Abstract:
It is shown that in resistive nanowires out of equilibrium containing either single- or two-channel Kondo impurities the distribution function $f(E,U)$ obeys scaling behavior in terms of the quasiparticle energy $E$ and the bias voltage $U$. The numerically calculated $f(E,U)$ curves explain quantitatively recent experiments on Cu and Au nanowires. The systematics of the impurity concentration c_{imp} extracted from the comparison between theory and results on various Cu and Au samples strongly suggests that in these systems the scaling arises from magnetic Kondo impurities.

Abstract:
Self-consistent diagrammatic approximations to the Anderson or Kondo impurity model, using an exact pseudoparticle representation of the impurity states, are reviewed. We first discuss the infrared exponents of the pseudoparticle propagators as indicators of Fermi liquid behavior through their dependence on the impurity occupation and on magnetic field. Then we discuss the Non-Crossing Approximation (NCA), identifying its strengths, but also its fundamental shortcomings. Physical arguments as well as a perturbative renormalization group analysis suggest that an infinite parquet-type resummation of two-particle vertex diagrams, the Conserving T-Matrix Approximation (CTMA) will cure the deficiencies of NCA. We review results on the pseudoparticle spectral functions, the spin susceptibility and the impurity electron spectral function, supporting that the CTMA provides qualitatively correct results, both in the high-temperature regime and in the strong coupling Fermi liquid regime at low temperatures.

Abstract:
We review a systematic many-body method capable of describing Fermi liquid and Non-Fermi liquid behavior of quantum impurity models at low temperatures on the same footing. The crossover to the high temperature local moment regime is covered as well. The approach makes use of a pseudo-particle representation of the impurity Hilbert space in the limit of infinite Coulomb repulsion $U$ as well as for finite $U$. Approximations are derived from a generating Luttinger-Ward functional, in terms of renormalized perturbation theory in the hybridization $V$. Within a ``conserving T-matrix approximation'' (CTMA), including all two-particle vertex functions, an infinite series of leading infrared singular skeleton diagrams is included. The local constraint is strictly enforced. Applied to the SU(N) $\times$ SU(M) multichannel Anderson model the method allows to recover the Fermi liquid behavior of the single channel case, as well as the non-Fermi liquid behavior in the multi-channel case. The results are compared with the ``non-crossing approximation'' (NCA) and with data obtained by the numerical renormalization group and the Bethe ansatz. The generalization of the method to the case of finite on-site repulsion $U$ is presented in a systematical way and solved on the level of a generalized NCA, fully symmetric with respect to all virtual excitations of the model.

Abstract:
We review a recently developed method, based on an exact auxiliary boson representation, to describe both Fermi liquid and non-Fermi liquid behavior in quantum impurity systems. Coherent spin and charge fluctuation processes are taken into account in a self-consistent way and are shown to include {\it all} leading and subleading infrared singularities at any given order of the self-consistent loop expansion of the free energy. As a consequence, for the SU(N)$\times$ SU(M) Anderson impurity models the correct temperature dependence of the susceptibility is recovered over the entire temperature range, including Fermi liquid or non-Fermi liquid behavior below the Kondo temperature $T_K$. As a standard diagram technique the presented method has the potential to be generalized to correlated electron systems on a lattice.

Abstract:
We study the suppression of electron localization due to the screening of disorder in a Hubbard-Anderson model. We focus on the change of the electron localization length at the Fermi level within a static picture, where interactions are absorbed into the redefinition of the random on-site energies. Two different approximations are presented, either one yielding a nonmonotonic dependence of the localization length on the interaction strength, with a pronounced maximum at an intermediate interaction strength. In spite of its simplicity, our approach is in good agreement with recent numerical results.

Abstract:
A comparative study of the numerical renormalization group and non-crossing approximation results for the spectral functions of the $U=\infty$ Anderson impurity model is carried out. The non-crossing approximation is the simplest conserving approximation and has led to useful insights into strongly correlated models of magnetic impurities. At low energies and temperatures the method is known to be inaccurate for dynamical properties due to the appearance of singularities in the physical Green's functions. The problems in developing alternative reliable theories for dynamical properties have made it difficult to quantify these inaccuracies. As a first step in obtaining a theory which is valid also in the low energy regime, we identify the origin of the problems within the NCA. We show, by comparison with close to exact NRG calculations for the auxiliary and physical particle spectral functions, that the main source of error in the NCA is in the lack of vertex corrections in the convolution formulae for physical Green's functions. We show that the dynamics of the auxiliary particles within NCA is essentially correct for a large parameter region, including the physically interesting Kondo regime, for all energy scales down to $T_{0}$, the low energy scale of the model, and often well below this scale. Despite the satisfactory description of the auxiliary particle dynamics, the physical spectral functions are not obtained accurately on scales $\sim T_{0}$. Our results suggest that self--consistent conserving approximations which include vertex terms may provide a highly accurate way of dealing with strongly correlated systems at low temperatures.

Abstract:
We consider the spatial spin correlations around a partially screened spin-1 magnetic moment in a metal exhibiting the underscreened Kondo effect. We find that the underscreening of the impurity spin results in spatial spin correlations that are more pronounced as compared to the fully screened Kondo effect; their power-law decay is weaker because of characteristic logarithmic corrections at large distances. The spin correlator also changes sign as a function of distance to the impurity allowing for ferromagnetic correlations between conduction electron spin density and the local moment. The numerical findings are shown to be in agreement with the predictions deriving from an effective ferromagnetic Kondo Hamiltonian.

Abstract:
We analyze the Kondo effect of a magnetic impurity attached to an ultrasmall metallic wire using the density matrix renormalization group. The spatial spin correlation function and the impurity spectral density are computed for system sizes of up to L=511 sites, covering the crossover from $L<\ell_K$ to $L > \ell_K$, with $\ell_K$ the spin screening length. %Strong mesoscopic variations of the Kondo temperature $T_K$ %and of the spectral features override, to some extent, the %even/odd effect predicted earlier for averaged quantities. We establish a proportionality between the weight of the Kondo resonance and $\ell_K$ as function of $L$. This suggests a spectroscopic way of detecting the Kondo cloud.

Abstract:
We examine the properties of a dc-biased quantum dot in the Coulomb blockade regime. For voltages V large compared to the Kondo temperature T_K, the physics is governed by the scales V and gamma, where gamma ~ V/ln^2(V/T_K) is the non-equilibrium decoherence rate induced by the voltage-driven current. Based on scaling arguments, self-consistent perturbation theory and perturbative renormalization group, we argue that due to the large gamma, the system can be described by renormalized perturbation theory for ln(V/T_K) >> 1. However, in certain variants of the Kondo problem, two-channel Kondo physics is induced by a large voltage V.