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Mixed-function oxidases and esterases associated with cross-r esistance between DDT and lambda-cyhalothrin in Anopheles darlingi Root 1926 populations from Colombia
Fonseca-González, Idalyd;Qui?ones, Martha L;McAllister, Janet;Brogdon, William G;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02762009000100003
Abstract: in order to establish the insecticide susceptibility status for anopheles darlingi in colombia, and as part of the national network on insecticide resistance surveillance, five populations of insects from three colombian states were evaluated. standardised who and cdc bottle bioassays, in addition to microplate biochemical assays, were conducted. populations with mortality rates below 80% in the bioassays were considered resistant. all field populations were susceptible to deltamethrin, permethrin, malathion and fenitrothion. resistance to lambda-cyhalothrin and ddt was detected in the amé-beté population using both bioassay methods with mortality rates of 65-75%. enzyme levels related to insecticide resistance, including mixed function oxidases (mfo), non-specific esterases (nse), glutathione s-transferases and modified acetylcholinesterase were evaluated in all populations and compared with a susceptible natural strain. only mosquitoes from amé-beté presented significantly increased levels of both mfo and nse, consistent with the low mortalities found in this population. the continued use of lambda-cyhalothrin for an. darlingi control in this locality has resulted in a natural resistance to this insecticide. in addition, ddt resistance is still present in this population, although this insecticide has not been used in colombia since 1992. increased metabolism through mfo and nse may be involved in cross-resistance between lambda-cyhalothrin and ddt, although kdr-type nerve insensitivity cannot be discarded as a possible hypothesis. additional research, including development of a kdr specific assay for an. darlingi should be conducted in future studies. our data demonstrates the urgent need to develop local insecticide resistance management and surveillance programs throughout colombia.
Dosis diagnósticas para vigilar la resistencia a insecticidas de los vectores de malaria en Colombia
Revista Colombiana de Entomología , 2010,
Abstract: the control of mosquito vectors of malaria is largely based on insecticide applications, either on the inside walls of dwellings or on treated nets. for that reason, the surveillance of insecticide resistance in these species is essential for the definition of plans and strategies of malaria control. the purpose of this study was to determine the diagnostic doses of several insecticides used in public health for the main vectors of malaria in colombia: anopheles darlingi, a. albimanus and a. nuneztovari, using the methodology of impregnated bottles developed by the centers for disease control and prevention. natural populations of the three species, submitted to low or no insecticide pressure, were selected with which bioassays were conducted to determine baseline susceptibility. diagnostic doses (insecticide concentration and diagnostic time), or saturation curves, were established for the insecticides lambda-cyhalothrin, deltamethrin, fenitrothion, malathion and ddt for the three vectors; cyfluthrin, permethrin and propoxur for a. albimanus and a. darlingi, and etofenprox and bendiocarb for a. darlingi. the diagnostic doses determined in these susceptible populations will allow an evaluation of the status of insecticide resistance of the main malaria vectors across their distribution in colombia, strengthening the resistance surveillance system and facilitating decision making for a more appropriate use of insecticides to control malaria in the country.
Parental Engagement in Children’s Learning: Moving on from Mass Superstition  [PDF]
Janet Goodall
Creative Education (CE) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2018.911116
Abstract: In this article, I build on Goodman’s concept of mass superstition, which he applied to the schooling system. Goodman holds that we continue to believe in the value of this system, without clear evidence that it is working. I use this concept to apply the argument to the way the current system deals with parents. In spite of clear indications in the research that parental engagement with children’s learning is one of the best means to support educational achievement, particularly for children at risk of failure in the current system, parents are still routinely held at a distance from the learning processes fostered by the school system. I argue for a change to the foundational beliefs of the system, so that schools and families will work in partnership as co-constructors of children’s learning.
A case of an ectopic cervical thymic cyst  [PDF]
Simon Davey, Janet McNally
Case Reports in Clinical Medicine (CRCM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/crcm.2013.22041

Ectopic cervical thymic cysts are uncommon lesions and definitive preoperative diagnosis is not always possible. Surgical excision is recommended due to the small but possible chance of malignant degeneration in adulthood. We present a case of a nine year old boy with an asymptomatic lesion in his neck, discuss the differential diagnoses of such lesions and treatment considerations.

Unmet Needs in the Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis  [PDF]
Janet Pope, Bernard Combe
Open Journal of Rheumatology and Autoimmune Diseases (OJRA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojra.2013.32011

Biologics have greatly improved the management of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), demonstrating efficacy and safety in alleviating symptoms, inhibiting bone erosion, and preventing loss of function. Unmet therapeutic needs in RA remain; however, further advances require an understanding of issues left unaddressed under the current treatment paradigm. Most biologic-na?ve and biologic-pretreated patients who initiate a biologic therapy, for example, do not reach American College of Rheumatology 50% (ACR50) response, and few achieve remission. Responses are often not durable, prompting frequent treatment switching. Predictive markers are unavailable to guide therapy selection, and clinical trial data are lacking on whether a tumor necrosis factor inhibitor (TNFi) is the best first-line biologic and on the optimal sequence of use for the different biologics. Risk of serious infection is the major safety concern. Translating preclinical and clinical findings into new therapeutics may help address unmet needs. An increasing body of evidence indicates that the cytokine interleukin (IL)-17A represents an important therapeutic target; ongoing trials with IL-17A inhibitors will determine whether these agents can address some of the unmet needs associated with current biologics.

Timing of Onset of Volcanic Centers in the Campanian of Western North America as Determined by Distal Ashfalls  [PDF]
Janet L. Bertog
Open Journal of Geology (OJG) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojg.2013.32016

Strata of the Late Cretaceous Niobrara Formation and Pierre Shale Group include bentonites that provide a distal record of volcanic activity taking place to the west. Detailed stratigraphic analysis combined with mineralogy and geochemistry of the bentonites indicates the following timing of events: 1) Eustatic sea level fall as a result of the end of the Niobrara Cycle; 2) Tectonic deformation of the Western Interior Seaway coincident with tectonism on the Absoroka Thrust in Wyoming and Late Canyon Range Thrust in Utah; 3) Backarc volcanism in Montana associated with the Little Elkhorn Mountain volcanic complex; 4) Forearc volcanism in the Cascades area indicates subduction of a hot oceanic crust where plagioclase in the oceanic crust is being incorporated into the melt; 5) Cessation of tectonic activity results in a return of sedimentation patterns to north-south trending belts with the Boyer Bay and Burning Brule members of the Sharon Springs Formation deposited to the east and the Mitten Black Shale Formation deposited in the basin.

Luminescence Characteristics of Feldspar from Nigeria  [PDF]
Janet A. Ademola
Natural Science (NS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2014.612094

The luminescence characteristics of feldspar from Nigeria were investigated. Without preheat treatment, the TL glow curve exhibited two peaks at 136°C and 175°C. When preheated to a temperature of 200°C only one peak was observed at 240°C. The highest net IRSL intensity was obtained for a stimulation temperature of 250°C. The TL signal is reduced by IR stimulation, and the longer the stimulation the more pronounced the effect. The dose response curves for both the TL and the IRSL showed a linear relationship for the doses considered in the study. Dose recovery test performed using the SAR method showed consistency with given dose for both TL and IRSL.

Estimation of Annual Effective Dose Due to Ingestion of Natural Radionuclides in Cattle in Tin Mining Area of Jos Plateau, Nigeria  [PDF]
Janet Ayobami Ademola
Natural Science (NS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2014.65029

Contamination of land could occur during the extraction and handling of materials containing high levels of naturally occurring radionuclide materials. These radionuclides find their ways into the food chain. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides 40K, 226Ra, and 232Th in heart, liver, kidney, lungs, spleen and beef of cattle slaughtered and consumed in a tin mining area of Jos Plateau, Nigeria were determined by gamma ray spectroscopy method. The activity concentration of 40K is the highest in all the samples. The annual effective dose to man through the ingestion of the radionuclides in the organs was estimated. The mean annual effective doses calculated are 35.35 ± 13.84, 57.89 ± 38.27 and 46.93 ± 10.28 μSv?y?1 for heart, liver and kidney, respectively. Those of lungs, spleen and meat are 28.44 ± 15.70, 48.34 ± 28.85 and 41.24 ± 3.56 μSv?y?1, respectively. These are of the order of two magnitudes higher than those obtained for food in Abeokuta, Nigeria.

Adaptation and evaluation of the bottle assay for monitoring insecticide resistance in disease vector mosquitoes in the Peruvian Amazon
Elvira Zamora Perea, Rosario Balta León, Miriam Palomino Salcedo, William G Brogdon, Gregor J Devine
Malaria Journal , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-8-208
Abstract: Laboratory reared Aedes aegypti and field collected Anopheles darlingi and Anopheles albimanus were used to assess the suitability of locally sourced solvents and formulated insecticides for use with the bottle assay. Using these adapted protocols, the ability of the bottle assay and the WHO assay to discriminate between deltamethrin-resistant Anopheles albimanus populations was compared. The diagnostic dose of deltamethrin that would identify resistance in currently susceptible populations of An. darlingi and Ae. aegypti was defined. The robustness of the bottle assay during a surveillance exercise in the Amazon was assessed.The bottle assay (using technical or formulated material) and the WHO assay were equally able to differentiate deltamethrin-resistant and susceptible An. albimanus populations. A diagnostic dose of 10 μg a.i./bottle was identified as the most sensitive discriminating dose for characterizing resistance in An. darlingi and Ae. aegypti. Treated bottles, prepared using locally sourced solvents and insecticide formulations, can be stored for > 14 days and used three times. Bottles can be stored and transported under local conditions and field-assays can be completed in a single evening.The flexible and portable nature of the bottle assay and the ready availability of its components make it a potentially robust and useful tool for monitoring insecticide resistance and efficacy in remote areas that require minimal cost tools.The countries of the Amazon basin (Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Peru, Surinam and Venezuela) carry the greatest burden of malaria and arbovirus transmission in the Americas. In 2006, there were ca. 800,000 cases of malaria and ca. 400,000 cases of dengue in the region [1,2]. Mortality is low but the rising number of deaths from dengue haemorrhagic fever, and the chronic health and economic problems caused by relapsing malarias are of major concern. The primary vectors of these diseases in the Amazon basin are, respe
Breast self examination practices among female secondary school teachers in a rural community in Oyo State, Nigeria  [PDF]
Joel Olayiwola Faronbi, Janet Abolade
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2012.22017
Abstract: The objective of the study was to assess female secondary school teachers’ knowledge and attitude of breast self examination (BSE) and to describe the extent of practice of breast self examination among them. This study employed a descriptive design and data was collected with the aid of validated semi structured questionnaire from 100 female teachers in all the five secondary schools in Oko, Oyo State, and analysis was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences. The result showed that 82% of the respondents were aware of breast self examination practices and their source of this information was from mass media (55%) and friends (25%). Fifty-four respondents had poor knowledge of BSE and 48% had negative attitude towards practice of BSE and majority (62%) had a low practice. The study however, revealed that majority of the respondents who practice BSE do not know what to look for. The results further showed that, there is no significant relationship between age of the respondents and their awareness (X2 = 8.322; p = 0.0800; df = 4) and knowledge (X2 = 14.501; p = 0.264 and df = 8) of breast self examination. This study concluded that there is poor knowledge and attitude towards BSE practice among the secondary school teachers in Oko community and with unsatisfactory practice. It therefore, suggests that breast awareness campaign and self efficacy development is important for teachers in secondary schools to aid early detection and better prognosis of breast cancer in this community, and this will have a multiplier effect on female secondary school girls.
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