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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 550251 matches for " J. S. Butler "
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Relief of osteoarthritis with a herbal-amino acid supplement: A randomized double-blind placebo controlled trial  [PDF]
Mark J.S. Miller, Ross Butler
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2012.324066
Abstract: A redox active medicinal plant and L-leucine mixture (HLM) was investigated in subjects with established osteoarthritis of the knee in a multi-center, rando- m-ized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial. A total of 96 subjects with osteoarthritis were enrolled and randomized to either placebo (n = 38) or HLM treatment group (n = 38). The HLM group re- ceived a combination of Uncaria tomentosa (300 mg), Boswellia serrata (200 mg), Lepidium meyenii (1000 mg) and L-Leucine (700 mg) given as 3 capsules once a day. The placebo group received matching capsules with carboxymethylcellulose. The treatment period was 8 weeks, with assessments made at days 7, 14, 28 and 56. The primary outcome was reduction in total WOMAC score. VAS pain, tolerability, investigator assessments, use of rescue medication (acetominophen), and safety assessments of vital signs and laboratory assessments were included. Subject randomization was effective for age, gender and disease severity. In the placebo group 32/38 subjects completed the trial and for HLM 35/38. WOMAC scores (pain, stiffness, physical performance and total) steadily declined over the course of the 8 week study in both groups, but the magnitude was significantly greater for HLM (P < 0.05). Total WOMAC was reduced 46.5% for HLM and 25.4 % for placebo. VAS pain was reduced 21.8% in the placebo group (p < 0.002) but the changes were significantly greater (37.8% p < 0.03) with HLM treatment. Investigator’s global assessment rating of good-excellent was 24/35 (69%) for HLM and 14/32 (44%) for placebo (P = 0.05). Rescue medication consumption and tolerability were comparable for HLM and placebo. No safety issues were evident with either group. As expected a placebo effect was observed, nevertheless HLM was clearly more effective in relieving the symptoms of osteoarthritis. This HLM represents a safe and effective new approach to the management of osteoarthritis symptoms.
The role of ozone atmosphere-snow gas exchange on polar, boundary-layer tropospheric ozone – a review and sensitivity analysis
D. Helmig, L. Ganzeveld, T. Butler,S. J. Oltmans
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2007,
Abstract: Recent research on snowpack processes and atmosphere-snow gas exchange has demonstrated that chemical and physical interactions between the snowpack and the overlaying atmosphere have a substantial impact on the composition of the lower troposphere. These observations also imply that ozone deposition to the snowpack possibly depends on parameters including the quantity and composition of deposited trace gases, solar irradiance, snow temperature and the substrate below the snowpack. Current literature spans a remarkably wide range of ozone deposition velocities (vdO3); several studies even reported positive ozone fluxes out of the snow. Overall, published values range from ~–3
The role of ozone atmosphere-snow gas exchange on polar, boundary-layer tropospheric ozone – a review and sensitivity analysis
D. Helmig,L. Ganzeveld,T. Butler,S. J. Oltmans
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2006,
Abstract: Recent research on snowpack processes and atmosphere-snow gas exchange has demonstrated that chemical and physical interactions between the snowpack and the overlaying atmosphere have a substantial impact on the composition of the lower troposphere. These observations also imply that ozone deposition to the snowpack possibly depends on parameters including the quantity and composition of deposited trace gases, solar irradiance, snow temperature and the substrate below the snowpack. Current literature spans a remarkably wide range of ozone deposition velocities (vdO3); several studies even reported positive ozone fluxes out of the snow. Overall, published values range from ~ 3
Impact of dust on tropospheric photochemistry over polluted regions: a case study of the Beijing megacity
S. Zhu,T. Butler,R. Sander,J. Ma
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2009,
Abstract: The box model MECCA (Module Efficiently Calculating the Chemistry of the Atmosphere) is updated by incorporating detailed heterogeneous chemistry occurring on mineral aerosol surfaces. The model is used to investigate the impact of dust on tropospheric photochemistry, when the dust is transported to a polluted region together with other trace gases. The impacts of dust via heterogeneous removal of gases are analyzed for different hypothetical transport rates which are described by four different exchange rate coefficients Kt in the model. Substantial impacts are found for many gases, including Ox (O3+O(3P), NOx (NO+NO2) and OH. The Ox daily average mixing ratio decreases due to heterogeneous reactions on dust. The change ranges from –2.5 to –18.4 nmol/mol, and is larger for faster mixing with upwind air masses (i.e. greater Kt). This translates into a large relative change in Ox, ranging from –44% to –55%, which changes slightly with increasing values of Kt. By assuming an artificial 50% decrease of all photolysis rates, the impacts of dust via photolysis perturbation are also estimated. Furthermore, the uncertainties in the results due to the uncertainties in the uptake coefficients are evaluated. It is found that for all gases which are heterogeneously removed, the self-removal results in the largest uncertainty (e.g. –49% for O3, –76% for NO2, –47% for HNO3, –92% for HCHO, –64% for CH3OH and –93% for SO2). The heterogeneous removal of NO2 is found to be particularly important, because it results in significant uncertainties not only in itself, but also in OH (340%) and HO2 (365%). Moreover, the heterogeneous removal of HCHO and O3 also has farther-reaching effects on the OH concentration (resulting in changes of –55% and 45%, respectively), and the heterogeneous removal of HCHO results in an uncertainty of –38% in the HO2 concentration.
Bacteria in the global atmosphere – Part 2: Modelling of emissions and transport between different ecosystems
S. M. Burrows,T. Butler,P. J?ckel,H. Tost
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2009,
Abstract: Bacteria are constantly being transported through the atmosphere, which may have implications for human health, agriculture, cloud formation, and the dispersal of bacterial species. We simulated the global transport of bacterial cells, represented as 1μm diameter spherical solid particle tracers, in a chemistry-climate model. We investigated the factors influencing residence time and distribution of the particles, including emission region, CCN activity and removal by ice-phase precipitation. The global distribution depends strongly on the assumptions made about uptake into cloud droplets and ice. The transport is also affected, to a lesser extent, by the emission region and by season. We examine the potential for exchange of bacteria between ecosystems and obtain rough estimates of the flux from each ecosystem by using an optimal estimation technique, together with a new compilation of available observations described in a companion paper. Globally, we estimate the total emissions of bacteria to the atmosphere to be 1400 Gg per year with an upper bound of 4600 Gg per year, originating mainly from grasslands, shrubs and crops. In order to improve understanding of this topic, more measurements of the bacterial content of the air will be necessary. Future measurements in wetlands, sandy deserts, tundra, remote glacial and coastal regions and over oceans will be of particular interest.
Effects of Hyperbaric Oxygen on Inflammatory Response to Wound and Trauma: Possible Mechanism of Action
Noori S. Al-Waili,Glenn J. Butler
The Scientific World Journal , 2006, DOI: 10.1100/tsw.2006.78
Abstract:
Application of SCIAMACHY and MOPITT CO total column measurements to evaluate model results over biomass burning regions and Eastern China
C. Liu,S. Beirle,T. Butler,J. Liu
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2011, DOI: 10.5194/acp-11-6083-2011
Abstract: We developed a new CO vertical column density product from near IR observations of the SCIAMACHY instrument onboard ENVISAT. For the correction of a temporally and spatially variable offset of the CO vertical column densities we apply a normalisation procedure based on coincident MOPITT (version 4) observations over the oceans. The resulting normalised SCIAMACHY CO data is well suited for the investigation of the CO distribution over continents, where important emission sources are located. We use only SCIAMACHY observations for effective cloud fractions below 20 %. Since the remaining effects of clouds can still be large (up to 100 %), we applied a cloud correction scheme which explicitly considers the cloud fraction, cloud top height and surface albedo of individual observations. The normalisation procedure using MOPITT data and the cloud correction substantially improve the agreement with independent data sets. We compared our new SCIAMACHY CO data set, and also observations from the MOPITT instrument, to the results from three global atmospheric chemistry models (MATCH, EMAC at low and high resolution, and GEOS-Chem); the focus of this comparison is on regions with strong CO emissions (from biomass burning or anthropogenic sources). The comparison indicates that over most of these regions the seasonal cycle is generally captured well but the simulated CO vertical column densities are systematically smaller than those from the satellite observations, in particular with respect to SCIAMACHY observations. Because SCIAMACHY is more sensitive to the lowest part of the atmosphere compared to MOPITT, this indicates that especially close to the surface the model simulations systematically underestimate the true atmospheric CO concentrations, probably caused by an underestimation of CO emissions by current emission inventories. For some biomass burning regions, however, such as Central Africa in July–August, model results are also found to be higher than the satellite observations.
Bacteria in the global atmosphere – Part 2: Modeling of emissions and transport between different ecosystems
S. M. Burrows,T. Butler,P. J?ckel,H. Tost
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2009,
Abstract: Bacteria are constantly being transported through the atmosphere, which may have implications for human health, agriculture, cloud formation, and the dispersal of bacterial species. We simulate the global transport of bacteria, represented as 1 μm and 3 μm diameter spherical solid particle tracers in a general circulation model. We investigate factors influencing residence time and distribution of the particles, including emission region, cloud condensation nucleus activity and removal by ice-phase precipitation. The global distribution depends strongly on the assumptions made about uptake into cloud droplets and ice. The transport is also affected, to a lesser extent, by the emission region, particulate diameter, and season. We find that the seasonal variation in atmospheric residence time is insufficient to explain by itself the observed seasonal variation in concentrations of particulate airborne culturable bacteria, indicating that this variability is mainly driven by seasonal variations in culturability and/or emission strength. We examine the potential for exchange of bacteria between ecosystems and obtain rough estimates of the flux from each ecosystem by using a maximum likelihood estimation technique, together with a new compilation of available observations described in a companion paper. Globally, we estimate the total emissions of bacteria-containing particles to the atmosphere to be 7.6×1023–3.5×1024 a 1, originating mainly from grasslands, shrubs and crops. We estimate the mass of emitted bacteria- to be 40–1800 Gg a 1, depending on the mass fraction of bacterial cells in the particles. In order to improve understanding of this topic, more measurements of the bacterial content of the air and of the rate of surface-atmosphere exchange of bacteria will be necessary. Future observations in wetlands, hot deserts, tundra, remote glacial and coastal regions and over oceans will be of particular interest.
Enhanced brightness and photostability of cyanine dyes by supramolecular containment
Hari S. Muddana,Samudra Sengupta,Ayusman Sen,Peter J. Butler
Quantitative Biology , 2014,
Abstract: Ultrasensitive detection and real-time monitoring of biological processes can benefit significantly from the improved brightness and photostability of the popular organic dyes such as cyanines. Here, using a model cyanine dye, Cy3, we demonstrate that brightness and photostability of the dye is significantly altered when trapped in a molecular container, e.g. cucurbit[n]urils (CB[n]) and cyclodextrins (CD).Through computational modeling, we predicted that Cy3 forms a stable inclusion complex with three different hosts, CB[7], beta-CD, and methyl-beta-CD, which was further confirmed by single-molecule diffusion measurements using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. The effect of supramolecular encapsulation on Cy3 photophysical properties was found to be highly host-specific. Up to three-fold increase in brightness of Cy3 was observed when the dye was trapped in methyl-beta-CD, due to an increase in both dye absorption and quantum yield. Steady-state and time-resolved spectroscopy of the various complexes revealed that host polarizability and restricted mobility of the dye in the host both contribute to the observed increase in molecular brightness. Furthermore, entrapment of the dye molecule in CDs resulted in a marked increase in dye photostability, whereas the dye degraded more rapidly in CB[7]. These results suggest that the changes in photophysical properties of the dye afforded by supramolecular encapsulation are highly dependent on the host molecule. The reported improvement in brightness and photostability together with the excellent biocompatibility of cyclodextrins makes supramolecular encapsulation a viable strategy for routine dye enhancement.
Zimbabwean Otter Project Completed
Butler J.
IUCN Otter Specialist Group Bulletin , 1994,
Abstract: James Butler of Zimbabwe has completed his study on the clawless otter in the highlands, where he concentrated on resource use within the crab-eating guild (see OSG Bulletin N° 8). James was able to submit his thesis at the end of last year and was awarded a First Class MSc for his efforts. At present James is preparing manuscripts for publication, which we hope to see in print soon.Since the otter symposium in South Africa during September, James has sent many appeals for funds to potential donors, requesting funding for a survey of Zimbabwean otters; but he has had no positive responses. He will probably be taking up a research post in the Department of Biology, University of Zimbabwe, Harare in 1994.
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