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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 297496 matches for " J. Feichter "
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Global indirect aerosol effects: a review
U. Lohmann,J. Feichter
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2005,
Abstract: Aerosols affect the climate system by changing cloud characteristics in many ways. They act as cloud condensation and ice nuclei, they may inhibit freezing and they could have an influence on the hydrological cycle. While the cloud albedo enhancement (Twomey effect) of warm clouds received most attention so far and traditionally is the only indirect aerosol forcing considered in transient climate simulations, here we discuss the multitude of effects. Different approaches how the climatic implications of these aerosol effects can be estimated globally as well as improvements that are needed in global climate models in order to better represent indirect aerosol effects are discussed in this paper.
Global indirect aerosol effects: a review
U. Lohmann,J. Feichter
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2004,
Abstract: Aerosols affect the climate system by changing cloud characteristics in many ways. They act as cloud condensation and ice nuclei, they may inhibit freezing and they could have an influence on the hydrological cycle. While the cloud albedo enhancement (Twomey effect) of warm clouds received most attention so far and traditionally is the only indirect aerosol forcing considered in transient climate simulations, here we discuss the multitude of effects. Different approaches how the climatic implications of these aerosol effects can be estimated globally as well as improvements that are needed in global climate models in order to better represent indirect aerosol effects are discussed in this paper.
Meridional transport and deposition of atmospheric 10Be
U. Heikkil , J. Beer,J. Feichter
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2009,
Abstract: 10Be concentrations measured in ice cores exhibit larger temporal variability than expected based on theoretical production calculations. To investigate whether this is due to atmospheric transport a general circulation model study is performed with the 10Be production divided into stratospheric, tropospheric tropical, tropospheric subtropical and tropospheric polar sources. A control run with present day 10Be production rate is compared with a run during a geomagnetic minimum. The present 10Be production rate is 4–5 times higher at high latitudes than in the tropics whereas during a period of no geomagnetic dipole field it is constant at all latitudes. The 10Be deposition fluxes, however, show a very similar latitudinal distribution in both the present day and the geomagnetic minimum run indicating that 10Be is well mixed in the atmosphere before its deposition. This is also confirmed by the fact that the contribution of 10Be produced in the stratosphere is dominant (55%–70%) and relatively constant at all latitudes. The contribution of stratospheric 10Be is approximately 70% in Greenland and 60% in Antarctica reflecting the weaker stratosphere-troposphere air exchange in the Southern Hemisphere.
Meridional transport and deposition of atmospheric 10Be
U. Heikkil?,J. Beer,J. Feichter
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2008,
Abstract: 10Be concentrations measured in ice cores exhibit larger temporal variability than expected based on theoretical production calculations. To investigate whether this is due to atmospheric transport a general circulation model study is performed with the 10Be production divided into stratospheric, tropospheric tropical, tropospheric subtropical and tropospheric polar sources. A control run with present day 10Be production rate is compared with a run during a geomagnetic minimum. The present 10Be production rate is 4–5 times higher at high latitudes than in the tropics whereas during a period of no geomagnetic dipole field it is constant at all latitudes. The 10Be deposition fluxes, however, show a very similar latitudinal distribution in both the present day and the geomagnetic minimum run indicating that 10Be is well mixed in the atmosphere before its deposition. This is also confirmed by the fact that the contribution of 10Be produced in the stratosphere is dominant (55%–70%) and relatively constant at all latitudes. The contribution of stratospheric 10Be is approximately 70% in Greenland and 60% in Antarctica reflecting the weaker stratosphere-troposphere air exchange in the Southern Hemisphere.
Modeling cosmogenic radionuclides 10Be and 7Be during the Maunder Minimum using the ECHAM5-HAM General Circulation Model
U. Heikkil?,J. Beer,J. Feichter
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2007,
Abstract: All existing 10Be records from Greenland and Antarctica show increasing concentrations during the Maunder Minimum period (MM), 1645–1715, when solar activity was very low and the climate was colder (little ice age). In detail, however, the 10Be records deviate from each other. We investigate to what extent climatic changes influence the 10Be measured in ice by modeling this period using the ECHAM5-HAM general circulation model. Production calculations show that during the MM the mean global 10Be production was higher by 32% than at present due to lower solar activity. Our modeling shows that the zonally averaged modeled 10Be deposition flux deviates by only ~8% from the average increase of 32%, indicating that climatic effects are much smaller than the production change. Due to increased stratospheric production, the 10Be content in the downward fluxes is larger during MM, leading to larger 10Be deposition fluxes in the subtropics, where stratosphere-troposphere exchange (STE) is strongest. In polar regions the effect is small. In Greenland the deposition change depends on latitude and altitude. In Antarctica the change is larger in the east than in the west. We use the 10Be/7Be ratio to study changes in STE. We find larger change between 20° N–40° N during spring, pointing to a stronger STE in the Northern Hemisphere during MM. In the Southern Hemisphere the change is small. These findings indicate that climate changes do influence the 10Be deposition fluxes, but not enough to significantly disturb the production signal. Climate-induced changes remain small, especially in polar regions.
Modeling cosmogenic radionuclides 10Be and 7Be during the Maunder Minimum using the ECHAM5-HAM General Circulation Model
U. Heikkil?,J. Beer,J. Feichter
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2008,
Abstract: All existing 10Be records from Greenland and Antarctica show increasing concentrations during the Maunder Minimum period (MM), 1645–1715, when solar activity was very low and the climate was colder (little ice age). In detail, however, the 10Be records deviate from each other. We investigate to what extent climatic changes influence the 10Be measured in ice by modeling this period using the ECHAM5-HAM general circulation model. Production calculations show that during the MM the mean global 10Be production was higher by 32% than at present due to lower solar activity. Our modeling shows that the zonally averaged modeled 10Be deposition flux deviates by only ~8% from the average increase of 32%, indicating that climatic effects are much smaller than the production change. Due to increased stratospheric production, the 10Be content in the downward fluxes is larger during MM, leading to larger 10Be deposition fluxes in the subtropics, where stratosphere-troposphere exchange (STE) is strongest. In polar regions the effect is small. In Greenland the deposition change depends on latitude and altitude. In Antarctica the change is larger in the east than in the west. We use the 10Be/7Be ratio to study changes in STE. We find larger change between 20° N–40° N during spring, pointing to a stronger STE in the Northern Hemisphere during MM. In the Southern Hemisphere the change is small. These findings indicate that climate changes do influence the 10Be deposition fluxes, but not enough to significantly disturb the production signal. Climate-induced changes remain small, especially in polar regions.
Impact of the regional climate and substance properties on the fate and atmospheric long-range transport of persistent organic pollutants - examples of DDT and γ-HCH
V. S. Semeena, J. Feichter,G. Lammel
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2006,
Abstract: A global multicompartment model which is based on a 3-D atmospheric general circulation model (ECHAM5) coupled to 2-D soil, vegetation and sea surface mixed layer reservoirs, is used to simulate the atmospheric transports and total environmental fate of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (γ-HCH, lindane). Emissions into the model world reflect the substance's agricultural usage in 1980 and 1990 and same amounts in sequential years are applied. Four scenarios of DDT usage and atmospheric decay and one scenario of γ-HCH are studied over a decade. The global environment is predicted to be contaminated by the substances within ca. 2a (years). DDT reaches quasi-steady state within 3-4a in the atmosphere and vegetation compartments, ca. 6a in the sea surface mixed layer and near to or slightly more than 10a in soil. Lindane reaches quasi-steady state in the atmosphere and vegetation within 2a, in soils within 8 years and near to or slightly more than 10a and in the sea surface mixed layer. The substances' differences in environmental behaviour translate into differences in the compartmental distribution and total environmental residence time, τoverall. τoverall≈0.8a for γ-HCH's and ≈1.0-1.3 a for the various DDT scenarios. Both substances' distributions are predicted to migrate in northerly direction, 5-12° for DDT and 6.7° for lindane between the first and the tenth year in the environment. Cycling in various receptor regions is a complex superposition of influences of regional climate, advection, and the substance's physico-chemical properties. As a result of these processes the model simulations show that remote boreal regions are not necessarily less contaminated than tropical receptor regions. Although the atmosphere accounts for only 1% of the total contaminant burden, transport and transformation in the atmosphere is key for the distribution in other compartments. Hence, besides the physico-chemical properties of pollutants the location of application (entry) affects persistence and accumulation emphasizing the need for georeferenced exposure models. Final Revised Paper (PDF, 1621 KB) Discussion Paper (ACPD) Citation: Semeena, V. S., Feichter, J., and Lammel, G.: Impact of the regional climate and substance properties on the fate and atmospheric long-range transport of persistent organic pollutants - examples of DDT and γ-HCH, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 1231-1248, doi:10.5194/acp-6-1231-2006, 2006. Bibtex EndNote Reference Manager XML
Impact of the regional climate and substance properties on the fate and atmospheric long-range transport of persistent organic pollutants – examples of DDT and γ-HCH
V. S. Semeena,J. Feichter,G. Lammel
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2005,
Abstract: A global multicompartment model which is based on a 3-D atmospheric general circulation model (ECHAM5) coupled to 2-D soil, vegetation and sea surface mixed layer reservoirs, is used to simulate the atmospheric transports and total environmental fate of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (γ-HCH, lindane). Emissions into the model world reflect the substance's agricultural usage in 1980 and 1990 and same amounts in sequential years are applied. Four scenarios of DDT usage and atmospheric decay and one scenario of γ-HCH are studied over a decade. The global environment is predicted to be contaminated by the substances within ca. 2 a (years). DDT reaches quasi-steady state within 3–4 a in the atmosphere and vegetation compartments, ca. 6 a in the sea surface mixed layer and near to or slightly more than 10 a in soil. Lindane reaches quasi-steady state in the atmosphere and vegetation within 2 a, in soils within 8 years and near to or slightly more than 10 a and in the sea surface mixed layer. The substances' differences in environmental behaviour translate into differences in the compartmental distribution and total environmental residence time, τoverall. τoverall≈0.8 a for γ-HCH's and ≈1.0–1.3 a for the various DDT scenarios. Both substances' distributions are predicted to migrate in northerly direction, 5–12° for DDT and 6.7° for lindane between the first and the tenth year in the environment. Cycling in various receptor regions is a complex superposition of influences of regional climate, advection, and the substance's physico-chemical properties. As a result of these processes the model simulations show that remote boreal regions are not necessarily less contaminated than tropical receptor regions. Although the atmosphere accounts for only 1% of the total contaminant burden, transport and transformation in the atmosphere is key for the distribution in other compartments. Hence, besides the physico-chemical properties of pollutants the location of application (entry) affects persistence and accumulation emphasizing the need for georeferenced exposure models.
Estimating the direct and indirect effects of secondary organic aerosols using ECHAM5-HAM
D. O'Donnell,K. Tsigaridis,J. Feichter
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2011, DOI: 10.5194/acp-11-8635-2011
Abstract: Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) has been introduced into the global climate-aerosol model ECHAM5/HAM. The SOA module handles aerosols originating from both biogenic and anthropogenic sources. The model simulates the emission of precursor gases, their chemical conversion into condensable gases, the partitioning of semi-volatile condenable species into the gas and aerosol phases. As ECHAM5/HAM is a size-resolved model, a new method that permits the calculation of partitioning of semi-volatile species between different size classes is introduced. We compare results of modelled organic aerosol concentrations against measurements from extensive measurement networks in Europe and the United States, running the model with and without SOA. We also compare modelled aerosol optical depth against measurements from the AERONET network of grond stations. We find that SOA improves agreement between model and measurements in both organic aerosol mass and aerosol optical depth, but does not fully correct the low bias that is present in the model for both of these quantities. Although many models now include SOA, any overall estimate of the direct and indirect effects of these aerosols is still lacking. This paper makes a first step in that direction. The model is applied to estimate the direct and indirect effects of SOA under simulated year 2000 conditions. The modelled SOA spatial distribution indicates that SOA is likely to be an important source of free and upper tropospheric aerosol. We find a negative shortwave (SW) forcing from the direct effect, amounting to 0.31 Wm 2 on the global annual mean. In contrast, the model indicates a positive indirect effect of SOA of +0.23 Wm 2, arising from the enlargement of particles due to condensation of SOA, together with an enhanced coagulation sink of small particles. In the longwave, model results are a direct effect of +0.02 Wm 2 and an indirect effect of 0.03 Wm 2.
Aerosol activation and cloud processing in the global aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM
G. J. Roelofs,P. Stier,J. Feichter,E. Vignati
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2006,
Abstract: A parameterization for cloud processing is presented that calculates activation of aerosol particles to cloud drops, cloud drop size, and pH-dependent aqueous phase sulfur chemistry. The parameterization is implemented in the global aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM. The cloud processing parameterization uses updraft speed, temperature, and aerosol size and chemical parameters simulated by ECHAM5-HAM to estimate the maximum supersaturation at the cloud base, and subsequently the cloud drop number concentration (CDNC) due to activation. In-cloud sulfate production occurs through oxidation of dissolved SO2 by ozone and hydrogen peroxide. The model simulates realistic distributions for annually averaged CDNC although it is underestimated especially in remote marine regions. On average, CDNC is dominated by particles from the accumulation mode, with smaller contributions from the Aitken and coarse modes. The simulations indicate that in-cloud sulfate production is a potentially important source of accumulation mode sized cloud condensation nuclei, due to chemical growth of activated Aitken particles and to enhanced coalescence of processed particles. The strength of this source depends on the distribution of produced sulfate over the activated modes. This distribution is affected by uncertainties in many parameters that play a direct role in particle activation, such as the updraft velocity, the aerosol chemical composition and the organic solubility, and the simulated CDNC is found to be relatively sensitive to these uncertainties.
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