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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 297634 matches for " J. Muralidharan "
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Anti Epileptic Activity of Morinda citrifolia Linn Fruit Extract
P. Muralidharan,J. Srikanth
Journal of Chemistry , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/795804
The Crystal Structures of Dystrophin and Utrophin Spectrin Repeats: Implications for Domain Boundaries
Muralidharan Muthu, Kylie A. Richardson, Andrew J. Sutherland-Smith
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0040066
Abstract: Dystrophin and utrophin link the F-actin cytoskeleton to the cell membrane via an associated glycoprotein complex. This functionality results from their domain organization having an N-terminal actin-binding domain followed by multiple spectrin-repeat domains and then C-terminal protein-binding motifs. Therapeutic strategies to replace defective dystrophin with utrophin in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy require full-characterization of both these proteins to assess their degree of structural and functional equivalence. Here the high resolution structures of the first spectrin repeats (N-terminal repeat 1) from both dystrophin and utrophin have been determined by x-ray crystallography. The repeat structures both display a three-helix bundle fold very similar to one another and to homologous domains from spectrin, α-actinin and plectin. The utrophin and dystrophin repeat structures reveal the relationship between the structural domain and the canonical spectrin repeat domain sequence motif, showing the compact structural domain of spectrin repeat one to be extended at the C-terminus relative to its previously defined sequence repeat. These structures explain previous in vitro biochemical studies in which extending dystrophin spectrin repeat domain length leads to increased protein stability. Furthermore we show that the first dystrophin and utrophin spectrin repeats have no affinity for F-actin in the absence of other domains.
Genetic and non-genetic factors affecting body weight in Tellicherry goats
AK Thiruvenkadan, M Murugan, K Karunanithi, J Muralidharan, K Chinnamani
South African Journal of Animal Science , 2010,
Abstract: Data on 566 Tellicherry goats, recorded between 1988 and 2007 were used to study the effect of non-genetic factors on body weight and daily gain from birth to 12 months of age. The least-squares means for body weight at birth and at 12 months of age were 2.17 ± 0.03 and 18.78 ± 0.44 kg, respectively. The pre- and post-weaning average daily weight gains were 72.41 ± 1.68 and 37.46 ± 1.49 g, respectively, and the associated growth efficiencies were 3.11 ± 0.08 and 1.34 ± 0.05, respectively. Significant differences associated with the year of kidding were observed in body weight, weight gain and efficiency in weight gain at different stages of growth. Growth rate of kids born between December and February was relatively slower than those born in other months and this can result from seasonal changes and suggests that it is necessary to plan the kidding season rationally by controlling the oestrus and mating time. The kids born as twin had lower birth weight and slower early growth rate than those born as single but had a higher post-weaning growth rate. The heritabilities of different traits were moderate to high, except for birth weight, which was of low heritability. The phenotypic and genetic correlations among the different body weights were positive and low to high in magnitude.
Effect of fenbendazole on growth promotion in Mecheri lambs
V. Ranganathan,S. Vasanthakumar,J. Muralidharan,K. Karunanithi
Veterinary World , 2013, DOI: 10.5455/vetworld.2013.113-115
Abstract: Aim: The objective of the study was to find out the effect of fenbendazole on the growth promotion in stunted mecheri lambs. Materials and methods: The study was conducted with three groups of ten mecheri lambs each. Group I served as untreated control and group II and III were treated with fenbendazole @ 5 mg/kg body weight and 7.5 mg/kg body weight, respectively. All the lambs were subjected to haemato-biochemical observations, body weight recording and collection of faeces for egg counting before and after the treatment. Results: Fenbendazole in both the doses had beneficial effect on haemato-biochemical observations like haemoglobin, total erythrocyte count, total protein, albumin, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase besides showing efficacy as an anthelmintic. The drug also increased body weight gain significantly at higher dose as compared to untreated control. Conclusion: The results support that fenbendazole has the potential for modulating growth of stunted mecheri lambs. [Vet World 2013; 6(2.000): 113-115]
Simple Estimation of Bosentan in Tablet Formulation by RP-HPLC  [PDF]
Selvadurai Muralidharan, Jaya Raja Kumar
American Journal of Analytical Chemistry (AJAC) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ajac.2012.311095
Abstract: A simple, precise, and accurate method is developed and validated for the analysis of Bosentan tablet formulation. The method has shown adequate separation of the ingredients from Tablets. Separation was achieved on a C18 column using a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile: 10 Mm ammonium acetate (pH 4.5) buffer (70:30, v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min and UV detection at 265 nm. This new method is validated as per the ICH, which includes accuracy, precision, selectivity, linearity and range, robustness and ruggedness. The current method demonstrates good linearity over the range of 5 - 70 ng/ml of bosentan with r2 of 0.999. The average recovery of the method is 98.6%. The degree of reproducibility of the results obtained as an outcome of small deliberate variations in the method parameters and by changing analytical operator has proven that this method is robust and rugged.
Firefly Algorithm in Determining Maximum Load Utilization Point and Its Enhancement through Optimal Placement of FACTS Device  [PDF]
S. Rajasekaran, Dr. S. Muralidharan
Circuits and Systems (CS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/cs.2016.710262
Abstract: In a Power System, load is the most uncertain and extremely time varying unit. Hence it is important to determine the system’s supreme acceptable loadability limit called maximum loadabilitypoint to accommodate the sudden variation of load demand. Nowadays the enhancement of themaximum loadability point is essential to meet the rapid growth of load demand by improvising the system’s load utilization capacity. Flexible AC Transmission system devices (FACTS) with their speed and flexibility will play a key role in enhancing the controllability and power transfer capability of the system. Considering the theme of FACTS devices in the loadability limit enhancement,in this paper maximum loadability limit determination and itsenhancement are prepared with the help of swarm intelligence based meta-heuristic Firefly Algorithm(FFA) by finding the optimal loading factor for each load and optimally placing the SVC (Shunt Compensation) and TCSC (SeriesCompensation) FACTS devices in the system. To illuminate the effectiveness of FACTS devices inthe loadability enhancement, the line contingency scenario is also concernedin the study. The study of FACTS based maximum system load utilization acceptability point determination is demonstrated with the help of modified IEEE 30 bus, IEEE 57 Bus and IEEE 118 Bus test systems. The results of FACTS devices involvement in determining the maximum loading point enhance the load
Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic Model of Newly Developed Dexibuprofen Sustained Release Formulations
Selvadurai Muralidharan
ISRN Pharmaceutics , 2012, DOI: 10.5402/2012/451481
Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic Model of Newly Developed Dexibuprofen Sustained Release Formulations
Selvadurai Muralidharan
ISRN Pharmaceutics , 2012, DOI: 10.5402/2012/451481
Abstract: Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) modeling has emerged as a major tool in clinical pharmacology to optimize drug use by designing rational dosage forms and dosage regimes. Quantitative representation of the dose-concentration-response relationship should provide information for the prediction of the level of response to a certain level of drug dose. This paper describes the experimental details of the preformulation study, tablet manufacture, optimization, and bioanalytical methods for the estimation of dexibuprofen in human plasma. The hydrophilic matrix was prepared with xanthen gum with additives Avicel PH 102. The effect of the concentration of the polymer and different filler, on the in vitro drug release, was studied. Various pharmacokinetic parameters including AUC0–t, AUC0–∞, , , , and elimination rate constant ( ) were determined from the plasma concentration of both formulations of test (dexibuprofen 300?mg) and reference (dexibuprofen 300?mg tablets). The merits of PK-PD in the development of dosage forms and how PK-PD model development necessitates the development of new drugs and bio analytical method development and validation are discussed. The objectives of the present study, namely, to develop and validate the methods to estimate the selected drugs in the biological fluids by HPLC, the development of in vitro dissolution methods, and PK-PD model development have been described. 1. Introduction Dexibuprofen, S(+)-ibuprofen, is a pharmacologically active form and is more potent than ibuprofen, which has equal quantities of R(?)- and S(+)-enantiomers [1]. Ibuprofen is an NSAID and is widely used to reduce pain, fever, and inflammation. This drug inhibits cyclooxygenases and activates peroxisome proliferators-activated receptors; both of these actions result in reduced inflammation [2–4]. Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) modeling is a scientific tool to help developers selecte a rational dosage regimen for confirmatory clinical testing. PK/PD modeling can be executed using various approaches, such as direct versus indirect response models and parametric versus nonparametric models. PK/PD concepts can be applied to the individual dose optimization. The limits of PK/PD approaches include the development of appropriate models, the validity of surrogate endpoints, and the acceptance of these models in a regulatory environment. PK-PD modeling allows the estimation of PK-PD parameters and the prediction of these derived, clinically relevant parameters as well. PK-PD simulations allow the assessment of the descriptive parameters as
An empirical Bayes mixture method for effect size and false discovery rate estimation
Omkar Muralidharan
Statistics , 2010, DOI: 10.1214/09-AOAS276
Abstract: Many statistical problems involve data from thousands of parallel cases. Each case has some associated effect size, and most cases will have no effect. It is often important to estimate the effect size and the local or tail-area false discovery rate for each case. Most current methods do this separately, and most are designed for normal data. This paper uses an empirical Bayes mixture model approach to estimate both quantities together for exponential family data. The proposed method yields simple, interpretable models that can still be used nonparametrically. It can also estimate an empirical null and incorporate it fully into the model. The method outperforms existing effect size and false discovery rate estimation procedures in normal data simulations; it nearly acheives the Bayes error for effect size estimation. The method is implemented in an R package (mixfdr), freely available from CRAN.
An Extended Version of Hubble’s Law  [PDF]
G. Alagar Ramanujam, Keith Fitzcharles, S. Muralidharan
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2017.87068
Abstract: Friedmann-like cosmological equations were derived by us in a recent paper by using axioms proposed by us for the so called empty Space. By using one of our cosmological equations we have derived in this paper a relation between the expansion velocity of the universe and the radius of the universe. This relation may be considered as an extended version of Hubbles’ Law. According to our relation derived here, the Hubble factor H goes on decreasing as the radius increases.
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