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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 297495 matches for " J. Gumbel "
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Rarefied gas flows through meshes and implications for atmospheric measurements
J. Gumbel
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO) , 2003,
Abstract: Meshes are commonly used as part of instruments for in situ atmospheric measurements. This study analyses the aerodynamic effect of meshes by means of wind tunnel experiments and numerical simulations. Based on the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo method, a simple mesh parameterisation is described and applied to a number of representative flow conditions. For open meshes freely exposed to the flow, substantial compression effects are found both upstream and downstream of the mesh. Meshes attached to close instrument structures, on the other hand, cause only minor flow disturbances. In an accompanying paper, the approach developed here is applied to the quantitative analysis of rocket-borne density measurements in the middle atmosphere. Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (instruments and techniques; middle atmosphere – composition and chemistry)
On the efficiency of rocket-borne particle detection in the mesosphere
J. Hedin, J. Gumbel,M. Rapp
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2007,
Abstract: Meteoric smoke particles have been proposed as a key player in the formation and evolution of mesospheric phenomena. Despite their apparent importance still very little is known about these particles. Important questions concern the smoke number density and size distribution as a function of altitude as well as the fraction of charged particles. Sounding rockets are used to measure smoke in situ, but aerodynamics has remained a major challenge. Basically, the small smoke particles tend to follow the gas flow around the payload rather than reaching the detector if aerodynamics is not considered carefully in the detector design. So far only indirect evidence for the existence of meteoric smoke has been available from measurements of heavy charge carriers. Quantitative ways are needed that relate these measured particle population to the atmospheric particle population. This requires in particular knowledge about the size-dependent, altitude-dependent and charge-dependent detection efficiency for a given instrument. In this paper, we investigate the aerodynamics for a typical electrostatic detector design. We first quantify the flow field of the background gas, then introduce particles in the flow field and determine their trajectories around the payload structure. We use two different models to trace particles in the flow field, a Continuous motion model and a Brownian motion model. Brownian motion is shown to be of basic importance for the smallest particles. Detection efficiencies are determined for three detector designs, including two with ventilation holes to allow airflow through the detector. Results from this investigation show that rocket-borne smoke detection with conventional detectors is largely limited to altitudes above 75 km. The flow through a ventilated detector has to be relatively large in order to significantly improve the detection efficiency.
On the efficiency of rocket-borne particle detection in the mesosphere
J. Hedin,J. Gumbel,M. Rapp
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2007,
Abstract: Meteoric smoke particles have been proposed as a key player in the formation and evolution of mesospheric phenomena. Despite their apparent importance still very little are known about these particles. Sounding rockets are used to measure smoke in situ, but aerodynamics has remained a major challenge. Basically, smoke particles are so small that they tend to follow the gas flow around the payload rather than reaching the detector if aerodynamics is not considered carefully in the detector design. So far only indirect evidence for the existence of these smoke particles has been available in the form of measurements of heavy charge carriers. Important questions concern the smoke number density and size distribution as a function of altitude as well as the fraction of charged particles. Therefore, quantitative ways are needed that relate the measured particle population to the atmospheric particle population. In particular, we need to determine the size-dependent, altitude-dependent and charge-dependent detection efficiency for a given instrument design. In this paper, we investigate the aerodynamics for a typical electrostatic detector design. We first quantify the flow field of the background gas, then introduce particles in the flow field and determine their trajectories around the payload structure. We use two different models to trace particles in the flow field, a Continuous motion model and a Brownian motion model. Brownian motion is shown to be of basic importance for the smallest particles. By defining an effective relative cross section we compare different model runs and quantitatively investigate the difference between the two particle motion models. Detection efficiencies are determined for three detector designs, two with ventilation holes to allow airflow through the detector, and one without such ventilation holes. Results from this investigation show that rocket-borne smoke detection with conventional detectors is largely limited to altitudes above 75 km. The flow through a ventilated detector has to be relatively large for there to be an increase in the detection efficiency.
Distribution of meteoric smoke – sensitivity to microphysical properties and atmospheric conditions
L. Megner, M. Rapp,J. Gumbel
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2006,
Abstract: Meteoroids entering the Earth's atmosphere experience strong deceleration and ablate, whereupon the resulting material is believed to re-condense to nanometre-size "smoke particles". These particles are thought to be of great importance for many middle atmosphere phenomena, such as noctilucent clouds, polar mesospheric summer echoes, metal layers, and heterogeneous chemistry. The properties and distribution of meteoric smoke depend on poorly known or highly variable factors such as the amount, composition and velocity of incoming meteoric material, the efficiency of coagulation, and the state and circulation of the atmosphere. This work uses a one-dimensional microphysical model to investigate the sensitivities of meteoric smoke properties to these poorly known or highly variable factors. The resulting uncertainty or variability of meteoric smoke quantities such as number density, mass density, and size distribution are determined. It is found that the two most important factors are the efficiency of the coagulation and background vertical wind. The seasonal variation of the vertical wind in the mesosphere implies strong global and temporal variations in the meteoric smoke distribution. This contrasts the simplistic picture of a homogeneous global meteoric smoke layer, which is currently assumed in many studies of middle atmospheric phenomena. In particular, our results suggest a very low number of nanometre-sized smoke particles at the summer mesopause where they are thought to serve as condensation nuclei for noctilucent clouds.
Sensitivity of meteoric smoke distribution to microphysical properties and atmospheric conditions
L. Megner,M. Rapp,J. Gumbel
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2006,
Abstract: Meteoroids entering the Earth's atmopsphere experience strong deceleration and ablate, whereupon the resulting material is believed to re-condense to nanometre-size "smoke particles". These particles are thought to be of great importance for many middle atmosphere phenomena, such as noctilucent clouds, polar mesospheric summer echoes, metal layers, and heterogeneous chemistry. The properties and distribution of meteoric smoke depend on poorly known or highly variable factors such as the amount, composition and velocity of incoming meteoric material, the efficiency of coagulation, and the state and circulation of the atmosphere. This work uses a one-dimensional microphysical model to investigate the sensitivities of meteoric smoke properties to these poorly known or highly variable factors. The resulting uncertainty or variability of meteoric smoke quantities such as number density, mass density, and size distribution are determined. It is found that the two most important factors are the efficiency of the coagulation and background vertical wind. The seasonal variation of the vertical wind in the mesosphere implies strong global and temporal variations in the meteoric smoke distribution. This contrasts the simplistic picture of a homogeneous global meteoric smoke layer, which is currently assumed in many studies of middle atmospheric phenomena. In particular, our results suggest a very low number of nanometre-sized smoke particles at the summer mesopause where they are thought to serve as condensation nuclei for noctilucent clouds.
Use of O2 airglow for calibrating direct atomic oxygen measurements from sounding rockets
J. Hedin, J. Gumbel, J. Stegman,G. Witt
Atmospheric Measurement Techniques (AMT) & Discussions (AMTD) , 2009,
Abstract: Accurate knowledge about the distribution of atomic oxygen is crucial for many studies of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere. Direct measurements of atomic oxygen by the resonance fluorescence technique at 130 nm have been made from many sounding rocket payloads in the past. This measurement technique yields atomic oxygen profiles with good sensitivity and altitude resolution. However, accuracy is a problem as calibration and aerodynamics make the quantitative analysis challenging. Most often, accuracies better than a factor 2 are not to be expected from direct atomic oxygen measurements. As an example, we present results from the NLTE (Non Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium) sounding rocket campaign at Esrange, Sweden, in 1998, with simultaneous O2 airglow and O resonance fluorescence measurements. O number densities are found to be consistent with the nightglow analysis, but only within the uncertainty limits of the resonance fluorescence technique. Based on these results, we here describe how better atomic oxygen number densities can be obtained by calibrating direct techniques with complementary airglow photometer measurements and detailed aerodynamic analysis. Night-time direct O measurements can be complemented by photometric detection of the O2 (b1∑g+ X3∑g-) Atmospheric Band at 762 nm, while during daytime the O2 (a1Δg X3∑g-) Infrared Atmospheric Band at 1.27 μm can be used. The combination of a photometer and a rather simple resonance fluorescence probe can provide atomic oxygen profiles with both good accuracy and good height resolution.
Optical studies of noctilucent clouds in the extreme ultraviolet
J. Hedin, J. Gumbel, M. Khaplanov, G. Witt,J. Stegman
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO) , 2008,
Abstract: In order to better understand noctilucent clouds (NLC) and their sensitivity to the variable environment of the polar mesosphere, more needs to be learned about the actual cloud particle population. Optical measurements are today the only means of obtaining information about the size of mesospheric ice particles. In order to efficiently access particle sizes, scattering experiments need to be performed in the Mie scattering regime, thus requiring wavelengths of the order of the particle size. Previous studies of NLC have been performed at wavelengths down to 355 nm from the ground and down to about 200 nm from rockets and satellites. However, from these measurements it is not possible to access the smaller particles in the mesospheric ice population. This current lack of knowledge is a major limitation when studying important questions about the nucleation and growth processes governing NLC and related particle phenomena in the mesosphere. We show that NLC measurements in the extreme ultraviolet, in particular using solar Lyman-α radiation at 121.57 nm, are an efficient way to further promote our understanding of NLC particle size distributions. This applies both to global measurements from satellites and to detailed in situ studies from sounding rockets. Here, we present examples from recent rocket-borne studies that demonstrate how ambiguities in the size retrieval at longer wavelengths can be removed by invoking Lyman-α. We discuss basic requirements and instrument concepts for future rocket-borne NLC missions. In order for Lyman-α radiation to reach NLC altitudes, high solar elevation and, hence, daytime conditions are needed. Considering the effects of Lyman-α on NLC in general, we argue that the traditional focus of rocket-borne NLC missions on twilight conditions has limited our ability to study the full complexity of the summer mesopause environment.
Use of O2 airglow for calibrating direct atomic oxygen measurements from sounding rockets
J. Hedin,J. Gumbel,J. Stegman,G. Witt
Atmospheric Measurement Techniques Discussions , 2009,
Abstract: Accurate knowledge about the distribution of atomic oxygen is crucial for many studies of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere. Direct measurements of atomic oxygen by the resonance fluorescence technique at 130 nm have been made from many sounding rocket payloads in the past. This measurement technique yields atomic oxygen profiles with good sensitivity and altitude resolution. However, accuracy is a problem as calibration and aerodynamics make the quantitative analysis challenging. In general, accuracies better than a factor 2 are not to be expected from direct atomic oxygen measurements. As an example, we present results from the NLTE (non local thermodynamic equilibrium) sounding rocket campaign at Esrange, Sweden, in 1998, with simultaneous O2 airglow and O resonance fluorescence measurements. O number densities are found to be consistent with the nightglow analysis, but only within the uncertainty limits of the resonance fluorescence technique. Based on these results, we here describe how better atomic oxygen number densities can be obtained by calibrating direct techniques with complementary airglow photometer measurements and detailed aerodynamic analysis. Night-time direct O measurements can be complemented by photometric detection of the O2 (b1Σg+ X3Σg ) atmospheric band at 762 nm, while during daytime the O2 (a1Δg X3Σg ) infrared atmospheric band at 1.27 μm can be used. The combination of a photometer and a rather simple resonance fluorescence probe can provide atomic oxygen profiles with both good accuracy and good height resolution.
Observations of the mesospheric semi-annual oscillation (MSAO) in water vapour by Odin/SMR
S. Lossow, J. Urban, J. Gumbel, P. Eriksson,D. Murtagh
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2008,
Abstract: Mesospheric water vapour measurements taken by the SMR instrument aboard the Odin satellite between 2002 and 2006 have been analysed with focus on the mesospheric semi-annual circulation in the tropical and subtropical region. This analysis provides the first complete picture of mesospheric SAO in water vapour, covering altitudes above 80 km where previous studies were limited. Our analysis shows a clear semi-annual variation in the water vapour distribution in the entire altitude range between 65 km and 100 km in the equatorial area. Maxima occur near the equinoxes below 75 km and around the solstices above 80 km. The phase reversal occurs in the small layer in-between, consistent with the downward propagation of the mesospheric SAO in the zonal wind in this altitude range. The SAO amplitude exhibits a double peak structure in the equatorial region, with maxima at about 75 km and 81 km. The observed amplitudes show higher values than an earlier analysis based on UARS/HALOE data. The upper peak amplitude remains relatively constant with latitude. The lower peak amplitude decreases towards higher latitudes, but recovers in the Southern Hemisphere subtropics. On the other hand, the annual variation is much more prominent in the Northern Hemisphere subtropics. Furthermore, higher volume mixing ratios during summer and lower values during winter are observed in the Northern Hemisphere subtropics, as compared to the corresponding latitude range in the Southern Hemisphere.
Absolute density measurements in the middle atmosphere
M. Rapp,J. Gumbel,F.-J. Lübken
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO) , 2003,
Abstract: In the last ten years a total of 25 sounding rockets employing ionization gauges have been launched at high latitudes ( ~ 70° N) to measure total atmospheric density and its small scale fluctuations in an altitude range between 70 and 110 km. While the determination of small scale fluctuations is unambiguous, the total density analysis has been complicated in the past by aerodynamical disturbances leading to densities inside the sensor which are enhanced compared to atmospheric values. Here, we present the results of both Monte Carlo simulations and wind tunnel measurements to quantify this aerodynamical effect. The comparison of the resulting ‘ram-factor’ profiles with empirically determined density ratios of ionization gauge measurements and falling sphere measurements provides excellent agreement. This demonstrates both the need, but also the possibility, to correct aerodynamical influences on measurements from sounding rockets. We have determined a total of 20 density profiles of the mesosphere-lower-thermosphere (MLT) region. Grouping these profiles according to season, a listing of mean density profiles is included in the paper. A comparison with density profiles taken from the reference atmospheres CIRA86 and MSIS90 results in differences of up to 40%. This reflects that current reference atmospheres are a significant potential error source for the determination of mixing ratios of, for example, trace gas constituents in the MLT region. Key words. Middle atmosphere (composition and chemistry; pressure, density, and temperature; instruments and techniques)
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