Abstract:
The least massive fermion generation is attributed to an analogue of Weyl curvature which occurs when a closed, spin-string sweeps out a closed world tube: , where S represents string length. A second order tube and consequent second order fermion mass are associated with a closed tube which circulates and itself sweeps out a closed tube: . Finally a K^{th} order tube and kth order fermion generation are associated with the general expression . By hypothesis six world tube orders establish an SU(3) symmetry and each closed tube interacts with a SUGRA connection of spin-. Such connections can either be photon-fermion composites or composites that consist strictly of fermions. Interactions that involve no photons are, by hypothesis unobserved and are therefore associated with closed world tubes that are classified as dark mass-energy. It is demonstrated that interactions involving ordinary mass-energy are identities (e.g. interactions that are incapable of generating the proposed SU(3) symmetry). It is therefore concluded that dark mass-energy is a necessary condition for the SU(3) symmetry that by hypothesis characterizes the proposed model. Since 95% of the mass-energy in the universe is regarded as dark, the total mass-energy that constitutes the proposed SU(3) symmetry can be calculated as , where Q_{L} is a left-handed quark, where Ψ_{L} is a left-handed spin particle and where is a right-handed anti-lepton. Thus the mass-energy that is associated with the wave is about 10^{67} GeV/c^{2} (the approximate mass of a typical galaxy). This wave is regarded by hypothesis as a single galactic unit and as the ground state of a large-scale quantization; i.e. as the ground state of a series of abstract waves which mimic de Broglie waves in the sense that the ground state is a wave of one anti-node which oscillates about

Abstract:
Compactification and symmetry breaking events in theories of heterotic superstrings implicitly indicate five inflation events. Scales of 10^{9} ly and larger are modeled in terms of these events. The proposed model accounts qualitatively for recent observations (of galactic clusters that lie on "thin,.. semi-spherical shells") and motivates a calculation that accounts (approximately) for the observed number of galaxies.

Abstract:
Tensor products of standard model bosons and fermions form a spin-2 self-realization of SU(5), and because every quark can be interpreted as a lepton that has coupled to an appropriate element of this adjoint representation, and inversely, SUGRA GUT interactions between proposed spin-2 elements and baryons of spin 3/2, can exist as residual manifestations of quark-lepton transitions that occur within baryonic domains of asymptotic freedom. It is argued that these interactions preserve baryonic structure and continually re-establish a locally SUSY version of broken SU(5), indicating a recurring inflation event that addresses the large scale.

Abstract:
It has recently been argued that quantization can be established within classical theory as a consequence of lost information. In this view, classical mechanics is regarded as a union of quantum mechanics and what are called 'hidden variables'. Hidden variable theories were first considered some years ago and abandoned because they did not produce new physics. They have now been revived however, because they appear to provide a logically sound means of relating classical and quantum theories. It is argued here that the Heisenberg uncertainty relations constitute a necessary condition for gauge invariance in the 5-dimensional Kaluza-Klein theory, where the fifth dimension of 5-spacetime is hidden as a 5-dimensional theory of general relativity is projected onto 4-spacetime.

Abstract:
A generic heterotic string theory is uniquely reduced to the standard model in terms of a geometry that transcends compactification. This device also extends the standard model to embrace three generations of fermions, including a left-handed strange quark that is devoid of strangeness and three right-handed neutrinos. Finally the proposed hypothesis indicates supergravitationally mediated quark-lepton transitions that preserve baryon structure, departing from the SUSY GUT tradition that predicts proton decay.

Abstract:
It is argued that the Heisenberg relation on 4-spacetime is a necessary condition for the local gauge invariance of a classical wave in the 5-dimensional Kaluza-Klein theory.

Abstract:
The string background AdS7XS4 is adopted and the early universe is modeled in the eleven dimensional SUGRA theory that is dual to this background. Specifically the ground state of the vacuum is associated with an arbitrary distribution of closed, spin-2 strings, and excited states are modeled as geometric combinations of individual strings. Combinations or combining iterations are, by hypothesis, admissible or geometric if each iteration intrinsically incorporates the metrical scale that is assigned to the individual spin-2 string. It is demonstrated that a generalization of this process, if appropriately calibrated, establishes theoretical fermionic masses that correspond approximately to observed values. The proposed model also predicts a new quark of mass .

AdS/CFT correspondence is adopted and fermion masses are modeled as analogues of Weyl curvature states, which occur by hypothesis when closed spin-2 strings sweep out closed world tubes. Admissible curvature states are established by gauge invariance and fundamental mass is attributed to admissible curvature. A consequent spectrum of masses forms an SU(3) symmetry that is invariant under appropriate realizations of the SUGRA GUT interaction. Finally the spin-h/2 nature of the masses that are attributed to curvature emerges as a necessary condition for the relevant SUGRA GUT realizations. Calibration of the proposed model reveals a spectrum of fermion masses that corresponds approximately to observation. Moreover, the proposed model predicts a new quark that is characterized by I_{3} = -1/2 and by a mass of about 30 GeV/c^{2}.

Abstract:
Fermion mass is modeled as an analogue of Weyl curvature, which by
hypothesis emerges when closed, spin-2 strings sweep out closed world tubes.
Second order curvature classes result when closed world tubes circulate and
themselves sweep out closed tubes etc. Gauge invariance distinguishes
admissible curvature classes from the larger set that would constitute an
infinite continuum of possibilities. Admissible curvature classes account for
known quark masses and predict a new quark of mass 30 GeV/c^{2}.
Super-symmetric interactions among prescribed fermions and super-partners
conserve electrical charge, I_{3},
color and generation and are therefore regarded by hypothesis as preserving a
minimal irreducible representation of a super-symmetric SU(5).