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The current paper is mainly devoted for solving centrosymmetric linear systems of equations. Formulae for the determinants of tridiagonal centrosymmetric matrices are obtained explicitly. Two efficient computational algorithms are established for solving general centrosymmetric linear systems. Based on these algorithms, a MAPLE procedure is written. Some illustrative examples are given.
Objective: Contraception has gained gradual popularity in many parts of the developing world including Pakistan. Despite this increase in acceptance, the birth rate remains high. Failure of contraception has been reported in the literature, which made us aim to conduct this study. The efficiency of hormonal contraceptives in the study area was assessed and this is the first report from Pakistan. Methods: A total of 200 women (aged 20-30 and 31-40 years; n = 100 each) with minimum consistent use of hormonal contraceptives in the form of pills (Combined oral contraceptives) for 12 months were enrolled in this study. Blood samples were collected from women of each age group and corresponding control groups (n = 100) from local hospitals and reproductive health service center. Serum levels of the fertility hormones viz leutinizing and follicle stimulating hormones were measured through ELISA technique. Results: Our data revealed that over all in the both age groups, 72% women had normal, 16% increased and 12% showed decreased levels of leutinizing hormone (p > 0.05) and 67% women showed normal, 33% showed decreased and no increased levels were found for follicle stimulating hormone (p > 0.05). No age-wise significant difference in response was observed among both the age groups tested. Conclusion: Statistically insignificant difference in serum leutinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone seen among both the age groups of hormonal contraceptive users and control group indicates less effective hormonal contraception response in the study area.
A 50-year-old woman with long standing nonspecific
disturbing headaches of the mid-face and rear of the head plus retro-orbital
pain for about one year duration was proved to suffer from the fungus ball
involvement of the left sphenoid sinus after operation. The diagnosis was
established by histopathologic examination of the specimen removed at the time of
Numeric algorithms for
solving the linear systems of tridiagonal type have already existed. The
algorithm is an example of such algorithms. The current paper is mainly devoted
to constructing symbolic
algorithms for solving tridiagonal linear systems of equations via
transformations. The new symbolic algorithms remove the cases where the numeric
algorithms fail. The computational cost of these algorithms is given. MAPLE procedures based on these
algorithms are presented. Some illustrative examples are given.
Solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) of polyacrylamide-co-acrylic acid (PAA) as the polymer host and zinc acetate (ZnA) as an ionic dopant were prepared using a single solvent by the solution casting technique. The amorphous and crystalline structures of film were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The surface morphology of samples was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The composition and complex formation of films were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The conductivity of the PAA-ZnA films was determined by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. According to the XRD and FTIR analyses, all electrolyte films were in amorphous state and the existence of interaction between Zn2+ cations and the PAA structure confirms that the film was successfully prepared. The SEM observations reveal that the electrolyte films appeared to be rough and flat with irregularly shaped surfaces. The highest ionic conductivity (σ) of 1.82 × 10-5 Scm-1 was achieved at room temperature (303 K) for the sample containing 10 wt % ZnA.