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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 299337 matches for " J. Russell Hayman "
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Expression and Localization of an Hsp70 Protein in the Microsporidian Encephalitozoon cuniculi
Carrie E. Jolly,Cory A. Leonard,J. Russell Hayman
International Journal of Microbiology , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/523654
Abstract: Microsporidia spore surface proteins are an important, under investigated aspect of spore/host cell attachment and infection. For comparison analysis of surface proteins, we required an antibody control specific for an intracellular protein. An endoplasmic reticulum-associated heat shock protein 70 family member (Hsp70; ECU02_0100; “C1”) was chosen for further analysis. DNA encoding the C1 hsp70 was amplified, cloned and used to heterologously express the C1 Hsp70 protein, and specific antiserum was generated. Two-dimensional Western blotting analysis showed that the purified antibodies were monospecific. Immunoelectron microscopy of developing and mature E. cuniculi spores revealed that the protein localized to internal structures and not to the spore surface. In spore adherence inhibition assays, the anti-C1 antibodies did not inhibit spore adherence to host cell surfaces, whereas antibodies to a known surface adhesin (EnP1) did so. In future studies, the antibodies to the ‘C1’ Hsp70 will be used to delineate spore surface protein expression.
Expression and Localization of an Hsp70 Protein in the Microsporidian Encephalitozoon cuniculi
Carrie E. Jolly,Cory A. Leonard,J. Russell Hayman
International Journal of Microbiology , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/523654
Abstract: Microsporidia spore surface proteins are an important, under investigated aspect of spore/host cell attachment and infection. For comparison analysis of surface proteins, we required an antibody control specific for an intracellular protein. An endoplasmic reticulum-associated heat shock protein 70 family member (Hsp70; ECU02_0100; “C1”) was chosen for further analysis. DNA encoding the C1 hsp70 was amplified, cloned and used to heterologously express the C1 Hsp70 protein, and specific antiserum was generated. Two-dimensional Western blotting analysis showed that the purified antibodies were monospecific. Immunoelectron microscopy of developing and mature E. cuniculi spores revealed that the protein localized to internal structures and not to the spore surface. In spore adherence inhibition assays, the anti-C1 antibodies did not inhibit spore adherence to host cell surfaces, whereas antibodies to a known surface adhesin (EnP1) did so. In future studies, the antibodies to the ‘C1’ Hsp70 will be used to delineate spore surface protein expression. 1. Introduction Microsporidia are spore-forming, obligate intracellular divergent fungi with an extensive host range that includes most vertebrates and invertebrates. Although the first species of microsporidia was described over 150 years ago, microsporidiosis was rarely diagnosed in humans prior to the AIDS pandemic. Today, microsporidia are recognized as opportunistic pathogens of humans [1]. Most microsporidia infections in humans are thought to arise via the fecal-oral route. Ingestion of the environmentally stable spores leads to primary infection in the small intestine where replication of the organisms results in destruction of the epithelium. Therefore, the most common clinical manifestations of microsporidiosis are self-limiting diarrhea in immunocompetent individuals and persistent diarrhea perhaps leading to a wasting syndrome in the immunocompromised [2]. All microsporidia possess a unique invasion apparatus known as the polar tube or polar filament, which must be discharged in order to infect the host cell. Upon extrusion, the polar tube penetrates the host cell plasma membrane and allows the passage of infectious sporoplasm from the spore through the hollow polar tube into the host cell cytoplasm where replication occurs. We hypothesize that infection of the host cell is facilitated by adherence of the microsporidia spore to the host cell surface prior to or during the activation process. Our previous studies have demonstrated that microsporidia spores of the genus Encephalitozoon adhere to the
Random Mutagenesis of the Aspergillus oryzae Genome Results in Fungal Antibacterial Activity
Cory A. Leonard,Stacy D. Brown,J. Russell Hayman
International Journal of Microbiology , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/901697
Abstract: Multidrug-resistant bacteria cause severe infections in hospitals and communities. Development of new drugs to combat resistant microorganisms is needed. Natural products of microbial origin are the source of most currently available antibiotics. We hypothesized that random mutagenesis of Aspergillus oryzae would result in secretion of antibacterial compounds. To address this hypothesis, we developed a screen to identify individual A. oryzae mutants that inhibit the growth of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in vitro. To randomly generate A. oryzae mutant strains, spores were treated with ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS). Over 3000 EMS-treated A. oryzae cultures were tested in the screen, and one isolate, CAL220, exhibited altered morphology and antibacterial activity. Culture supernatant from this isolate showed antibacterial activity against Methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, but not Klebsiella pneumonia or Proteus vulgaris. The results of this study support our hypothesis and suggest that the screen used is sufficient and appropriate to detect secreted antibacterial fungal compounds resulting from mutagenesis of A. oryzae. Because the genome of A. oryzae has been sequenced and systems are available for genetic transformation of this organism, targeted as well as random mutations may be introduced to facilitate the discovery of novel antibacterial compounds using this system. 1. Introduction Antibiotic resistant microorganisms became a medical concern shortly after antibiotics became readily available in the 1940s. In fact, resistance has typically been identified within four years of Food and Drug Administration approval of antibacterial agents [1]. Currently, multidrug-resistant bacteria such as MRSA, coagulase negative Staphylococci, and Enterococci cause severe infections in both hospital and community settings [2]. Development of new drugs to combat the increasing host of drug resistant microorganisms is essential if we are to avoid the emergence of pathogens for which there exist no effective antimicrobial therapies. Most classes of antibiotics were developed from natural products produced by fungi or filamentous bacteria. Significantly, the majority of antibiotics still commonly used today are natural product compounds, or their derivatives, discovered during the “golden era” of antibiotic discovery from the 1940s through the 1960s [3]. More recent efforts to generate new antibiotics based on high-throughput, target-focused screening of large libraries of synthetic compounds have largely
Sediment and Nutrient Contributions from Subsurface Drains and Point Sources to an Agricultural Watershed
Bonnie Ball Coelho, Allison J. Bruin, Shawn Staton and David Hayman
Air, Soil and Water Research , 2012, DOI: 10.4137/ASWR.S4471
Abstract: Excess sediment and nutrients in surface waters can threaten aquatic life. To determine the relative importance of subsurface drainage as a pathway for movement of sediment and nutrients to surface waters, loading from various tile systems was compared to that from sewage treatment plants (STP) within the same watershed. Movement through tiles comprised 1 to 8% of estimated total (overland plus tile) annual sediment loading from the respective areas drained by the tile. Load during the growing season from five closed drain- age systems without surface inlets averaged 5 kg sediment/ha, 0.005 kg dissolved reactive P (DRP)/ha, 0.003 kg NH4-N/ha, and 3.8 kg NO3-N/ha; and from two open drainage systems with surface inlets averaged 14 kg sediment/ha, 0.03 kg DRP/ha, 0.04 kg NH4-N/ha, and 3.1 kg NO3-N/ha. The eight STP contributed about 44 530 kg suspended sediments, 3380 kg total P, 1340 kg NH4-N, and 116 900 kg NO3-N to the watershed annually. Drainage systems added less NH4-N and P, but more NO3-N and suspended solids to surface waters than STP. Tile drainage pathways for NO3-N, STP in the case of P, and overland pathways for sediment are indicated as targets to control loading in artificially drained agricultural watersheds.
Sediment and Nutrient Contributions from Subsurface Drains and Point Sources to an Agricultural Watershed
Bonnie Ball Coelho,Allison J. Bruin,Shawn Staton,David Hayman
Air, Soil and Water Research , 2010,
Abstract: Excess sediment and nutrients in surface waters can threaten aquatic life. To determine the relative importance of subsurface drainage as a pathway for movement of sediment and nutrients to surface waters, loading from various tile systems was compared to that from sewage treatment plants (STP) within the same watershed. Movement through tiles comprised 1 to 8% of estimated total (overland plus tile) annual sediment loading from the respective areas drained by the tile. Load during the growing season from five closed drain- age systems without surface inlets averaged 5 kg sediment/ha, 0.005 kg dissolved reactive P (DRP)/ha, 0.003 kg NH4-N/ha, and 3.8 kg NO3-N/ha; and from two open drainage systems with surface inlets averaged 14 kg sediment/ha, 0.03 kg DRP/ha, 0.04 kg NH4-N/ha, and 3.1 kg NO3-N/ha. The eight STP contributed about 44 530 kg suspended sediments, 3380 kg total P, 1340 kg NH4-N, and 116 900 kg NO3-N to the watershed annually. Drainage systems added less NH4-N and P, but more NO3-N and suspended solids to surface waters than STP. Tile drainage pathways for NO3-N, STP in the case of P, and overland pathways for sediment are indicated as targets to control loading in artificially drained agricultural watersheds.
Mediator Subunit 12 Is Required for Neutrophil Development in Zebrafish
Maria-Cristina Keightley, Judith E. Layton, John W. Hayman, Joan K. Heath, Graham J. Lieschke
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0023845
Abstract: Hematopoiesis requires the spatiotemporal organization of regulatory factors to successfully orchestrate diverse lineage specificity from stem and progenitor cells. Med12 is a regulatory component of the large Mediator complex that enables contact between the general RNA polymerase II transcriptional machinery and enhancer bound regulatory factors. We have identified a new zebrafish med12 allele, syr, with a single missense mutation causing a valine to aspartic acid change at position 1046. Syr shows defects in hematopoiesis, which predominantly affect the myeloid lineage. Syr has identified a hematopoietic cell-specific requirement for Med12, suggesting a new role for this transcriptional regulator.
Eosinophilic Esophagitis in Pediatrics: The Worst of all Possible Allergy Worlds?
Russell J. Hopp
Journal of Allergy , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/179658
Abstract: Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a relatively uncommon allergic disease. Presenting with variable gastrointestinal symptoms, the definitive diagnosis is made after esophageal visualization and histological confirmation of excessive esophageal eosinophils. The scientific discovery of the pathophysiology of EoE has been aided by its relationship to other common and well-recognized allergic diseases. Similarities and important differences have emerged to distinguish EoE as a significant pediatric allergic disease with unique medical care requirements. 1. Introduction From an early description as a pathological sidebar in 1977 [1] eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) has become an important allergic disease. Currently, as a pediatric disease entity, EoE requires the diagnostic acumen of multiple specialists, including allergists, gastroenterologists, pathologists, and radiologists. It presents with a spectrum of symptoms depending on age and has a natural history of such short duration that the prognosis for patients and their families is difficult to predict. Eosinophilic esophagitis has the lowest prevalence in the allergic disease family and ranked most to least common: allergic rhinitis, asthma, atopic dermatitis, food allergy, and EoE. Children with EoE often have other preexisting allergic diseases, and, presumptively, young children with EoE likely will develop other allergic disease(s) with age. The pathophysiological understanding of the allergic disease family has grown exponentially in the past decade, which is equally true of EoE [2]. In this paper we will contrast and compare the known pathophysiology and clinical circumstances of each of the allergic diseases and EoE and suggest that EoE has disadvantages to patients greater than or equal to its allergy family members. An excellent consensus paper with recommendations for treating children and adults with EoE has been recently published [3]. 2. Food Allergy versus Eosinophilic Esophagitis By every indicator IgE-mediated food allergy has increased in the past decade. In almost all cases, symptoms of IgE-mediated food allergy are readily defined and generally temporally approximate to the food ingested, but not persistent or chronic. The diagnosis is relatively straightforward, using a clinical history supported by appropriate allergy skin tests or specific IgE blood tests. As long as the inciting food is avoided, symptoms are totally gone, and daily therapy is not indicated. With the exception of peanuts and tree nuts, food allergy generally resolves itself by late adolescence. The exact reason for
Inlay-clad gold alloys
Robert J. Russell
Gold Bulletin , 1976, DOI: 10.1007/BF03215397
Abstract: As an economic and reliable alternative to electrodeposited gold, inlay-clad strip offers a number of advantages to the contact designer but the selection of the most suitable gold alloy and basis metal, and the geometry and condition of the finished material, involve a number of complex factors. The properties of gold alloys in inlay form are surveyed to assist the designer in making the most appropriate choice.
Las fracturas en los ni os son diferentes
RUSSELL J. CRIDER
Revista Cubana de Ortopedia y Traumatolog?-a , 1995,
Abstract:
Living large: the experiences of large-bodied women when accessing general practice services
Russell N,Carryer J
Journal of Primary Health Care , 2013,
Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Numerous studies report high levels of stigma and discrimination experienced by obese/overweight women within the health care system and society at large. Despite general practice being the most utilised point of access for health care services, there is very little international or national exploration of the experiences of large-bodied women (LBW) accessing these services. The aim of this study was to explore LBW's experiences of accessing general practice services in New Zealand. METHODS: This is a qualitative, descriptive, feminist study. Local advertising for participants resulted in eight self-identified, large-bodied women being interviewed. A post-structural feminist lens was applied to the data during thematic analysis. FINDINGS: The women in this study provided examples of verbal insults, inappropriate humour, negative body language, unmet health care needs and breaches of dignity from health care providers in general practice. Seven themes were identified: early experiences of body perception, confronting social stereotypes, contending with feminine beauty ideals, perceptions of health, pursuing health, respecting the whole person, and feeling safe to access care. CONCLUSION: Pressure for body size vigilance has, in effect, excluded the women in this study from the very locations of health that they are 'encouraged' to attend-including socialising and exercising in public, screening opportunities that require bodily exposure, and accessing first point of care health services.
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