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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 593357 matches for " J. M. Durham "
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Calcitonin gene-related peptide promotes cellular changes in trigeminal neurons and glia implicated in peripheral and central sensitization
Ryan J Cady, Joseph R Glenn, Kael M Smith, Paul L Durham
Molecular Pain , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1744-8069-7-94
Abstract: Temporal changes in protein expression in trigeminal ganglia and spinal trigeminal nucleus were determined by immunohistochemistry following injection of CGRP in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) capsule of male Sprague-Dawley rats. CGRP stimulated expression of the active forms of the MAP kinases p38 and ERK, and PKA in trigeminal ganglia at 2 and 24 hours. CGRP also caused a sustained increase in the expression of c-Fos neurons in the spinal trigeminal nucleus. In contrast, levels of P2X3 in spinal neurons were only significantly elevated at 2 hours in response to CGRP. In addition, CGRP stimulated expression of GFAP in astrocytes and OX-42 in microglia at 2 and 24 hours post injection.Our results demonstrate that an elevated level of CGRP in the joint, which is associated with TMD, stimulate neuronal and glial expression of proteins implicated in the development of peripheral and central sensitization. Based on our findings, we propose that inhibition of CGRP-mediated activation of trigeminal neurons and glial cells with selective non-peptide CGRP receptor antagonists would be beneficial in the treatment of TMD.Peripheral and central sensitization are implicated in the pathology of temporomandibular joint disorder (TMD), which is a musculoskeletal condition characterized by pain and discomfort of the masticatory system including the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and associated muscles [1,2]. TMD is a prevalent disorder with as much as 70% of the population having at least one TMD symptom and 3-7% of the population seeking treatment for the disorder [3,4]. Activation of trigeminal ganglia neurons, which provide sensory innervation to the joint and muscles of mastication, is implicated in TMD pathology by providing a nociceptive pathway [5]. In response to inflammatory or noxious stimuli, trigeminal ganglia neurons release neuropeptides and other molecules that initiate and maintain neurogenic inflammation in the peripheral tissue that facilitate peripheral sensiti
Recent PHENIX Results on Open Heavy Flavor
J. Matthew Durham
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1088/0954-3899/38/12/124141
Abstract: Throughout the history of the RHIC physics program, questions concerning the dynamics of heavy quarks have generated much experimental and theoretical investigation. A major focus of the PHENIX experiment is the measurement of these quarks through their semi-leptonic decay channels at mid and forward rapidity. Heavy quark measurements in $p+p$ collisions give information on the production of heavy flavor, without complications from medium effects. New measurements in $d+$Au and Cu+Cu indicate surprising cold nuclear matter effects on these quarks at midrapidity, and provide a new baseline for interpretation of the observed suppression in Au+Au collisions. When considered all together, these measurements present a detailed study of nuclear matter across a wide range of system size and temperature. Here we present preliminary PHENIX measurements of non-photonic electron spectra and their centrality dependence in $d$+Au and Cu+Cu, and discuss their implications on the current understanding of parton energy loss in the nuclear medium.
PHENIX Results on Heavy Quarks at Low $x$
J. Matthew Durham
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2014.07.045
Abstract: It is becoming increasingly clear that initial state effects inherent to collisions of nuclei play an important role in the interpretation of data from heavy ion collisions at RHIC and the LHC. Such effects are more apparent in kinematic regions where the gluon density is expected to be significantly modified in the nucleus. The PHENIX experiment has studied these effects through the production of heavy quarks at backwards, middle, and forward rapidity, where partonic interactions in the nucleus and changes in the gluon structure function influence heavy quark production in different ways. Comparisons between these different rapidities in $d+$Au collisions offer us a window into the dynamics of particle production and transport in the nucleus. In these proceedings, new PHENIX results on heavy quark production at low $x$ values are discussed, in the context of A+A data from RHIC and the LHC.
Molecular Analysis of Twist1 and FGF Receptors in a Rabbit Model of Craniosynostosis: Likely Exclusion as the Loci of Origin
Phillip H. Gallo,James J. Cray Jr.,Emily L. Durham,Mark P. Mooney,Gregory M. Cooper,Sandeep Kathju
International Journal of Genomics , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/305971
Abstract: Craniosynostosis is the premature fusion of the cranial vault sutures. We have previously described a colony of rabbits with a heritable pattern of nonsyndromic, coronal suture synostosis; however, the underlying genetic defect remains unknown. We now report a molecular analysis to determine if four genes implicated in human craniosynostosis, TWIST1 and fibroblast growth factor receptors 1–3 (FGFR1–3), could be the loci of the causative mutation in this unique rabbit model. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified within the Twist1, FGFR1, and FGFR2 genes, and the allelic patterns of these silent mutations were examined in 22 craniosynostotic rabbits. SNP analysis of the Twist1, FGFR1, and FGFR2 genes indicated that none were the locus of origin of the craniosynostotic phenotype. In addition, no structural mutations were identified by direct sequence analysis of Twist1 and FGFR3 cDNAs. These data indicate that the causative locus for heritable craniosynostosis in this rabbit model is not within the Twist1, FGFR1, and FGFR2 genes. Although a locus in intronic or flanking sequences of FGFR3 remains possible, no direct structural mutation was identified for FGFR3. 1. Introduction Craniosynostosis (CS) is the premature fusion of one or more of the fibrous joints of the calvaria (cranial sutures). If this synostosis happens early enough in human development, it can lead to alterations in skull shape, reduced cranial growth, increased intracranial pressure, impaired blood flow, impaired vision and hearing, as well as mental retardation [1–7]. In most cases, surgical intervention is necessary to improve the patient’s prognosis [8–11]. There are extensive signaling networks present within the cranial sutures that allow for the coordinated growth of the skull [12]. One such network involves the fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs). FGFRs belong to a family of tyrosine kinase receptors that exhibit a common organization, including two or three extracellular immunoglobulin (Ig) like binding domains, a transmembrane domain, and two intracellular tyrosine kinase subdomains [13]. The binding of FGF to FGFR in association with heparin sulphate proteoglycan (HSPG) induces receptor dimerization at the cell surface. This dimerization in turn leads to autophosphorylation that triggers phosphorylation of downstream signaling proteins [13]. In calvarial sutures, FGFs are secreted by osteoblasts at the differentiated edge of the bones; they activate receptors involved in both osteoprogenitor cell proliferation and function in the conversion of these cells
Phenotypic and Functional Properties of Helios+ Regulatory T Cells
Daniel J. Zabransky, Christopher J. Nirschl, Nicholas M. Durham, Ben V. Park, Christina M. Ceccato, Tullia C. Bruno, Ada J. Tam, Derese Getnet, Charles G. Drake
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0034547
Abstract: Helios, an Ikaros family transcription factor, is preferentially expressed at the mRNA and protein level in regulatory T cells. Helios expression previously appeared to be restricted to thymic-derived Treg. Consistent with recent data, we show here that Helios expression is inducible in vitro under certain conditions. To understand phenotypic and functional differences between Helios+ and Helios? Treg, we profiled cell-surface markers of FoxP3+ Treg using unmanipulated splenocytes. We found that CD103 and GITR are expressed at high levels on a subset of Helios+ Treg and that a Helios+ Treg population could be significantly enriched by FACS sorting using these two markers. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) analysis revealed increased TGF-β message in Helios+ Treg, consistent with the possibility that this population possesses enhanced regulatory potential. In tumor-bearing mice, we found that Helios+ Treg were relatively over-represented in the tumor-mass, and BrdU studies showed that, in vivo, Helios+ Treg proliferated more than Helios? Treg. We hypothesized that Helios-enriched Treg might exert increased suppressive effects. Using in vitro suppression assays, we show that Treg function correlates with the absolute number of Helios+ cells in culture. Taken together, these data show that Helios+ Treg represent a functional subset with associated CD103 and GITR expression.
The fate of the weakly-bound $ψ(2s)$ in nuclear matter
J. Matthew Durham,for the PHENIX Collaboration
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2014.08.079
Abstract: We present new results of a completed PHENIX analysis of $\psi(2s)$ modification at midrapidity in 200 GeV $d+$Au collisions. Strong suppression of the $\psi(2s)$ relative to the $J/\psi$ is observed. This difference in suppression is too strong to be explained by breakup effects in the nucleus, due to the short nuclear crossing times at RHIC. Given the observation of long range correlations in $p(d)+$A collisions at LHC and RHIC, consistent with hydrodynamics, these observations raise interesting questions about the mechanism of $\psi(2s)$ suppression when it is produced in a nuclear target. In 2012, the PHENIX Collaboration installed the FVTX, a silicon tracker that precisely measures muon pair opening angles prior to any multiple scattering in the muon arm absorber, and thus provides an improved dimuon mass resolution. The FVTX allows the $\psi(2s)$ to be separated from the $J/\psi$ at forward and backward rapidity for the first time at RHIC. We present new results on $\psi(2s)$ production in $p+p$ collisions at $\sqrt{s} = 510$ GeV from the 2013 data set.
Tests of cosmic ray radiography for power industry applications
J. M. Durham,E. Guardincerri,C. L. Morris,J. Bacon,J. Fabritius,S. Fellows,K. Plaud-Ramos,D. Poulson,J. Renshaw
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: In this report, we assess muon multiple scattering tomography as a non-destructive inspection technique in several typical areas of interest to the nuclear power industry, including monitoring concrete degradation, gate valve conditions, and pipe wall thickness. This work is motivated by the need for radiographic methods that do not require the licensing, training, and safety controls of x-rays, and by the need to be able to penetrate considerable overburden to examine internal details of components that are otherwise inaccessible, with minimum impact on industrial operations. In some scenarios, we find that muon tomography may be an attractive alternative to more typical measurements.
Canadian Optically-guided approach for Oral Lesions Surgical (COOLS) trial: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial
Catherine F Poh, J Scott Durham, Penelope M Brasher, Donald W Anderson, Kenneth W Berean, Calum E MacAulay, J Jack Lee, Miriam P Rosin
BMC Cancer , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2407-11-462
Abstract: This paper describes the study design of a randomized, multi-centre, double blind, controlled surgical trial, the COOLS trial. Nine institutions across Canada will recruit a total of 400 patients with oral severe dysplasia or carcinoma in situ (N = 160) and invasive squamous cell carcinoma (N = 240). Patients will be stratified by participating institution and histology grade and randomized equally into FV-guided surgery (experimental arm) or white light-guided surgery (control arm). The primary endpoint is a composite of recurrence at or 1 cm within the previous surgery site with 1) the same or higher grade histology compared to the initial diagnosis (i.e., the diagnosis used for randomization); or 2) further treatment due to the presence of severe dysplasia or higher degree of change at follow-up. This is the first randomized, multi-centre trial to validate the effectiveness of the FV-guided surgery.In this paper we described the strategies, novelty, and challenges of this unique trial involving a surgical approach guided by the FV technology. The success of the trial requires training, coordination, and quality assurance across multiple sites within Canada. The COOLS trial, an example of translational research, may result in reduced recurrence rates following surgical treatment of early-stage oral cancer with significant impacts on survival, morbidity, patients' quality of life and the cost to the health care system.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01039298Oral cancer is a major health problem worldwide, accounting for 274,000 new cases and 145,000 deaths annually [1]. Although it occurs at a site that is easily accessible for examination it is often diagnosed at an advanced stage, with 5-year survival rates ranging from 30-60%, depending on the global locale. Treatment of early stage squamous cell carcinoma is an essential component of effective oral cancer management; a recent large (~190,000) randomized trial of a screening program showed the mortality rate ratio between
Convex cocompactness and stability in mapping class groups
Matthew Gentry Durham,Samuel J. Taylor
Mathematics , 2014, DOI: 10.2140/agt.2015.15.2839
Abstract: We introduce a strong notion of quasiconvexity in finitely generated groups, which we call stability. Stability agrees with quasiconvexity in hyperbolic groups and is preserved under quasi-isometry for finitely generated groups. We show that the stable subgroups of mapping class groups are precisely the convex cocompact subgroups. This generalizes a well-known result of Behrstock and is related to questions asked by Farb-Mosher and Farb.
Detecting Special Nuclear Material Using Muon-Induced Neutron Emission
E. Guardincerri,J. D. Bacon,K. Borodzin,J. M. Durham,J. M. Fabritius II,A. Hecht,E. C. Milner,H. Miyadera,C. L. Morris,J. O. Perry,D. Poulson
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1016/j.nima.2015.03.070
Abstract: The penetrating ability of cosmic ray muons makes them an attractive probe for imaging dense materials. Here, we describe experimental results from a new technique that uses neutrons generated by cosmic-ray muons to identify the presence of special nuclear material (SNM). Neutrons emitted from SNM are used to tag muon-induced fission events in actinides and laminography is used to form images of the stopping material. This technique allows the imaging of SNM-bearing objects tagged using muon tracking detectors located above or to the side of the objects, and may have potential applications in warhead verification scenarios. During the experiment described here we did not attempt to distinguish the type or grade of the SNM.
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