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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 301244 matches for " J. Williams "
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Fluctuations in the otter population of parts of south-west England
Williams J.
IUCN Otter Specialist Group Bulletin , 1990,
Abstract: The author has kept detailed records of otter sightings in a 4100 sq km area of south-west England since 1969. Otter numbers declined dramatically until 1984, with many rivers showing no otters whatsoever for long periods, and recolonisation attempts by transient animals failing to establish. Since 1988, otter numbers have started to recover, but surveys must continue to discover whether this is a true recovery or if otter numbers will once again decline.
Blindness in Otters
Williams J.
IUCN Otter Specialist Group Bulletin , 1989,
Abstract: In England, which has a long history of well-recorded otter hunts, there were historically no records of blind but fit otters. The author obtained records of 22 blind but otherwise fit otters observed between 1957 and 1980, but none before or since; this seems to correspond with the period of greatest otter decline.
Analysis of Rapidity Gap Cuts in Diffractive DIS
J Williams
Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1016/S0920-5632(99)00706-9
Abstract: The requirement of a large pseudo-rapidity gap to select diffractive DIS events at HERA restricts the kinematically accessible region of phase space for a significant range of $Q^2$, $\beta$ and $\xpom$. Consequences of this include a breakdown of $\xpom$-factorization in large rapidity gap diffractive samples and an enhancement in the relative contribution of quark-antiquark-gluon processes over dijet processes in the diffractive DIS sample.
Self-Regulation of Goals and Performance: Effects of Discrepancy Feedback, Regulatory Focus, and Self-Efficacy  [PDF]
Jessica M. Nicklin, Kevin J. Williams
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2011.23030
Abstract: We adopted a social cognitive approach of motivation (Bandura, 1986, 1989, 2002) to examine the influence of normative feedback and self-set goals on positive discrepancy creation and goal revision in the face of a novel task. The moderating effects of self-efficacy and regulatory focus were also examined. A laboratory study in-cluding 297 undergraduate students demonstrated that feedback, whether based on normative standards of performance or goal-performance discrepancies was a strong predictor of positive discrepancy creation and goal revision. Self-efficacy was also an independent predictor of goal revision, but regulatory focus was not. These findings have important practical implications for a variety of performance contexts (e.g., work, school, sports). Individuals will modify their goals based largely on feedback received (goal-performance discrepancies and normative standards); however, self-efficacy independently influences goal revision beyond the effects of feed-back. Other implications for research and practice are discussed.
Biology, Methodology or Chance? The Degree Distributions of Bipartite Ecological Networks
Richard J. Williams
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0017645
Abstract: The distribution of the number of links per species, or degree distribution, is widely used as a summary of the topology of complex networks. Degree distributions have been studied in a range of ecological networks, including both mutualistic bipartite networks of plants and pollinators or seed dispersers and antagonistic bipartite networks of plants and their consumers. The shape of a degree distribution, for example whether it follows an exponential or power-law form, is typically taken to be indicative of the processes structuring the network. The skewed degree distributions of bipartite mutualistic and antagonistic networks are usually assumed to show that ecological or co-evolutionary processes constrain the relative numbers of specialists and generalists in the network. I show that a simple null model based on the principle of maximum entropy cannot be rejected as a model for the degree distributions in most of the 115 bipartite ecological networks tested here. The model requires knowledge of the number of nodes and links in the network, but needs no other ecological information. The model cannot be rejected for 159 (69%) of the 230 degree distributions of the 115 networks tested. It performed equally well on the plant and animal degree distributions, and cannot be rejected for 81 (70%) of the 115 plant distributions and 78 (68%) of the animal distributions. There are consistent differences between the degree distributions of mutualistic and antagonistic networks, suggesting that different processes are constraining these two classes of networks. Fit to the MaxEnt null model is consistently poor among the largest mutualistic networks. Potential ecological and methodological explanations for deviations from the model suggest that spatial and temporal heterogeneity are important drivers of the structure of these large networks.
The Drosophila cell adhesion molecule Neuroglian regulates Lissencephaly-1 localisation in circulating immunosurveillance cells
Michael J Williams
BMC Immunology , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2172-10-17
Abstract: Here evidence is presented showing that the Drosophila L1-type cell adhesion molecule Neuroglian (Nrg) is required for haemocytes to encapsulate L. boulardi wasp eggs. The amino acid sequence FIGQY containing a conserved phosphorylated tyrosine is found in the intracellular domain of all L1-type cell adhesion molecules. This conserved tyrosine is phosphorylated at the cell periphery of plasmatocytes and lamellocytes prior to parasitisation, but dephosphorylated after immune activation. Intriguingly, another pool of Nrg located near the nucleus of plasmatocytes remains phosphorylated after parasitisation. In mammalian neuronal cells phosphorylated neurofascin, another L1-type cell adhesion molecule interacts with a nucleokinesis complex containing the microtubule binding protein lissencephaly-1 (Lis1) [1]. Interestingly in plasmatocytes from Nrg mutants the nucleokinesis regulating protein Lissencephaly-1 (Lis1) fails to localise properly around the nucleus and is instead found diffuse throughout the cytoplasm and at unidentified perinuclear structures. After attaching to the wasp egg control plasmatocytes extend filopodia laterally from their cell periphery; as well as extending lateral filopodia plasmatocytes from Nrg mutants also extend many filopodia from their apical surface.The Drosophila cellular adhesion molecule Neuroglian is expressed in haemocytes and its activity is required for the encapsulation of L. boularli eggs. At the cell periphery of haemocytes Neuroglian may be involved in cell-cell interactions, while at the cell centre Neuroglian regulates the localisation of the nucleokinesis complex protein lissencephaly-1.When the morphology of Drosophila haemocytes is compared, three types of cells can be identified: plasmatocytes, lamellocytes and crystal cells. Plasmatocytes resemble the mammalian monocyte/macrophage lineage and are involved in the phagocytosis or encapsulation of invading pathogens [2,3]. Lamellocytes are larger than the other haemocytes
Editorial: PIA Volume 22
Thomas J. T. Williams
Papers from the Institute of Archaeology , 2013, DOI: 10.5334/pia.389
Abstract: It is axiomatic of capitalist society that the concept of value must inevitably be reduced down to a single monetary index. In other words, we have come to expect that, in final analysis, economic value trumps all others. In the last couple of years we have seen this most clearly expressed in the government’s attitude to forestry. The historical reluctance of officaldom to recognise value of a more intangible kind also lies at the heart of the tension in cultural heritage management between the historic environment and the pressure placed on its guardians to exploit or ignore those assets in favour of economic priorities...
Structuring Knowledge of Subcultural Folk Devils through News Coverage: Social Cognition, Semiotics, and Political Economy
J. Patrick Williams
Studies of Transition States and Societies , 2011,
Abstract: The folk devil concept has been well used in subcultural studies, yet its importance might be better served by distinguishing among multiple conceptual frames through which it is articulated. In this article, I clarify how folk devils are made possible through the interaction of three concepts used by sociologists to study everyday life. The first is the process of social cognition, where producers and consumers of news construct and propagate a shared definition of who subcultural youths are and why they should be the object of fear. The second are the semiotic structures of genre and narrative, which narrow the interpretive process of producers and receivers alike and sustain discourses that limit how subcultural youths can be understood in the news. The third has to do with political economy, where the ideological features of mass mediated news-making keep the news industry in relative control of meaning making. Social cognition, semiotics, and the political economy dialectically produce the phenomenon of the subcultural folk devil and support its objective effects. I review several studies of market and state-controlled media societies and note that, in both types, the objective effects on youths are similar and significant. In studying how subcultural youths are framed in the media output of transitional states and societies, the conceptual value of social cognition, semiotics, and political economy should be recognised.
Clouds of Insects
J. Lawton Williams
Psyche , 1891, DOI: 10.1155/1891/10276
Ionization Front Instabilities
R. J. R. Williams
Revista mexicana de astronomía y astrofísica , 2003,
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