considered as the most cost-effective intervention measure for malaria endemic countries. In line with the Global Technical Strategies, and as recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO), the other available malaria preventive measures to achieve malaria control and elimination in especially the malaria endemic countries include the intermittent prophylactic treatment in pregnancy (IPTp), intermittent prophylactic treatment in infants (IPTi), indoor residual spray (IRS), seasonal malaria chemoprophylaxis (SMC), and recently the use of malaria vaccine. This study examines the role of quality assurance (QA) tool as deployed by WHO in the 2017 LLIN replacement campaigns in the states that implemented the campaign in Nigeria—Adamawa, Edo, Imo, Kwara, and Ondo. For the purpose of this study, the QA tool examined four components during the campaign—logistics, strategies, technical, and demand creation. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study using the QA checklist developed and applied by the WHO professional officers intra campaign between April and December 2017. In each of the states, a total of six LGAs were randomly selected using the EPI risk status (AFP performance indicators and the routine immunization coverage). The findings from the QA checklist tool were analyzed using the SPSS version 24 and the results discussed accordingly. Results: The results looked at general and specific issues across the five states. While the general issues are more in Kwara state in comparison to the other four states—logistics (15%), strategies (12%), technical (13%), and demand creation (7%), the specific issues are almost same across the five states; these specific issues are poor crowd control (12%), early closure of distribution sites (14%), mix-up of data at the distribution sites (15%), poor communication medium between supervisors and teams at the field (11%), safety concerns by the recipients (10%), lack of adequate knowledge on the LLIN usage (9%), inadequate LLIN storage sites (13%), and inadequate plans for LLIN movement between the distribution points (16%). In spite this; all the five states had at least 80% in the area of programme ownership. Conclusion: On the overall, the study further underscores the importance of using quality assurance checklists in public health campaigns as they help ensure that campaigns meet the minimum required standard.
Targeted Sensitization as a Strategy to Reducing Loan Default in Microfinance Bank Operations in Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria  [PDF]
Shuaib Jalaludeen, Ferdinand Che, Fatima Jalal-Eddeen
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104275
Abstract:
Background: In Nigeria and other developing countries, the main reason for poverty and uneven income and wealth distribution is low economic growth performance and low labor returns amongst others. The growing gap between the rich and the poor in the developing countries is alarming hence the need for government and policy makers to focus more toward ensuring a fair distribution of wealth among its populace. Although progress has been made toward poverty reduction in Nigeria, still more needs to be done to narrow this unacceptable gap so as to achieve the needed economic and social growth for society to thrive. In an attempt to address this gap, the central bank of Nigeria came up with the microfinance policy in 2004 and the sole purpose was to give micro, small and medium enterprises access to informal financial services to boost their capacity towards economic growth and development. However, the biggest threat to operations of the microfinance institutions is loan default, a situation where the clients do not fulfill payment of their credit facilities when due. Methods: This mixed method cross-sectional study used a questionnaire to collect responses from eligible persons. The participants in the survey are clients from three randomly selected microfinance institutions in Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria. The collated data were analyzed using SPSS version 24 and simple Microsoft Excel to look at reasons for defaulting loan repayment and whether targeted sensitization has any significant role in reducing loan default rates. Results: Out of the 150 (100%) questionnaires distributed, 70 (46.7%) were returned and used for the analysis. Reasons for default in repayments revealed short repayment period (40%), multiple loans (11.43%), high-interest rates (2.86%), family obligations (20%) and poor business turnover (25.71). Of the 52.86 percent of the respondents who claim they were contacted by their respective microfinance institutions for sensitization programs, 94.74 percent found the sensitization program helpful. Conclusion: This study has underscored the importance of targeted sensitization as an important strategy in reducing loan defaults in microfinance operations. Similarly, there is the need for further studies to look at the impact of multiple borrowing on loan repayment by the clients.
Molecular Simulation of Ion Transport at the Water/Vapor Interface  [PDF]
Jalal Dweik, Mahmoud Srour, Khaled Karaky, Marwan Kobeissi, Wissam Joumaa, Khalil Abou-Saleh
Open Journal of Physical Chemistry (OJPC) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojpc.2012.23020
Abstract: Molecular dynamics was used to quantify the role of the size, charge and polarisability of F–, Cl–, Br–, I– and Na+ ions in their distribution in the water/vapour interface system. Our results show that the larger polarizable anions I– and Br– is attracted to the surface which is traced back to surface-modified ion hydration, while the F– was repelled from the interface and the Cl– occupied the total volume of the water slab. Moreover, by artificially increasing the ions charge, anions were localized to the center of the water slab. These results demonstrate that the effect of polarizability cannot be neglected in the transport mechanism.
Assessment of Interns' Knowledge on Diagnosis of Emergencies in Hemodialysed Patients before and after Training
Mohammad Reza Ardalan,Hamid Noshad,Parviz Saleh,Jalal Etemadi
Research and Development in Medical Education , 2012, DOI: 10.5681/rdme.2012.010
Abstract: Introduction: It is apparent that having a good inflammation in hemodialysis indications, methods of the procedure, recognition of the complications are common mistakes in emergency and internal medicine and they are life saving for patients most of the times. It is clear that our medical students have many problems in this field (hidden curriculum). Therefore, we decided to do a study on the subject. Methods: During 2011, forty interns of nephrology ward enrolled in this study. They filled a questionnaire containing questions about their general hemodialysis knowledge before passing the classes. After having six one -hour classes on HD essentials, complications and emergencies, they filled the questionnaire again. The data analyzed using paired t-test and the reported Mean ± SD P< 0.05 considered significant. Results: The interns were satisfied in all the trained aspects like general hemodialysis knowledge (P< 0.001), dialysis essentials (P<0.001), physical examination (P<0.001), AVF examination (P< 0.001), volume reduction (P< 0.001), anticoagulation (P<0.001), AVF failure management (P<0.001), HD complications (P<0.001), device setting (P<0.001), cannulation (P< <0.001), dialysis efficacy (P< 0.001) and capability of patients education(P<0.001). Conclusion: Medical students had many problems with HD so that teaching of most essential aspects of hemodialysis can improve their knowledge which can be life saving in emergency situations.
On the Zeros of Daubechies Orthogonal and Biorthogonal Wavelets  [PDF]
Jalal Karam
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/am.2012.37116
Abstract: In the last decade, Daubechies’ wavelets have been successfully used in many signal processing paradigms. The construction of these wavelets via two channel perfect reconstruction filter bank requires the identification of necessary conditions that the coefficients of the filters and the roots of binomial polynomials associated with them should exhibit. In this paper, orthogonal and Biorthogonal Daubechies families of wavelets are considered and their filters are derived. In particular, the Biorthogonal wavelets Bior3.5, Bior3.9 and Bior6.8 are examined and the zeros distribution of their polynomials associated filters are located. We also examine the locations of these zeros of the filters associated with the two orthogonal wavelets db6 and db8.
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