Abstract:
The purpose of this paper is to explore the use of solvent extraction for the removal and recovering phosphate from wastewater and water sources. The results revealed that to achieve the maximum phosphate removal, the best extractant was a mixture of kerosene and benzyldimethylamine at a volume ratio of 2:1. A phosphate extraction efficiency of greater than 80% was achieved on the wastewater samples tested; a model solution and real sewage. A high stripping efficiency of greater than 90% was achieved from stripping, using 6M sulphuric acid. By mixing the recycled to fresh extractants at volume ratios of 2:1, it was possible to re-use the resulting extractant from the stripping process nine times, while maintaining the overall phosphate recovery efficiency. This research revealed that solvent extraction is feasible in the respect of phosphate removal and recovery and has potential for use as an alternative method for industrial applications.

Abstract:
A project aimed at constructing a physical model of the piano is described. Our goal is to calculate the sound produced by the instrument entirely from Newton's laws. The structure of the model is described along with experiments that augment and test the model calculations. The state of the model and what can be learned from it are discussed.

Abstract:
With the development of dyeing wastewater treatment biotechnology, the advantages of bioaugmentation bacteria gradually catch people’s eyes. Therefore, its construction and application research has also attracted the attention of the majority of scholars. This article summaries the construction and application of bioaugmentation engineered bacteria used to treat dyeing wastewater in recent years, including the screening, domestication and application of single and mixed flora bacteria. In addition, the impact of the strengthening effect of all genes is also described in this paper. Finally, the optimization and promoted use of bioaugmentation bacteria are out looked.

Abstract:
We deal with the stabilization problem for a class of nonlinear discrete-time systems via a digital communication channel. We consider the case when the control input is to be transmitted via communication channels with a bit-rate constraint. Under an appropriate growth condition on the nonlinear perturbation, we establish sufficient conditions for the global and local stabilizability of semilinear and nonlinear discrete-time systems, respectively. A constructive method to design a feedback stabilizing controller is proposed.

Abstract:
We present an analytical study of the time dependent diffusion coefficient in a dilute suspension of spheres with partially absorbing boundary condition. Following Kirkpatrick (J. Chem. Phys. 76, 4255) we obtain a perturbative expansion for the time dependent particle density using volume fraction $f$ of spheres as an expansion parameter. The exact single particle $t$-operator for partially absorbing boundary condition is used to obtain a closed form time-dependent diffusion coefficient $D(t)$ accurate to first order in the volume fraction $f$. Short and long time limits of $D(t)$ are checked against the known short-time results for partially or fully absorbing boundary conditions and long-time results for reflecting boundary conditions. For fully absorbing boundary condition the long time diffusion coefficient is found to be $D(t)=5 a^2/(12 f D_{0} t) +O((D_0t/a^2)^{-2})$, to the first order of perturbation theory. Here $f$ is small but non-zero, $D_0$ the diffusion coefficient in the absence of spheres, and $a$ the radius of the spheres. The validity of this perturbative result is discussed.

Abstract:
Motivated by recent experiments showing over $10^4$-fold increase in induced polarization from electrochemically inert, conducting materials in dilute saline solutions, we theoretically demonstrate a new mechanism for dielectric enhancement, in the absence of $\zeta-$potentials at interfaces between non-insulating particles and an electrolyte solution. We further show that the magnitude of such enhancement obeys universal scaling laws, independent of the particle's electrical properties and valid across particle shapes: for a dilute suspension of identical, but arbitrarily shaped particles of a linear dimension $a$ and volume fraction $f$, as $\omega\to0$ the effective real dielectric constant of the mixture is enhanced from that of water by a factor $1+f~(P_r+(a/\lambda)P_i)$, and the frequency-dependent phase shift of its impedance has a scale-invariant maximum $f\,\mathsf{\Theta}$ if particles are much more conductive than the solution. Here $\lambda$ is the solution's Debye length and $P_r$, $P_i$, $\mathsf{\Theta}$ are dimensionless numbers determined solely by the particles' shape. Even for a very dilute electrolyte solution (e.g. $10^{-3}$ molar), sub-mm sized particles, at volume fraction $f=0.1$, can give a $10^4$-fold dielectric enhancement, producing an easily observable phase shift maximum in a simple impedance measurement.We also derive frequency cutoffs as conditions for observing these enhancements, showing that insulating particles produce no enhancement without $\zeta$-potential.To prove these results for particles of arbitrary shapes, we develop a physical picture where an externally induced double layer (EIDL), in contrast to the Guoy-Chapman double layer on interfaces with significant $\zeta$-potentials, dominates the low-frequency dynamics and produces dielectric enhancement.

Abstract:
RSS feeds provide a fast and effective way to publish up-to-date information or renew outdated contents for information subscribers. So far RSS information is mostly managed by content publishers but Internet users have less initiative to choose what they really need. More attention needs to be paid on techniques for user-initiative information discovery from RSS feeds. In this paper, a quantitative semantic matchmaking method for the RSS based applications is proposed. Semantic information is extracted from an RSS feed as numerical vectors and semantic matching can then be conducted quantitatively. Ontology is applied to provide a common-agreed matching basis for the quantitative matchmaking. In order to avoid semantic ambiguity of literal statements from distributed and heterogeneous RSS publishers, fuzzy inference is used to transform an individual-dependent vector into an individual-independent vector. Semantic similarities can be revealed as the result.

Abstract:
Micro-combustion research works are motivated by development of portable, autonomous power generators such as the micro TPV with improvement in energy density over batteries. Heat recuperation is a technique which contributes to better energy efficiency performance by recovering heat from the exhaust gas. In this paper, a numerical simulation is carried out to study the impact of incorporating recuperation on the performance of micro modular combustor system. The simulation results have been validated by experiments; achieving close agreement between simulated and experi-mental data. It was observed that the mean wall temperature, radiation power and emitter efficiency markedly improved with the incorporation of a heat recuperator. In addition, 25.8% enhancement of total radiation power and 30.6% emitter efficiency could be realized when the hydrogen air equivalence ratio was 0.9.

Abstract:
We consider the existence of the state X^0 (214 MeV) in Sigma^+ -> p mu^+ mu^- decay found by the HyperCP collaboration. We assume that a fundamental spin zero boson X^0 coupled to quarks leads to flavor changing s -> d X^0 process. We estimate the scalar and pseudoscalar coupling constants by considering Sigma^+ -> p X^0 and K^+ -> pi^+ X^0 processes, and find that pseudoscalar coupling dominates. We then evaluate the branching ratios for K_L -> pi^0 pi^0 X^0, pi^+ pi^- X^0 and Omega^- -> Xi^- X^0 decays. All these rates are found to be in the measurable ranges. We also comment on X^0 coupling to muons and constraints from muon g-2.

Abstract:
An $r$-graph is an $r$-uniform hypergraph tree (or $r$-tree) if its edges can be ordered as $E_1,\ldots, E_m$ such that $\forall i>1 \, \exists \alpha(i)