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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 297303 matches for " J. Schleifer "
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“The Ultimate Decision Is Yours”: Exploring Patients’ Attitudes about the Overuse of Medical Interventions
David Schleifer, David J. Rothman
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0052552
Abstract: Previous research has found that American patients strongly believe that more testing and more treatment lead to better outcomes and, to a lesser extent, that newer treatments are more effective. We conducted five focus groups with privately insured, healthy, middle-aged Americans (n = 43) to explore these apparent preferences. Contrary to previous research, an unexpected distinction emerged. Participants placed enormous value on testing and screening, reacting with hostility to guidelines recommending less of either. However, they were suspicious of overmedication. The wariness of pharmaceuticals and enthusiasm for testing and screening both appear to reflect participants’ efforts to take responsibility for their health. But recommendations to test and screen less conflicted with their active, engaged, information-seeking roles. Nonetheless, given patients’ concerns about overuse of pharmaceuticals, we maintain that they can learn to understand the connections between over-testing and over-treatment, and can actively choose to do less. We close with suggestions about how treatment guidelines can better communicate these connections to patients. Our findings cannot necessarily be generalized beyond privately-insured, healthy, middle-aged Americans. But because we found that, among these individuals, attitudes towards pharmaceuticals differ from attitudes towards testing and screening, we maintain that future research should also distinguish among and compare attitudes towards different types of medical interventions.
Access to pain treatment as a human right
Diederik Lohman, Rebecca Schleifer, Joseph J Amon
BMC Medicine , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1741-7015-8-8
Abstract: Significant barriers to effective pain treatment include: the failure of many governments to put in place functioning drug supply systems; the failure to enact policies on pain treatment and palliative care; poor training of healthcare workers; the existence of unnecessarily restrictive drug control regulations and practices; fear among healthcare workers of legal sanctions for legitimate medical practice; and the inflated cost of pain treatment. These barriers can be understood not only as a failure to provide essential medicines and relieve suffering but also as human rights abuses.According to international human rights law, countries have to provide pain treatment medications as part of their core obligations under the right to health; failure to take reasonable steps to ensure that people who suffer pain have access to adequate pain treatment may result in the violation of the obligation to protect against cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment.Chronic pain is a one of the most significant causes of suffering and disability worldwide, and a common symptom of both cancer and HIV/AIDS. Up to 70% of cancer patients suffer from pain [1] and, among individuals living with HIV/AIDS, wide estimates of pain prevalence at all stages of infection have been reported [2-18]. While pain prevalence is diminished among individuals on antiretroviral therapy [16], studies continue to document the under-recognition and under-treatment of pain, even among individuals being treated for HIV infection [19-22]. Pain treatment is also related to gender, as HIV-infected women with pain are twice as likely to be under-treated as their male counterparts [21].Pain has a profound impact on the quality of life and can have physical, psychological and social consequences. It can lead to reduced mobility and a consequent loss of strength, compromise the immune system and interfere with a person's ability to eat, concentrate, sleep, or interact with others [23]. A World Health Organization (WH
Quantitative comparison of performance analysis techniques for modular and generic network-on-chip
M. C. Neuenhahn,J. Schleifer,H. Blume,T. G. Noll
Advances in Radio Science : Kleinheubacher Berichte , 2009,
Abstract: NoC-specific parameters feature a huge impact on performance and implementation costs of NoC. Hence, performance and cost evaluation of these parameter-dependent NoC is crucial in different design-stages but the requirements on performance analysis differ from stage to stage. In an early design-stage an analysis technique featuring reduced complexity and limited accuracy can be applied, whereas in subsequent design-stages more accurate techniques are required. In this work several performance analysis techniques at different levels of abstraction are presented and quantitatively compared. These techniques include a static performance analysis using timing-models, a Colored Petri Net-based approach, VHDL- and SystemC-based simulators and an FPGA-based emulator. Conducting NoC-experiments with NoC-sizes from 9 to 36 functional units and various traffic patterns, characteristics of these experiments concerning accuracy, complexity and effort are derived. The performance analysis techniques discussed here are quantitatively evaluated and finally assigned to the appropriate design-stages in an automated NoC-design-flow.
La mirada genética: el secuenciamiento del genoma del arroz en China
Revista iberoamericana de ciencia tecnolog?-a y sociedad , 2004,
Abstract: in 2002, the journal science published a draft sequence of the indica rice genome assembled with remarkable speed by the beijing genomics institute (bgi). this article examines the publication of bgi's draft sequence of the rice genome in science is an instantiation of the practice of seeing in genes. seeing in genes includes a range of social practices whereby different kinds of social actors represent organisms in terms of their genes, and intervene in the lives of organisms through the use of genetic information. the choice of china's most important crop as an object of the genetic gaze emerged from that nation's recent history of severe famine. a decentralized scientific infrastructure allowed chinese scientists to train abroad and to found bgi by amassing funding from a diversity of sources to. the image of science as a means of national salvation and the premium placed on self-reliance lashed-up with the global practice of seeing in genes to produce the draft sequence of the rice genome published in science. as more organisms become subject to the genetic gaze, as genetic manipulation becomes more lucrative, and as the use of genetic material becomes more widespread, more actors gain an interest in preserving the concept of the gene and in enrolling others into the genetic way of seeing.
Philosophy and community in Education
Michael Schleifer
Analytic Teaching and Philosophical Praxis , 1997,
Abstract: For those interested in moral education the adoption of a universalist perspective is essential. (Kohlberg and Mayer 1972, Reboul 1971, 1991, Wilson, 1993). Universalism involves the acceptance of at least some values which apply to all human beings, and a concept of knowledge which is not limited toconsensus or belief. I have discussed elsewhere (Schleifer 1992, Schleifer 1993) examples of the difficultiesteachers have in regard to discussing values because of the popularity of relativism. A universalist perspectiveis particularly important in multiethnic school settings where issues of identity and tolerance are paramount.(Aboud and Doyle 1993, Brief 1993, Schleifer 1993). We have emphasized the importance of philosophicaldiscussions in pluriethnic milieux as a contribution to democracy. A growing consensus among educators is to foster respect for differenceswithout rejecting a notion of what human beings share together in terms of their similarities and a common human nature.
La mirada genética: el secuenciamiento del genoma del arroz en China
David Schleifer
Revista iberoamericana de ciencia tecnolog?-a y sociedad , 2004,
Abstract: En el a o 2002, la revista Science publicó una secuencia preliminar del genoma del arroz índico, ensamblado con extraordinaria celeridad por el Beijing Genomics Institute (BGI) de China. Este artículo estudia la publicación de esta secuencia en la revista Science como un ejemplo de la práctica de lo que el autor ha denominado seeing in genes: este concepto incluye una variedad de prácticas sociales en las cuales diferentes tipos de actores sociales representan organismos en términos de sus genes, e intervienen en la vida de los organismos a través del uso de información genética. El hecho de que China eligiera a su cultivo de mayor importancia como objeto de una mirada genética surge como consecuencia de las terribles hambrunas sufridas por esta nación en tiempos recientes. La descentralización del sistema científico chino permitió a un grupo de científicos capacitarse en el exterior y fundar el BGI a través de la acumulación de diversas fuentes de financiamiento. La imagen de la ciencia como medio de salvación para el país, y el lugar de prestigio otorgado a la capacidad de avanzar por medios propios, hizo que, a través de la práctica de seeing in genes, se obtuviera la secuencia preliminar publicada en la revista Science. Cuantos más organismos se convierten en objeto de una mirada genética, cuanto más lucrativa se vuelve la manipulación genética y cuanto más se difunde el uso del material genético, más actores se interesan en preservar el concepto de gen y en hacer partícipes a otros del modo genético de mirar el mundo. In 2002, the journal Science published a draft sequence of the indica rice genome assembled with remarkable speed by the Beijing Genomics Institute (BGI). This article examines the publication of BGI's draft sequence of the rice genome in Science is an instantiation of the practice of seeing in genes. Seeing in genes includes a range of social practices whereby different kinds of social actors represent organisms in terms of their genes, and intervene in the lives of organisms through the use of genetic information. The choice of China's most important crop as an object of the genetic gaze emerged from that nation's recent history of severe famine. A decentralized scientific infrastructure allowed Chinese scientists to train abroad and to found BGI by amassing funding from a diversity of sources to. The image of science as a means of national salvation and the premium placed on self-reliance lashed-up with the global practice of seeing in genes to produce the draft sequence of the rice genome published in Science. As more organisms be
Souha?l Outal,Dominique Jeulin,Jacques Schleifer
Image Analysis and Stereology , 2008, DOI: 10.5566/ias.v27.p97-105
Abstract: Image analysis of rock fragmentation is used in mines and quarries to control the quality of blasting. Obtained information is the particle-size-distribution curve relating volume-proportions to the sizes of fragments. Calculation by image analysis of this particle-size-distribution is carried out in several steps, and each step has its inherent limitations. We will focus in this paper on one of themost crucial steps: reconstructing the volumes (3D). For the 3D-step, we have noticed that, due to the current acquisition method, there is no correlation between the average grey level of surfaces of the fragments and their third dimension. Consequently volumes (3D) as well as the sizes (1D) has to be calculated indirectly from the extracted projected areas of the visible fragments of images. For this purpose, we have built in laboratory a set of images of fragmented rocks resulting from blasting. Moreover, several tests based on comparisons between image analysis and screening measurements were carried out. A new stereological method, based on the comparison of the densities of probability (histograms) of the samemeasurements (with very weak covering and overlapping)was elaborated. It allows us to estimate correctly, for a given type of rock, two intrinsic laws weighing the projected areas distribution in order to predict the volumic distribution.
Enhanced Proton Acceleration by an Ultrashort Laser Interaction with Structured Dynamic Plasma Targets
A. Zigler,S. Eisenman,M. Botton,E. Nahum,E. Schleifer,A. Baspaly,Y. Pomerantz,F. Abicht,J. Branzel,G. Priebe,S. Steinke,A. Andreev,M. Schnuerer,W. Sandner,D. Gordon,P. Sprangle,K. W. D. Ledingham
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.215004
Abstract: We experimentally demonstrate a notably enhanced acceleration of protons to high energy by relatively modest ultrashort laser pulses and structured dynamical plasma targets. Realized by special deposition of snow targets on sapphire substrates and using carefully planned pre-pulses, high proton yield emitted in a narrow solid angle with energy above 21MeV were detected from a 5TW laser. Our simulations predict that using the proposed scheme protons can be accelerated to energies above 150MeV by 100TW laser systems.
Philosophy for Children Teachers as Collaborative Researchers
Michael Schleifer,Pierre Lebuis,Anita Caron,Marie- France Daniel
Analytic Teaching and Philosophical Praxis , 1995,
Abstract: In an article published in Analytic Teaching (Schleifer, Lebuis, Daniel, Caron, 1990), we argued for a model of ongoing supervision to complement the “official” emphasis on coaching and modelling in teacher-training. We acknowledged that coaching was important but only for the initiation period. After two or three years ofexperience, however, we had found that the role of the supervisor was much more of a collaborator, or co-philosopher than a coach. What our teachers seemed to be most in need of was to have a resource-person with whom to continue reflecting about their action. This reflexion might centre upon philosophical issues arisingfrom the material, but might also concern itself with two other sets of issues. The first set of issues are mainly pedagogical ones; the second set concerns general problems in the philosophy of education. We argued that our model of supervision (or accompaniment) had to be flexible and ongoing. It had to be flexible enough to adapt to the needs of individual teachers in individual circumstances. It had also to be ongoing in order to continue to serve teachers who had already gone beyond their novice apprenticeship and initiation. The model we advocate is an extension of the community of inquiry. Rather than simply using this at the initial period ofinitiation, we see it as an ongoing enterprise. Thus the teachers can continue to consult the university professors(supervisors) concerning each of the three types of considerations mentioned above (philosophical materials and issues, pedagogical matters, and philosophy of education). The present article provides a report of how that model has worked in practice.
Probabilistic Extensions of the Erd\H os-Ko-Rado Property
Anna Celaya,Anant P. Godbole,Mandy Rae Schleifer
Mathematics , 2005,
Abstract: The classical Erd\H os-Ko-Rado (EKR) Theorem states that if we choose a family of subsets, each of size (k), from a fixed set of size (n (n > 2k)), then the largest possible pairwise intersecting family has size (t ={n-1\choose k-1}). We consider the probability that a randomly selected family of size (t=t_n) has the EKR property (pairwise nonempty intersection) as $n$ and $k=k_n$ tend to infinity, the latter at a specific rate. As $t$ gets large, the EKR property is less likely to occur, while as $t$ gets smaller, the EKR property is satisfied with high probability. We derive the threshold value for $t$ using Janson's inequality. Using the Stein-Chen method we show that the distribution of $X_0$, defined as the number of disjoint pairs of subsets in our family, can be approximated by a Poisson distribution. We extend our results to yield similar conclusions for $X_i$, the number of pairs of subsets that overlap in exactly $i$ elements. Finally, we show that the joint distribution $(X_0, X_1, ..., X_b)$ can be approximated by a multidimensional Poisson vector with independent components.
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