Abstract:
The mechanism by which the Fermi surface of high-$T_c$ cuprates undergoes a dramatic change from a large hole-like barrel to small arcs or pockets on entering the pseudogap phase remains a question of fundamental importance. Here we calculate the normal-state Hall coefficient from the resonating-valence-bond spin-liquid model developed by Yang, Rice and Zhang. In this model, reconstruction of the Fermi surface occurs via an intermediate regime where the Fermi surface consists of both hole- and electron-like pockets. We find that the doping $(x)$ dependence of the Hall number transitions from $1+x$ to $x$ over this narrow doping range. At low temperatures, a switch from a downturn to an upturn in the Hall coefficient signals the departure of the electron-like pockets from the Fermi surface.

Abstract:
The physical properties of hole-doped cuprate high-temperature superconductors are heavily influenced by an energy gap known as the pseudogap whose origin remains a mystery second only to that of superconductivity itself. A key question is whether the pseudogap closes at a temperature T*. The absence of a specific heat anomaly, together with persistent entropy losses up to 300K, have long suggested that the pseudogap does not vanish at T*. However, amid a growing body of evidence from other techniques pointing to the contrary we revisit this question. Here we investigate if, by adding a temperature dependence to the pseudogap energy and quasiparticle lifetime in the resonating-valence-bond spin-liquid model of Yang Rice and Zhang, we can close the pseudogap quietly in the specific heat.

Abstract:
In the 1970s the microwave spectroscopy group at Monash University became the first in the world to determine the spectral frequencies of urea, glycine, and several other biomolecules. We immediately searched for these at Parkes, using existing centimetre-wave receivers plus newly built receivers that operated at frequencies as high as 75GHz (and used just the central 17 m of the dish). Although these searches were largely unsuccessful, they helped launch the now flourishing field of astrobiology.

Abstract:
We present effective collision strengths for electron excitation and de-excitation of the ten forbidden transitions between the five lowest energy levels of the astronomically abundant doubly-ionised oxygen ion, O^{2+}. The raw collision strength data were obtained from an R-matrix intermediate coupling calculation using the Breit-Pauli relativistic approximation published previously by the authors. The effective collision strengths were calculated with kappa-distributed electron energies and are tabulated as a function of the electron temperature and kappa.

Abstract:
The continuum spectrum of the planetary nebula Hf 2-2 close to the Balmer discontinuity is modeled in the context of the long standing problem of the abundance and temperature discrepancy found when analyzing optical recombination lines and collisionally excited forbidden lines in nebulae. Models are constructed using single and double Maxwell-Boltzmann distributions as well as kappa-distributions for the energies of the free electrons. New results for the necessary continuum and line emission coefficients are presented calculated with kappa-distributed energies. The best fit to the observed continuum spectrum is found to be a model comprising two components with dramatically different temperatures and with a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution of electron energies. On the basis of a chi-squared analysis, this model is strongly favored over a model with kappa-distributed electron energies.

Abstract:
A recently generated theoretical line list of C II dielectronic recombination lines together with observational data gathered from the literature is used to investigate the electron temperature in a range of astronomical objects, mainly planetary nebulae. The electron temperature is obtained by a least-squares optimisation using all the reliable observed lines in each object. In addition, the subset of lines arising directly from autoionising states is used to directly determine the free-electron energy distribution which is then compared with various theoretical possibilities. The method described here can potentially determine whether there are departures from Maxwell-Boltzmann distributions in some nebulae, as has been recently proposed. Using published observations of the three planetary nebulae where the relevant lines are recorded, we find that the data are best matched by Maxwell-Boltzmann distributions but that the uncertainties are sufficiently large at present that kappa-distributions or two-component nebular models are not excluded.

Abstract:
The current paper presents atomic data generated to investigate the recombination lines of C II in the spectra of planetary nebulae. These data include energies of bound and autoionizing states, oscillator strengths and radiative transition probabilities, autoionization probabilities, and recombination coefficients. The R-matrix method of electron scattering theory was used to describe the C2+ plus electron system.

Abstract:
Resonances, which are also described as autoionizing or quasi-bound states, play an important role in the scattering of atoms and ions with electrons. The current article is an overview of the main methods, including a recently-proposed one, that are used to find and analyze resonances.

Abstract:
We provide a data set of emission and recombination coefficients of hydrogen using a kappa-distribution of electron energies rather than the more traditional Maxwell-Boltzmann (MB) distribution. The data are mainly relevant to thin and relatively cold plasma found in planetary nebulae and H II regions. The data set extends the previous data sets provided by Storey and Hummer which were computed using a MB distribution. The data set, which is placed in the public domain, is structured as a function of electron number density, temperature and kappa. Interactive fortran 77 and C++ data servers are also provided as an accessory to probe the data and obtain Lagrange-interpolated values for any choice of all three variables between the explicitly computed values.

Abstract:
A major impediment to solving the problem of high-$T_c$ superconductivity is the ongoing confusion about the magnitude, structure and doping dependence of the superconducting gap, $\Delta_0$, and of the mysterious pseudogap found in underdoped samples\cite{TallonLoram}. The pseudogap opens around the ($\pi$,0) antinodes below a temperature $T^*$ leaving Fermi arcs across the remnant Fermi surface\cite{Kanigel} on which the superconducting gap forms at $T_c$. One thing that seems agreed is that the ratio $2\Delta_0/k_BT_c$ well exceeds the BCS value and grows with underdoping\cite{Miyakawa1,Miyakawa2}, suggesting unconventional, non-BCS superconductivity. Here we re-examine data from many spectroscopies, especially Raman $B_{1g}$ and $B_{2g}$ scattering\cite{Sacuto,Guyard}, and reconcile them all within a two-gap scenario showing that the points of disagreement are an artefact of spectral-weight loss arising from the pseudogap. Crucially, we find that $\Delta_0(p)$, or more generally the order parameter, now scales with the mean-field $T_c$ value, adopting the weak-coupling BCS ratio across the entire phase diagram.