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Cloud Computing-An Ultimate Technique to Minimize Computing cost for Developing Countries
Narendra Kumar,Shikha Jain
International Journal of Computer Technology and Applications , 2012,
Abstract: The presented paper deals with how remotely managed computing and IT resources can be beneficial in the developing countries like India and Asian sub-continent countries. This paper not only defines the architectures and functionalities of cloud computing but also indicates strongly about the current demand of Cloud computing to achieve organizational and personal level of IT supports in very minimal cost with high class flexibility. The power of cloud can be used to reduce the cost of IT - resources and infrastructure with minimum risk and great efficiency.Cloud computing can be used to host a variety of applications such as vast and complicated business applications, enterprise database, e-commerce applications, payment gateway, software development and testing tools, on-demand applications and many more. Cloud computing enables organizations to increase hardware utilization rates tremendously, and to scale up the business needs instantly, without having to invest in new infrastructure, train new personnel, or license new software products. It also creates several new classes of opportunities to develop a cost effective generation of network services, in a very less amount of time and for less money. Minimization of cost is the prime need of any developing country and the cloud computing provides a full proof way to run on the cheapest technology ever developed. The cloud computing brings a new level of efficiency and economy to deliver Information Technology Resources (ITR) on demand, and in the process it opens new business models, creates new icons to work, creates new business opportunities and open up entire new face of Information Technology in a secure and cost effective environment.There are several ranges of cloud computing implementations. Cloud computing may be implemented by service providers, that is, Public clouds or in enterprise datacenters, that is, private cloud that allocate a large number of resources and capabilities so that applications can scale from one to thousands of servers in a short time. Emerging models such as virtual datacenters allow customers to reserve capacity and work with dedicated resource within a cloud, increasing the ability to manage cost and service levels. Hybrid clouds can further optimize benefits to an organization by combining the needed elements of public clouds, enterprise clouds, and enterprise datacenter technology.The Cloud Computing Architecture of a cloud solution is the structure of the system, which comprises on-premise and cloud resources, services, middleware, and software components, geo-loc
Analytical Observations on Knapsack Cipher 0/255
Ashish Jain,Narendra S. Chaudhari
Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: We observed few important facts that concerns with the new proposal of knapsack cipher 0/255, recently published by Pham [1]. The author claimed that the time complexity for solving new improved trapdoor knapsack is O(256^N). In this paper, we show that the knapsack cipher 0/255 can be solved in the same time that is required for solving the basic knapsack-cipher proposed by Merkle and Hellman [2]. In other words we claim that the improved version proposed by Pham [1] is technically same as the basic Merkle and Hellman Knapsack-based cryptosystem.
Two Trivial Attacks on A5/1:A GSM Stream Cipher
Ashish Jain,Narendra S. Chaudhari
Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: Stream ciphers play an important role in those applications where high throughput remains critical and resources are very restricted e.g. in Europe and North America, A5/1 is widely used stream cipher that ensure confidentiality of conversations in GSM mobile phones. However careful security analysis of such cipher is very important due to widespread practical applicability. The basic building blocks used in the design of A5/1 are linear feedback shift registers (LFSRs). Algebraic attacks are new and very powerful tool to cryptanalyse LFSRs based stream ciphers even non-linear combiner are concerned. In this paper we compared previous attacks on A5/1 as well as an algebraic attack and a new improved guess and determine attack is proposed.
Impact of obesity and diabetes on arthritis: An update  [PDF]
Rajesh Pandey, Narendra Kumar, Seema Paroha, Ram Prasad, Mukesh Yadav, Shalini Jain, Hariom Yadav
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.51019
Abstract:

The incidence of obesity and diabetes has been increased with alarming rate in recent years and became a common problem around the globe including developing as well as in developed countries with incalculable social costs. Obesity and type 2 diabetes are two common co-morbidities occur together. Obesity and diabetes is closely associated with many diseases, osteoarthritis, hypertension, certain form of cancer, sleep-breathing disorders and coronary heart disease. Impacts of obesity and diabetes (insulin resistance) on arthritis have been seen in patients that we associated with combination of various factors like increased availability of high-energy foods, genetic susceptibility and decreased physical activity in modern society. Arthritis is becoming pandemic around the globe and its occurrence with obesity and diabetes has been observed more common than ever. Combination of these two chronic conditions makes these diseases more vulnerable for human health. Till now very limited information is established about the pathological and mechanistic correlation among these health ailments. In this review article we aimed to survey the literature covering the influence of obesity and diabetes on arthritis pathology and tried to establish correlation with these diseases.

Engineered cellular carrier nanoerythrosomes as potential targeting vectors for anti-malarial drug
Agnihotri Jaya,Gajbhiye Virendra,Jain Narendra
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutics , 2010,
Abstract: The present investigation was aimed at developing and exploring the use of nanoerythrosomes (nEs) for targeted delivery of anti-malarial drug, pyrimethamine (PMA). The formulation was prepared by the extrusion method and drug was conjugated to nEs with the help of gluteraldehyde used as a cross-linking agent. The nEs formulation was optimized for drug concentration, surface morphology, viscosity, and sedimentation volume. The drug-loaded nEs showed delayed in vitro release, good stability at 4±1°C, and controlled in vivo release. Tissue distribution studies showed higher accumulation of drug in liver (17.34±1.3 μg/ml) at 3 h in the case of nEs as compared to free drug (12.82±0.7 μg/ml). A higher amount of drug i.e. 13.14±0.9 μg/ml was found after 24 h in liver in the case of nEs as compared to free drug concentration of 9.72±0.5 μg/ml. Data showed that developed PMA-loaded nEs hold promise for targeting and controlling the release of drug and improve treatment of malaria.
Dendrimers - Reflections on host-guest interaction mechanism towards solubility enhancement
Jain Narendra,Prajapati Ram,Agarwal Abhinav,Gupta Umesh
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutics , 2009,
Abstract: Hydrophobicity of a bioactive is one area of major concern that poses as a great hindrance in the development of a therapeutically effective dosage form and prevents sufficient delivery of the drug to the target site. Since the last decade, dendrimers have emerged as highly promising drug delivery modules because of their unique structure and properties. Solubility enhancement is an important aspect of dendrimers and this is a synergy with site-specific drug delivery. The hydrophobic guests when entrapped in the hydrophobic channels of dendrimers are solubilized in the aqueous solution. The present article explores the various complex interaction mechanisms between the dendrimer and a bioactive. Hence the objective of this review is to reflect the host - guest interactions with the potential role of the proposed system, to enhance drug solubility and bioavailability.
Development, characterization and solubility study of solid dispersion of terbinafine hydrochloride by solvent evaporation method
Kumar Narendra,Jain Akhilesh,Singh Chhater,Kumar Rajesh
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutics , 2008,
Abstract: Terbinafine HCl (Poorly water soluble drug), when prepared as solid dispersion showed improved solubility and dissolution. So the main purpose of this investigation was to increase the solubility and dissolution rate of Terbinafine HCl by the preparation of its solid dispersion with polyvinyl pyrrolidone K30 using solvent evaporation methods. FT- IR spectra revealed no chemical incompatibility between drug and polyvinyl pyrrolidone K30. Drug-polymer interactions were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Powder X-Ray Diffraction (PXRD).
SOLUBILITY ENHANCEMENT OF POORLY WATER SOLUBLE CELECOXIB FOR PARENTERAL FORMULATIONS
Shikha Agrawal*, Nidhi Soni , Narendra. K. Jain and G. P. Agrawal
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research , 2012,
Abstract: Celecoxib, a diaryl substituted pyrazole, is practically insoluble in water which precludes its use in parenteral and liquid dosage forms. This study explores the solubility enhancement of celecoxib using hydrotropy and cosolvency solubilization approaches. The equilibrium solubility studies were performed using hydrotropes piperazine, sodium citrate, and urea and cosolvents PEG 200, PEG 400, PEG 600, DMA, Ethanol and Propylene glycol at various temperatures. Parenteral formulations using hydrotrope and cosolvents were developed and studied for accelerated stability study. The solubility of celecoxib was found to increase upto 45 times in 3M piperazine solution and upto 10232 times in PEG 600 at 25±20C. The results of solubilization study showed that the increase in solubility of celecoxib is smaller in piperazine and urea when used alone as compared to the increase in solubility which was found when these hydrotropes were used in combination with cosolvents PEG 600, PEG 400, DMA and Eth. Stability studies indicated that all the formulations stored were found to be stable for drug content, pH and change in physical appearance i.e. color, precipitation.
Experimental Proof of Mass in Photon  [PDF]
Narendra Swarup Agarwal
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2015.65068
Abstract: The present work deals with the mass of photon which creates a force at the contact point of reflection resulting in slight deviation of photon from its path after reflection. Only the mass of photon can cause deviation due to inertial force. If photon has no mass, it cannot deviate. It is also found that this deviation of photon depends on the angle of polarization plane of laser light with respect to reflecting mirror. Such variation in the angle of deviation by the plane of polarization proves that the mass of photon is neither in the centre of photon nor distributed uniformly but located off-centre (away from the centre of photon). This work proves that photon has mass and the most important part of this work is to discover that the mass of the photon is located off-centre (away from the centre of photon). This discovery explains Wave Particle Duality of electromagnetic radiations.
Adaptive Lifting Transform for Classification of Hyperspectral Signatures  [PDF]
Rajesh Agrawal, Narendra Bawane
Advances in Remote Sensing (ARS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ars.2015.42012
Abstract: Supervised classification of hyperspectral images is a challenging task because of the higher dimensionality of a pixel signature. The conventional classifiers require large training data set; however, practically limited numbers of labeled pixels are available due to complexity and cost involved in sample collection. It is essential to have a method that can reduce such higher dimensional data into lower dimensional feature space without the loss of useful information. For classification purpose, it will be useful if such a method takes into account the nature of the underlying signal when extracting lower dimensional feature vector. The lifting framework provides the required flexibility. This article proposes the adaptive lifting wavelet transform to extract the lower dimensional feature vectors for the classification of hyperspectral signatures. The proposed adaptive update step allows the decomposition filter to adapt to the input signal so as to retain the desired characteristics of the signal. A three-layer feed forward neural network is used as a supervised classifier to classify the extracted features. The effectiveness of the proposed method is tested on two hyperspectral data sets (HYDICE & ROSIS sensors). The performance of the proposed method is compared with first generation discrete wavelet transform (DWT) based feature extraction method and previous studies that use the same data. The indices used for measuring performance are overall classification accuracy and Kappa value. The experimental results show that the proposed adaptive lifting scheme (ALS) has excellent results with a small size training set.
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