Abstract:
The spin-diffusion constant of the 2D $t-J$ model is calculated for the first time using an analytical approach at high temperatures and a recently-developed numerical method based on the Lanczos technique combined with random sampling in the intermediate temperature regime. A simple relation, $\sigma = D_s\chi$, between spin conductivity and spin diffusion is established and used to calculate the latter. In the high-temperature and low-doping limit the calculated diffusion constant agrees with known results for the Heisenberg model. At small hole doping, $D_s$ increases approximately linearly with doping, which leads us to an important conclusion that hopping processes enhance spin diffusion at high temperatures. At modest hole doping, $\delta\sim 0.25$, diffusion exhibits a nonmonotonic temperature dependence, which indicates anomalous spin dynamics at small frequencies.

Abstract:
Several thermodynamic quantities within the planar $t-J$ model are calculated using the $T>0$ Lanczos method on clusters of up to 26 sites. Hole density $c_h(\mu,T)$ shows a non-Fermi liquid behavior as a function of $T$ and suggests a transition from small to large Fermi surface at $c_h\sim 0.15$. Specific heat reveals a maximum at the exchange energy-scale up to $c_h=0.2$, where it becomes almost $T$-independent for $T\agt 0.15~t$. At constant $T$ the entropy has maximum for $c_h\sim 0.15$, with large values at low $T$, consistent with experiments on cuprates. In the underdoped regime the spin susceptibility $\chi_0(T)$ exhibits a maximum at finite $T = T^*$, with $T^*$ decreasing with doping, and disappearing for $c_h>0.15$.

Abstract:
The resonant part of the $B_{1g}$ electronic Raman scattering response is calculated within the $t-J$ model on a planar lattice as a function of temperature and hole doping, using a finite-temperature diagonalization method for small systems. Results, directly applicable to experiments on cuprates, reveal on doping a very pronounced increase of the width of the two-magnon Raman peak, accompanied by a decrease of the total intensity. At the same time the peak position does not shift substantially in the underdoped regime.

Abstract:
Recent results for the finite-temperature static and dynamical properties of the planar $t-J$ model, obtained by a novel numerical method for small correlated systems, are reviewed. Of particular interest are $T>0$ charge and spin response functions: optical conductivity $\sigma(\omega)$ and spin susceptibility $\chi(\vec q,\omega)$, which show very universal features at intermediate doping. In spin dynamics the universality is best seen in the local spin correlation function, which appears to be $T$-independent and only weakly doping dependent. Results apply directly to the inelastic neutron scattering and to the NMR relaxation experiments in cuprates. Analysing $\sigma(\omega)$ we find that the current correlation function $C(\omega)$ is nearly $T$- and moreover $\omega$-independent in the regime $T

Abstract:
The finite-temperature optical conductivity $\sigma(\omega)$ in the planar $t-J$ model is analysed using recently introduced numerical method based on the Lanczos diagonalization of small systems (up to 20 sites), as well as by analytical approaches, including the method of frequency moments and the retraceable-path approximation. Results for a dynamical mobility of a single hole at elevated temperatures $T>t$ reveal a Gaussian-like $\mu(\omega)$ spectra, however with a nonanalytical behavior at low $\omega$. In the single hole response a difference between the ferromagnetic (J=0) and the antiferromagnetic ($J>0$) polaron shows up at $TT^*\ge 0.1~t$. $\sigma(\omega)$ spectra show a non-Drude falloff at large frequencies. In particular for `optimum' doping $n_h \sim 0.2$ we obtain in the low-$\omega,T$ regime the relaxation rate $\tau^{-1} \sim 0.6 (\omega+\xi T)$ with $\xi \sim 3$, being consistent with the marginal Fermi liquid concept and experiments. Within the same regime we reproduce the nearly linear variation of dc resistivity $\rho$ with $T$. This behavior is weakly dependent on $J$, provided that $J

Abstract:
Finite-temperature spin dynamics in planar t-J model is studied using the method based on the Lanczos diagonalization of small systems. Dynamical spin structure factor at moderate dopings shows the coexistence of free-fermion-like and spin-fluctuation timescales. At T

Abstract:
The single-particle spectral functions $A({\bf k},\omega)$ and self-energies $\Sigma({\bf k},\omega)$ are calculated within the $t-J$ model using the finite-temperature Lanczos method for small systems. A remarkable asymmetry between the electron and hole part is found. The hole (photoemission) spectra are overdamped, with ${\rm Im} \Sigma \propto \omega$ in a wide energy range, consistent with the marginal Fermi liquid scenario, and in good agreement with experiments on cuprates. In contrast, the quasiparticles in the electron part of the spectrum show weak damping.

Abstract:
Charge and spin response in the planar $t-J$ model at finite temperatures are investigated numerically, in the regime corresponding to cuprates at intermediate doping. We show that the local spin correlation function is $T$-independent, leading to $\chi''(\omega

Abstract:
We review recent results for the properties of doped antiferromagnets, obtained by the numerical analysis of the planar t-J model using the novel finite-temperature Lanczos method for small correlated systems. First we shortly summarize our present understanding of anomalous normal-state properties of cuprates, and present the electronic phase diagram, phenomenological scenarios and models proposed in this connection. The numerical method is then described in more detail. Following sections are devoted to various static and dynamical properties of the t-J model. Among thermodynamic properties the chemical potential, entropy and the specific heat are evaluated. Discussing electrical properties the emphasis is on the optical conductivity and the d.c. resistivity. Magnetic properties involve the static and dynamical spin structure factor, as measured via the susceptibility measurements, the NMR relaxation and the neutron scattering, as well as the orbital current contribution. Follows the analysis of electron spectral functions, being studied in photoemission experiments. Finally we discuss density fluctuations, the electronic Raman scattering and the thermoelectric power. Whenever feasible a comparison with experimental data is performed. A general conclusion is that the t-J model captures well the main features of anomalous normal-state properties of cuprates, for a number of quantities the agreement is even a quantitative one. It is shown that several dynamical quantities exhibit at intermediate doping a novel universal behaviour consistent with a marginal Fermi-liquid concept, which seems to emerge from a large degeneracy of states and a frustration induced by doping the antiferromagnet.

Abstract:
The variation of single-particle spectral functions with doping is studied numerically within the t-J model. It is shown that corresponding self energies change from local ones at the intermediate doping to strongly nonlocal ones for a weakly doped antiferromagnet. The nonlocality shows up most clearly in the pseudogap emerging in the density of states, due to the onset of short-range antiferromagnetic correlations.