Abstract:
Common (neoliberal) wisdom warns against the detrimental effects of demographic changes and fiscal pressures on traditional (both defined-benefit and public) pensions and urges a paradigm shift towards defined- contribution plans and personal retirement accounts. This paper examines these claims, promoted by the OECD and World Bank, among others, by comparing the experiences of two OECD members—Israel and Ireland. While Ireland, one of the founders of the OECD, has pursued typical neoliberal policies of retrenchment, Israel—the newest member of the OECD—has taken a more sinuous path, reversing some retrenchment and eventually making pensions mandatory and almost doubling employer contributions to them. The outcomes of these policies seem to be far more positive in Israel than in Ireland, both in terms of their effects on retirees and workers, as well as their impact via aggregate demand on the overall economy, particularly in the aftermath of the Great Recession.

Abstract:
This paper examines the relationship between income inequality and subsequent economic growth. It builds on the model suggested by Alesina and Rodrik (1994) in which inequality works through greater demands for redistribution to slow down growth, and the idea by Ray (1998) that inequality negatively affects savings, work capacity, economic incentives, and access to and efficiency of credit and financial markets. Using an updated dataset and seven model variants, both OLS and 2SLS regressions find a strong negative effect of income inequality on future growth. The effect is considerably stronger for developing countries, but the existence or absence of democracy has no effect on either the relationship between inequality and growth or on the rate of growth itself. There is also no support for Barro’s (2008) claim that inequality impacts growth positively in developed countries.

Abstract:
Many recent highly precise and unmistakable observational facts achieved thanks to the tightly synchronized clocks of the GPS, provide consistent evidence that the gravitational fields are created by velocity fields of real space itself, a vigorous and very stable quantum fluid like spatial medium, the same space that rules the propagation of light and the inertial motion of matter. It is shown that motion of this real space in the ordinary three dimensions round the Earth, round the Sun and round the galactic centers throughout the universe, according to velocity fields closely consistent with the local main astronomical motions, correctly induces the gravitational dynamics observed within these gravitational fields. In this spacedynamics the astronomical bodies all closely rest with respect to the real space, which forth-rightly leads to the observed null results of the Michelson light anisotropy experiments as well as to the absence of effects of the solar and galactic gravitational fields on the rate of clocks moving with Earth as recently discovered with the help of the GPS clocks. This spacedynamics exempts us from explaining the circular orbital motions of the planets round the Sun, likewise the rotation of Earth exempted people from explaining the diurnal transit of the heavens in the days of Copernicus and Galileo, because it is space itself that so moves. This spacedynamics also eliminates the need of dark matter and dark energy to explain respectively the galactic gravitational dynamics and the accelerated expansion of the universe. It also straightforwardly accounts in terms of well known and genuine physical effects for all the other observed effects, caused by the gravitational fields on the velocity of light and on the rate of clocks, including all the new effects recently discovered with the help of the GPS. It moreover simulates the non-Euclidean metric underlying Einstein’s spacetime curvature. This spacedynamics is the crucial innovation in the current world conception that definitively resolves all at once the troubles afflicting the current theories of space and gravitation.

This paper discusses the European Marshall Plan in three subsections: the impetus for its creation, its logistical implementation, and the results to both Europe as a whole and theUnited States. The consequences of the Marshall Plan are further broken down into three pieces: direct economic effects, indirect economic effects, and political effects. I argue that there is little evidence that direct economic effects account for the Marshall Plan’s success. Instead, the indirect economic effects, particularly in the implementation of liberal capitalistic policies, and the political effects, particularly the ideal of European integration and government-business partnerships, are the major reasons for Europe’s unsurpassed growth.

Carbon steel cantilever beams are widely used in many applications
in aerospace, civil and mechanical engineering. Pitting corrosion is a
phenomenon which places severe limitations on the design of such applications.
As such, understanding this phenomenon and the methods to deal with it, are of
a great importance. This paper presents numerical investigation by using F.E.
(Finite Element) simulation on the load carrying capacity of corroded
cantilever beams with pitting corrosion damage. The pitting corrosion hole
shape has been modeled using ASTM G46 Standard Guide. Several different cases
of pitting corrosion, represented by hemispherical holes, were modeled and
examined by using ANSYS computer program. Clamped edge constraint was used on
one end, while the other end was free. In these F.E. models, element
of Solid95 was used and comparison to Bernoulli-Euler theory was made. The
effect of the radius of the pitting corrosion holes on the stresses in the beam
was examined in comparison to yield stress. It has been found that the M.S.
(Margin of Safety) has been reduced gradually with increasing radii. Agreement
with Bernoulli-Euler theory has been achieved only for small radii. Moreover,
three methods of pitting corrosion repairs were examined, together with Bernoulli-Euler
theory comparison: 1) Regular surface repair; 2) Extension
surface repair; and 3) “Handy Removal”. It was found that extension surface repair
has the highest M.S. value.

The present work breaks the endless impasse of the current theories with space and gravitation, proposing a completely new conception in which the quantum space, ruling the propagarion of light and the inertial motion of matter, moves according to a velocity field consistent with the local main astronomical motions. This solution is clearly suggested by recent clear-cut experimental observations, achieved with the help of the GPS and also is implicit in the Quantum Field Theory (QFT) underlying the Standard Elementary Particle Model (SEPM).In a first part (Section II) it is shown that these recent experimental observations demonstrate that real space, the one that rules the propagation of light and the inertial motion of matter, is moving round each gravitational source according to a Keplerian velocity field consistent with the local main astronomical motions. This is the crucial experimental fundamentation of the spacedynamics that appropriately produces the observed gravitational dynamics on earth, in the solar system and also the galactic gravitational dynamics without the need of dark matter as well as all the observed effects of the gravitational fields on the propagation of light and on the rate of clocks.In a second part (Section III) it is shown how this spacedynamics arises within the context of the QFT underlying the SEPM. The QFT entails the idea that space is filled up with a scalar quantum field, a Bose-Einstein condensate of Higgs bosons. This Higgs condensate is a quantum fluid, responsible for giving mass to the elementary particles by the Higgs mechanism providing them with mechanical properties. This lets clear that the Higgs condensate plays the role of real quantum space that rules the propagation of light and the inertial motion of matter and is the ultimate reference for rest and for motion of matter and light. Therefore, on moving according to a Keplerian velocity field, this condensate causes the observed gravitational dynamics as well as all the other observed effects caused by the gravitational fields.

The
present work discusses, in a comprehensible language and simple mathematics,
the origin of the gravitational physics in the light of new recent experimental
observations, achieved with the help of the tightly synchronized clocks of the
GPS. These observations reveal that real space, ruling the inertial motion of
matter and the propagation of light, is moving round the earth and round the
sun according to a Keplerian velocity field, consistent with the local main
astronomical motions. This Keplerian velocity field of real space is the
quintessence of the gravitational fields and appropriately induces the observed
gravitational dynamics. Such real space needs not to be invented. It is well at
hand in the Quantum Field Theory (QFT), underlying the Standard Elementary
Particle Model (SEPM). The QFT entails the idea that space is filled up with
the Higgs condensate (HC), a very powerful quantum space (QS). The HC is a
Bose-Einstein (BE) condensate of the zero spin Higgs bosons. By coupling to the
HC, the elementary particles get inertial mass by the Higgs mechanism, that is,
get mechanical properties. This will say that the HC rules the inertial motion
of matter and the propagation of light and hence is the locally ultimate
reference for rest and for motion of matter and light. The present work
acknowledges that, likewise the Meissner effect in superconductors develops
macroscopic screening currents, forcing magnetic fields out from
superconductors, the Higgs mechanism too entails a macroscopic manifestation in
the form of the Keplerian velocity field of the QS round each matter body
throughout the universe, consistent with the local main astronomical motions.
This Keplerian velocity field screens and thrusts the matter fields out from
the HC by squeezing them into a minimum of volume. It is shown that this
Keplerian velocity field of the QS appropriately induces the observed
gravitational dynamics on earth, in the solar system as well as the galactic
gravitational dynamics without the need of dark matter. It also provides an
antigravitation mechanism accelerating the expansion of the universe. It
finally is shown that this spacedynamics correctly and appropriately gives
origin, in terms of simple and genuine physical effects, to all the other
observed effects, caused by the gravitational fields on the propagation of
light and on the rate of the clocks.

Abstract:
The
Theory of Relativity (TR) is now in conflict with a number of trustworthy
experimental observations, most of which discovered recently with the help of
the tightly synchronized clocks of the GPS. With base in these observations,
the present work appoints mistaken assumptions in the construction of the TR,
that beginned with a wrong interpretation of the null results of the Michelson
light anisotropy experiments. The assumptions of the TR about the nature of
space also become unfair within the scenario of the Higgs mechanism, underlying
the Standard Elementary Particle Model, according to which space is filled up
with real Higgs condensate (HC), responsible for giving mass to the elementary
particles. The HC is a real and very powerful quantum space (QS), stable up to 10^{15} degrees Kelvin that rules the inertial motion of matter and the propagation of
light. This QS is the locally ultimate reference for rest and for motions of
matter and propagates light at a well defined velocity c with respect to the QS and not with respect to all
inertial references. The presence of the HC cancels the reciprocal symmetry
between observers that in the TR is the source of many unresolved or badly
resolved paradoxes. It also eliminates the intrinsic isotropy of light with
respect to all possible inertial references. On the other hand, the recent
experimental observations show very clearly that this real QS is moving in the
ordinary three-dimensional space according to a Keplerian velocity field round
each astronomical body, consistently with the local main astronomical motions,
thereby creating the observed gravitational dynamics. This spacedynamics is the
quintessence of the gravitational fields and implies that earth is very closely
resting with respect to the QS, which explains the null results of the
Michelson light anisotropy experiments. All the conventional tests of the TR
have been made with atoms or elementary particles at very high velocities
within the earth based laboratories. In reality these experiments do not test
the assumptions of the TR, but simply show the effect of motion with respect to
the local QS. The equations of the TR describe well the corrections of time,
mass, energy etc., however in these expressions the relative velocity must be
replaced by the velocity with respect to the local QS. This spacedynamics has
been shown in References [4]

Abstract:
The aim
of the present work is showing that the observed non-Keplerian rotation of the
galaxies is predicted by the space dynamic gravitational mechanism without dark
matter and that the current explanation of the galactic gravitational dynamics
in terms of dark matter is hypothetical. Visibly, the need of dark matter is an
emergency created by a mistaken view about the nature of space and gravitation.
Furthermore, in the view of the present work, the accelerated expansion of the
universe is expansion of the Higgs quantum space itself, driven by minimization
of its total energy. Spontaneous breaking of the U(1) gauge symmetry and
Bose-Einstein condensation of the Higgs bosons creates a potential energy well
in the form of the Mexican sombrero. If the density φ*φof the condensate is larger than
the equilibrium density, then the Higgs quantum space can minimize its energy
by volumetric expansion. The idea that the accelerated expansion of the
universe is driven by a positive potential energy, dubbed dark energy, needs to
be unveiled.

Abstract:
The present work investigates the practical consequences of the recent experimental observations, achieved with the help of the tightly synchronized atomic clocks in orbit, on the current view about the nature of the gravitational fields. While clocks, stationary within gravitational fields, show exactly the gravitational slowing predicted by General Relativity (GR), the GPS clocks, in orbit round earth and moving with earth round the sun, do not show the gravitational slowing of the solar field, predicted by GR. This absence can only mean that the orbital motion of earth cancels this gravitational slowing, which obviously cancels too the spacetime curvature. On the other hand, the Higgs theory introduces the Higgs Quantum Space (HQS) giving mass to the elementary particles by the Higgs mechanism. The HQS thus necessarily governs the inertial motion of matter-energy and is locally their ultimate reference for rest and for motions. Motion with respect to the local HQS and not relative motion is what causes clock slowing, light anisotropy and all the, so-called relativistic effects. Non-uniform motion of the HQS itself necessarily creates inertial dynamics, which, after Einstein’s equivalence of gravitational and inertial effects, is gravitational dynamics. The absence of the gravitational slowing of the GPS clocks by the solar field, together with the null results of the light anisotropy experiments on earth, demonstrates that earth is stationary with respect to the local HQS. This can make sense only if the HQS is moving round the sun according to a Keplerian velocity field, consistent with the planetary motions. This Keplerian velocity field of the HQS is the quintessence of the gravitational fields and is shown to naturally and accurately create the gravitational dynamics, observed on earth, in the solar system, in the galaxy and throughout the universe, as well as all the observed effects of the gravitational fields on light and on clocks.