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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1477 matches for " JM Chah "
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Contribution of Livestock Production to Climate Change and Mitigation Options: A Review
JM Chah, EM Igbokwe
Journal of Agricultural Extension , 2012,
Abstract: An attempt is made to understand the role livestock production plays in climate change and to identify mitigation strategies to cap or reduce greenhouse (GHG) emissions. Scientific literature on farm animal production and documented GHG emission, as well as mitigation strategies were synthesized and used for the study. Results show that animal agriculture sector is responsible for approximately 18%, or nearly one-fifth of human induced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In nearly every step of meat, egg, and milk production, climate changing gases are released into the atmosphere potentially disrupting weather, temperature and ecosystem health. As the number of farm animals increases, so do their GHG emissions. Cattle rearing alone generate more global warming GHGs, as measured in carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalent, than transportation. Immediate and far reaching changes in current animal agriculture practices and consumption patterns are both critical if GHGs from the farm animal sector are to be mitigated. However, the approaches that best reduce emissions depend on local conditions and therefore vary from region to region. In Nigeria emission of GHGs is generally low based on low per capita energy and other resource consumption. However, it is expected that there will be future rise as a result of increased numbers of livestock and high population growth rate with corresponding increase in per capita energy and other resource consumption. The assessment of options to reduce future GHG emissions is considered an important contribution to sustainable development of Nigeria. Efficacious plants peculiar to the Nigerian environment and conditions should be planted and maintained around cities. Also government should support waste management in all the states in Nigeria to have a sequel structure to safe disposal of organic matter from cattle.
Health and Environmental Hazards Posed by Urban Livestock Keeping in Enugu Urban, Nigeria: Implication for Climate Change Mitigation
AN Asadu, EM Igbokwe, JM Chah, IA Enwelu
Journal of Agricultural Extension , 2012,
Abstract: Livestock’s contribution to climate change is now an established fact and closeness of livestock to human beings in urban areas portends many health and environmental implications. The study ascertained farmer’s perception of health and environmental hazards posed by livestock keeping in Enugu Urban, Nigeria and its implication for climate change mitigation. Seventy five heads of households were freely characterized and data were obtained through interview. Data were analyzed using percentage and mean. Majority of the farmers kept improved chicken under intensive system. All the respondents were aware of health and environmental implications of livestock keeping in urban areas, though only few (4.0%) indicated being aware that livestock could cause climate change. Other environmental issues identified by them included: destruction of crops (89.3%) filth in urban areas (89.3%); noise making (88.0%). The health issues included spreading of diseases (50.7%); causing of accidents (46.7%); bad smell (86.7%). The control measures as perceived by the respondents included proper disposal of waste (M=1.79), seeking veterinary services (M=1.85), cleaning shed regularly (M=1.80) and provision of extension services (M=1.85). It was recommended that urban agriculture should be integrated into urban health and environmental policies. Extension services should also raise awareness among urban livestock keepers of the impact of livestock on climate change and offer them useful advice on appropriate mitigation measures.
Effect of ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) on in vitro antibacterial activity of tetracycline and ampicillin against escherichia coli strains
KF Chah, SI Oboegbulem
Nigerian Veterinary Journal , 2005,
Abstract:
Recurring colisepticaemia in batches of birds in a poultry farm in Nsukka, Southeast Nigeria
K. F. Chah, E. C. Okwor
Nigerian Veterinary Journal , 2003,
Abstract: Repeated outbreaks of Escherichia coli infection in pullets and laying birds in a poultry farm in Nsukka, southeast Nigeria are reported. The outbreaks were recorded in four batches of birds; the initial cases occurring in birds 12 – 16 weeks of age while subsequent outbreaks were in birds 28–31 weeks of age. The disease was characterized by depression, inappettence, mild cough and whitish diarrhoea; morbidity was 10% while mortality was about 5%. There was a 15% drop in egg production in laying birds. Post-mortem lesions included peritonitis, pericarditis, hydropericardium and perihepatitis. Pure cultures of E. coli were obtained from the organs cultured. The E. coli strains were sensitive to neomycin, streptomycin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, pefloxacin, ofloxacin and chloramphenicol but resistant to tetracycline, nalidixic acid, ampicillin and cotrimoxazole. Biosecurity measures are recommended for the control of avian colisepticaemia in Nigeria. Key Words: Outbreaks, Escherichia coli, pullets, laying birds. (Nigerian Veterinary Journal: 2003 24(1): 48-52)
Bioassay Procedure for the Diagnosis of Aflatoxicosis in a Pig Farm in Nsukka, South East Nigeria  [PDF]
S. V. O. Shoyinka, K. F. Chah, C. P. Eze, W. S. Ezema, I. R. Onoja, P. U. Umeakuana
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine (OJVM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojvm.2014.47015
Abstract:

The owner of an intensively reared pig farm in Nsukka, South-East Nigeria reported the deaths (within one week) of 90 piglets (2-3 months of age) out of 150 piglets on the farm. The piglets were being fed home-compounded ration composed of spent grain (which appeared moldy) and other locally sourced materials. Clinical signs observed in affected piglets include sudden loss of appetite, diarrhea and distress grunting sound prior to death. Symptomatic treatment of the piglets which included the use of antibiotics (tetracycline, LA) did not appear to have ameliorated the condition. At necropsy carcasses were generally in fair to good body condition; with subcutaneous hemorrhages, mainly under the skin of head and neck regions. Lungs were congested and edematous, with froth along the tracheal and bronchial airways. The liver and spleen were moderately congested, while the mucosae of the gastrointestinal tract (which was free of ingesta) appeared mildly hyperaemic. No pathogenic bacterium was isolated from the heart blood and spleen. Histologic section of the liver showed centrilobular hepatocytes vacoulation and necrosis with hypertrophy of Kupffer cells that were in erythrophagocytosis. There was moderate fibrinous exudation into the interlobular septae. Spleen section showed severe erythrophagocytosis, but mild haemosiderosis. White pulp was either reactive or depopulated. Lungs were severely haemorrhagic with bronchitis and bronchiolitis. A tentative diagnosis of mycotoxicosis was made and the spent grain-compounded ration was fed to different groups of ducklings, with/without arginine and lysine supplementation. On the bases of clinical signs and mortality pattern; gross and histologic changes in the liver of the ducklings, a definitive diagnosis of aflatoxicosis was made. This paper emphasizes the experimental feeding of suspected feeds/feed ingredient to ducklings as a reliable diagnostic model for aflatoxicosis.

Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase production among ampicillin-resistant Escherichia coli strains from chicken in Enugu State, Nigeria
Chah, K.F.;Oboegbulem, S.I.;
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S1517-83822007000400018
Abstract: one hundred and seventy-two ampicillin-resistant e. coli strains isolated from commercial chickens in enugu state, nigeria, were screened for beta-lactamase production using the broth method with nitrocefin? as the chromogenic cephalosporin to detect enzyme production. beta-lactamase producing strains were further examined for extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (esbl) production using the oxoid combination discs method. one hundred and seventy (98.8%) of the 172 ampicillin-resistant e. coli strains produced beta-lactamase enzyme. sixteen (9.4%) beta-lactamase producers were phenotypically confirmed to produce esbls. six of the esbl producing strains were only detected with ceftazidime versus ceftazidime/clavulanate combination while ten of the esbl producers were detected with cefotaxime versus cefotaxime/clavulanate combination. chicken may serve as a reservoir of esbl-producing e. coli strains which could be transferred to man and other animals.
Mucormicosis cutánea primaria: a propósito de dos casos. Revisión de la literatura
Tapia E,Oscar; Chahín A,Carolina; Concha F,Carla;
Revista chilena de infectología , 2011, DOI: 10.4067/S0716-10182011000300012
Abstract: mucormycosis or zygomycosis is a rare opportunistic infection caused by aerobic saprophytic fungus that belongs to the class of zygomycetes mucorales family. these organisms live in the environment and enter the body by air, gastrointestinal or skin routes, through solutions of continuity of the skin. this microorganism is generally not pathogenic for immunocompetent hosts, being the development of the disease linked with the immune status of the subject. its mortality is around 50-60%; sometimes in spite of early diagnosis and treatment initiation it has a fatal course. six clinical forms of mucormycosis are described: rhinocerebral, cutaneous, pulmonary, disseminated, gastrointestinal and miscellaneous form. two cases of patients with primary cutaneous mucormycosis diagnosed in the pathology unit of hernan henriquez aravena hospital of temuco, chile are presented here.
Occurrence and antibiogram of salmonellae in effluent from Nsukka Municipal Abattoir
CU Abiade-Paul, IC Kene, KF Chah
Nigerian Veterinary Journal , 2005,
Abstract: No s. Nigerian Veterinary Journal Vol.27(1) 2005: pp.48-53
Frequency and antimicrobial resistance of aerobic bacteria isolated from surgical sites in humans and animals in Nsukka, Southeast Nigeria
K. F. Chah, C. A. Eze, B. N Oluoha
Nigerian Veterinary Journal , 2003,
Abstract: This study was carried out to evaluate the frequency of occurrence and antimicrobial resistance of aerobic bacteria isolated from surgical sites in human and animal patients in Nsukka, southeast Nigeria. Wound swabs from 132 patients (96 humans and 36 animals) were cultured for bacterial isolation. Antimicrobial resistance profile of the isolates was evaluated by the agar disc diffusion method. A total of 134 bacterial isolates were obtained from 114 samples that yielded growth. Staphylococcus aureus (26.1%) was the most prevalent agent isolated from humans, followed by E. coli (17.4%), Proteus spp (17.4%), Enterococcus spp (13.0%) and coagulase negative Staphylococcus [CNS] (10.9%). In animals, the most common agents isolated were E. coli (19.0%) and Proteus spp (19.0%), followed by S. aureus (14.3%), Enterococcus spp (14.3%) and CNS (9.5%). A high proportion of Gram-negative isolates were resistant to cephalexin (80%), cotrimoxazole (80%), ampicillin (73.3%), gentamicin (70%) and nalidixic acid (70%) while majority of the Gram-positive bacteria were resistant to streptomycin (40.5%) and erythromycin (40.5%). Isolates demonstrated low resistance rate to ciprofloxacin. This study has provided information that may be needed in designing empirical treatment regimens for post-operative infections in Nsukka area. Key Words: Bacteria, isolation, surgical site, antimicrobial, resistance. (Nigerian Veterinary Journal: 2003 24(1): 1-9)
Mucormicosis cutánea primaria: a propósito de dos casos. Revisión de la literatura Primary cutaneous mucormycosis: two case reports and literature
Oscar Tapia E,Carolina Chahín A,Carla Concha F
Revista chilena de infectología , 2011,
Abstract: La mucormicosis o zigomicosis es una infección oportunista poco frecuente, causada por un hongo sapró-fito aeróbico que pertenece a la clase Zygomycetes de la familia Mucorales. Estos microorganismos viven en el ambiente y penetran en el organismo por vía aérea, gastrointestinal o cutánea a través de soluciones de continuidad de la piel. Este agente generalmente no es patógeno para el hospedero inmunocompetente estando relacionado el desarrollo de la enfermedad con el estado inmune del sujeto. Su mortalidad es cercana a 50-60%; en ocasiones, a pesar del precoz diagnóstico e instauración del tratamiento, tiene un curso fatal. Se describen seis formas clínicas de mucormicosis: rinocerebral, cutánea, pulmonar, diseminada, gastrointestinal y una forma miscelánea. Se presentan dos casos de pacientes con mu-cormicosis cutánea primaria diagnosticados en la Unidad de Anatomía Patológica del Hospital Hernán Henríquez Aravena de Temuco. Mucormycosis or zygomycosis is a rare opportunistic infection caused by aerobic saprophytic fungus that belongs to the class of Zygomycetes Mucorales family. These organisms live in the environment and enter the body by air, gastrointestinal or skin routes, through solutions of continuity of the skin. This microorganism is generally not pathogenic for immunocompetent hosts, being the development of the disease linked with the immune status of the subject. Its mortality is around 50-60%; sometimes in spite of early diagnosis and treatment initiation it has a fatal course. Six clinical forms of mucormycosis are described: rhinocerebral, cutaneous, pulmonary, disseminated, gastrointestinal and miscellaneous form. Two cases of patients with primary cutaneous mucormycosis diagnosed in the Pathology Unit of Hernan Henriquez Aravena Hospital of Temuco, Chile are presented here.
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