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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 297940 matches for " J. Joy "
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TESL Instructional Materials and First-Generation Learners: Voices of the Voiceless
J. John Love Joy
Humanising Language Teaching , 2010, DOI: 17559715
NMR Chromatography: Molecular Diffusion in the Presence of Pulsed Field Gradients in Analytical Chemistry Applications  [PDF]
Kurt A. Heisel, Joy J. Goto, Viswanathan V. Krishnan
American Journal of Analytical Chemistry (AJAC) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ajac.2012.36053
Abstract: Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is an excellent analytical tool for precise structural characterization of organic and bio-molecules. Though NMR is often used to characterize a single compound in solution, emerging experimental methods using pulsed-field-gradients (PFGs) allow structural dynamic characterization of several compounds, simultaneously in the same solution. NMR as a chromatography tool is often an overlooked application by analytical chemists. Therefore, in this article we introduce the concept of NMR based diffusion measurements, basic operational methods and novel applications. We expect this article to increase the overall use and appreciation of NMR-based diffusion measurements in general and in particular, in analytical chemistry applications.
Error Estimations, Error Computations, and Convergence Rates in FEM for BVPs  [PDF]
Karan S. Surana, A. D. Joy, J. N. Reddy
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/am.2016.712120
Abstract: This paper presents derivation of a priori error estimates and convergence rates of finite element processes for boundary value problems (BVPs) described by self adjoint, non-self adjoint, and nonlinear differential operators. A posteriori error estimates are discussed in context with local approximations in higher order scalar product spaces. A posteriori error computational framework (without the knowledge of theoretical solution) is presented for all BVPs regardless of the method of approximation employed in constructing the integral form. This enables computations of local errors as well as the global errors in the computed finite element solutions. The two most significant and essential aspects of the research presented in this paper that enable all of the features described above are: 1) ensuring variational consistency of the integral form(s) resulting from the methods of approximation for self adjoint, non-self adjoint, and nonlinear differential operators and 2) choosing local approximations for the elements of a discretization in a subspace of a higher order scalar product space that is minimally conforming, hence ensuring desired global differentiability of the approximations over the discretizations. It is shown that when the theoretical solution of a BVP is analytic, the a priori error estimate (in the asymptotic range, discussed in a later section of the paper) is independent of the method of approximation or the nature of the differential operator provided the resulting integral form is variationally consistent. Thus, the finite element processes utilizing integral forms based on different methods of approximation but resulting in VC integral forms result in the same a priori error estimate and convergence rate. It is shown that a variationally consistent (VC) integral form has best approximation property in some norm, conversely an integral form with best approximation property in some norm is variationally consistent. That is best approximation property of the integral form and the VC of the integral form is equivalent, one cannot exist without the other, hence can be used interchangeably. Dimensional model problems consisting of diffusion equation, convection-diffusion equation, and Burgers equation described by self adjoint, non-self adjoint, and nonlinear differential operators are considered to present extensive numerical studies using Galerkin method with weak form (GM/WF) and least squares process (LSP) to determine computed convergence rates of various error norms and present comparisons with the theoretical convergence rates.
Restrictions on the Material Coefficients in the Constitutive Theories for Non-Classical Viscous Fluent Continua  [PDF]
K. S. Surana, A. D. Joy, J. N. Reddy
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/am.2018.91005
This paper considers conservation and balance laws and the constitutive theories for non-classical viscous fluent continua without memory, in which internal rotation rates due to the velocity gradient tensor are incorporated in the thermodynamic framework. The constitutive theories for the deviatoric part of the symmetric Cauchy stress tensor and the Cauchy moment tensor are derived based on integrity. The constitutive theories for the Cauchy moment tensor are considered when the balance of moments of moments 1) is not a balance law and 2) is a balance law. The constitutive theory for heat vector based on integrity is also considered. Restrictions on the material coefficients in the constitutive theories for the stress tensor, moment tensor, and heat vector are established using the conditions resulting from the entropy inequality, keeping in mind that the constitutive theories derived here based on integrity are in fact nonlinear constitutive theories. It is shown that in the case of the simplest linear constitutive theory for stress tensor used predominantly for compressible viscous fluids, Stokes' hypothesis or Stokes'?assumption has no thermodynamic basis, hence may be viewed incorrect. Thermodynamically consistent derivations of the restrictions on various material coefficients are presented for non-classical as well as classical theories that are applicable to nonlinear constitutive theories, which are inevitable if the constitutive theories are derived based on integrity.
Spectral Properties and Synchronization in Coupled Map Lattices
J. Jost,M. P. Joy
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.65.016201
Abstract: Spectral properties of Coupled Map Lattices are described. Conditions for the stability of spatially homogeneous chaotic solutions are derived using linear stability analysis. Global stability analysis results are also presented. The analytical results are supplemented with numerical examples. The quadratic map is used for the site dynamics with different coupling schemes such as global coupling, nearest neighbor coupling, intermediate range coupling, random coupling, small world coupling and scale free coupling.
Evolving networks with distance preferences
J. Jost,M. P. Joy
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.66.036126
Abstract: We study evolving networks where new nodes when attached to the network form links with other nodes of preferred distances. A particular case is where always the shortest distances are selected (``make friends with the friends of your present friends''). We present simulation results for network parameters like the first eigenvalue of the graph Laplacian (synchronizability), clustering coefficients, average distances, and degree distributions for different distance preferences and compare with the parameter values for random and scale free networks. We find that for the shortest distance rule we obtain a power law degree distribution as in scale free networks, while the other parameters are significantly different, especially the clustering coefficient.
“Which Child Left Behind”: Historical Issues Regarding Equity in Science Assessment
Peter J. Fensham,J. Joy Cumming
Education Sciences , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/educsci3030326
Abstract: Assessment of learning plays a dominant role in formal education in the forms of determining features of curriculum that are emphasized, pedagogic methods that teachers use with their students, and parents’ and employers’ understanding of how well students have performed. A common perception is that fair assessment applies the same mode of assessment and content focus for all students—the approach of assessments in international comparative studies of science achievement. This article examines research evidence demonstrating that the act of assessment is not neutral—different forms of assessment advantage or disadvantage groups of students on the basis of family backgrounds, gender, race, or disability. Assessment that implicitly or explicitly captures the social capital of the child serves to consolidate, not address, educational equity. The article provides an overview of ways that science curriculum focus and assessment can introduce bias in the identification of student achievement. It examines the effect of changes to curriculum and assessment approaches in science, and relationships between assessment of science and the cultural context of the student. Recommendations are provided for science–assessment research to address bias for different groups of students.
The role of major histocompatibility complex molecules in luteal function
Matthew J Cannon, Joy L Pate
Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology , 2003, DOI: 10.1186/1477-7827-1-93
Abstract: Like the majority of other somatic cell types, luteal cells express class I MHC molecules. What is surprising is that luteal cells of several species, including the cow, also express class II MHC molecules [1-5]. However, the identity of cells expressing class II MHC in the CL is somewhat in question. Class II MHC expression is typically limited to cells of the immune system that are regarded as "professional" antigen presenting cells, such as macrophages, dendritic cells, and to a lesser extent, B cells. Macrophages present within the CL would therefore certainly account for a percentage of the class II-positive cells. However, flow cytometric studies of dispersed bovine and ovine luteal cells demonstrated the presence of class II MHC molecules on both large and small cell populations [1,2], suggesting that, in addition to luteal macrophages (which would be included in the small cell fraction), the steroidogenic luteal cells also express class II MHC. Further, the bovine large luteal cell population was subdivided into two groups, large dense cells and large less-dense cells [1]. Both populations contain class II MHC-positive cells, but the large less-dense population contained the highest percentage of class II MHC-positive cells. The identity of the cells comprising these two populations is not known, but it is possible that one population represents the large steroidogenic cells, and the other population is composed of aggregates of luteal endothelial cells. A subpopulation of luteal endothelial cells expressing class II MHC has recently been identified [6].In the human, luteinization induces the expression of class II MHC molecules on granulosal cells [7], and expression of both class I and class II MHC molecules increases on granulosal cells in the late luteal phase [3]. In contrast, minimal class II MHC expression is detected in developing bovine CL [1]. Class II MHC expression is elevated in the bovine CL by midcycle, and in bovine and ovine CL, class II MHC
Looking Time Predicts Choice but Not Aesthetic Value
Eve A. Isham, Joy J. Geng
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0071698
Abstract: Although visual fixations are commonly used to index stimulus-driven or internally-determined preference, recent evidence suggests that visual fixations can also be a source of decisional bias that moves selection toward the fixated object. These contrasting results raise the question of whether visual fixations always index comparative processes during choice-based tasks, or whether they might better reflect internal preferences when the decision does not carry any economic or corporeal consequences. In two experiments, participants chose which of two objects were more aesthetically pleasing (Exp.1) or appeared more organic (Exp.2), and provided independent aesthetic ratings of the stimuli. Our results demonstrated that fixation parameters were a better index of choice in both decisional domains than of aesthetic preference. The data support models in which visual fixations are specifically related to the evolution of decision processes even when the decision has no tangible consequences.
Social Support Contributes to Outcomes following Distal Radius Fractures
Caitlin J. Symonette,Joy MacDermid,Ruby Grewal
Rehabilitation Research and Practice , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/867250
Abstract: Background. Distal radius fractures are the most common fracture of the upper extremity and cause variable disability. This study examined the role of social support in patient-reported pain and disability at one year following distal radius fracture. Methods. The Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey was administered to a prospective cohort of 291 subjects with distal radius fractures at their baseline visit. Pearson correlations and stepwise linear regression models ( -to-remove 0.10) were used to identify whether social support contributes to wrist fracture outcomes. The primary outcome of pain and disability at one year was measured using the Patient Rated Wrist Evaluation. Results. Most injuries were low energy (67.5%) and were treated nonoperatively (71.9%). Pearson correlation analysis revealed that higher reported social support correlated with improved Patient Rated Wrist Evaluation scores at 1 year, , . Of the subscales within the Social Support Survey, emotional/informational support explained a significant proportion of the variance in 1-year Patient Rated Wrist Evaluation scores, , (1, 181) = 9.98, . Conclusion. Lower emotional/informational social support at the time of distal radius fracture contributes a small but significant percentage to patient-reported pain and disability outcomes. 1. Introduction Distal radius fractures (DRF) are the most common type of acute wrist trauma [1–3]. Despite being common, predicting a patient’s outcome following DRF remains challenging. Fracture management, whether non-operative or operative, is directed at restoring anatomical alignment and function [3, 4]. Interestingly, an acceptable anatomical result does not always correlate with improved patient outcomes in residual pain and disability, particularly in older patients [5–7]. The advent of a biopsychosocial model of health and disease [8] has led to the emergence of instruments, such as the Patient Rated Wrist Evaluation (PRWE), which measure DRF outcome in terms of pain and disability [9]. The understanding of the contributions of both biological and psychosocial factors has improved the surgeon’s ability to predict fracture outcomes. Baseline characteristics such as pre reduction radial shortening, education, injury compensation, and the presence of other medical comorbidities have been shown to predict patient-reported pain and disability 1-year following DRF [7, 10]. Unfortunately, these variables are not modifiable by hand surgery or rehabilitation interventions. Therefore, they can be used to develop a prognosis but not to affect the
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