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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 415407 matches for " J. E. Rauch "
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Metal Abundances in Hot DO White Dwarfs
K. Werner,T. Rauch,E. Ringat,J. W. Kruk
Physics , 2012,
Abstract: The relatively high abundance of carbon in the hot DO white dwarf RE0503-289 indicates that it is a descendant of a PG1159 star. This is corroborated by the recent detection of the extremely high abundances of trans-Fe elements which stem from s-process nucleosynthesis in the precursor AGB star, dredged up by a late He-shell flash and possibly amplified by radiative levitation. On the other hand, the hottest known DO white dwarf, KPD0005+5106, cannot have evolved from a PG1159 star but represents a distinct He-rich evolutionary sequence that possibly originates from a binary white dwarf merger.
How to determine the thermal electron density and the magnetic field strength from the Cluster/Whisper observations around the Earth
J. G. Trotignon,P. M. E. Décréau,J. L. Rauch,O. Randriamboarison
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO) , 2003,
Abstract: The Wave Experiment Consortium, WEC, is a highly integrated package of five instruments used to study the plasma environment around the Earth. One of these instruments, the Waves of HIgh frequency and Sounder for Probing of Electron density by Relaxation, Whisper, aims at the thermal electron density evaluation and natural wave monitoring in the 4–83 kHz frequency range. In its active working mode, which is our primarily concern here, the Whisper instrument transmits a short wave train at a swept frequency and receives echoes after a delay. Incidentally, it behaves like a classical ground-based ionosonde. Natural modes of oscillations may thus be excited in the surrounding medium. This means that with suitable interpretations, the Whisper sounding technique becomes a powerful tool for plasma diagnosis. By taking into account the characteristic frequencies of the magnetoplasmas encountered by the Cluster spacecraft, it is indeed possible to reliably and accurately determine the electron density and, to a lesser degree, the magnetic field strength from the Whisper electric field measurements. Due to the predominantly electrostatic nature of the waves that are excited, observations of resonances may also lead to information on the electron velocity distribution functions. The existence of a hot population may indeed be revealed and the hot to cold density ratio can be estimated. Key words. Magnetospheric physics (plasma waves and instabilities). Space plasma physics (active perturbation experiments; instruments and techniques)
Identification of natural plasma emissions observed close to the plasmapause by the Cluster-Whisper relaxation sounder
P. Canu,P. M. E. Décréau,J. G. Trotignon,J. L. Rauch
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO) , 2003,
Abstract: We use the data collected by the Whisper instrument onboard the Cluster spacecraft for a first test of its capabilities in the identification of the natural plasma waves observed in the Earth’s magnetosphere. The main signatures observed at the plasma frequency, upper hybrid frequency, and electron Bernstein modes were often difficult to be reliably recognized on previous missions. We use here the characteristic frequencies provided by the resonances triggered by the relaxation sounder of Whisper to identify with good confidence the various signatures detected in the complex wave spectra collected close to the plasmapause. Coupled with the good sensitivity, frequency and time resolution of Whisper, the resonances detected by the sounder allow one to precisely spot these natural emissions. This first analysis seems to confirm the interpretation of Geos observations: the natural emissions observed in Bernstein modes above the plasma frequency, now widely observed onboard Cluster, are not modeled by a single Maxwellian electrons distribution function. Therefore, multi-temperature electron distribution functions should be considered. Key words. Space plasma physics (active perturbation experiments; waves and instabilities; instrument and techniques)
Fractal geometry of critical Potts clusters
J. Asikainen,A. Aharony,B. B. Mandelbrot,E. M. Rauch,J. -P. Hovi
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1140/epjb/e2003-00247-7
Abstract: Numerical simulations on the total mass, the numbers of bonds on the hull, external perimeter, singly connected bonds and gates into large fjords of the Fortuin-Kasteleyn clusters for two-dimensional q-state Potts models at criticality are presented. The data are found consistent with the recently derived corrections-to-scaling theory. However, the approach to the asymptotic region is slow, and the present range of the data does not allow a unique identification of the exact correction exponents
Wisps in the Galactic center: NIR triggered observations of the radio source Sgr A* at 43 GHz
C. Rauch,E. Ros,T. P. Krichbaum,A. Eckart,J. A. Zensus,B. Shahzamanian,K. Muzic
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: Context. The compact radio and near-infrared (NIR) source Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*) associated with the supermassive black hole in the Galactic center was observed at 7 mm in the context of a NIR triggered global Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) campaign. Aims. Sgr A* shows variable flux densities ranging from radio through X-rays. These variations sometimes appear in spontaneous outbursts that are referred to as flares. Multi-frequency observations of Sgr A* provide access to easily observable parameters that can test the currently accepted models that try to explain these intensity outbursts. Methods. On May 16-18, 2012 Sgr A* has been observed with the VLBA at 7 mm (43 GHz) for 6 hours each day during a global multi-wavelength campaign. These observations were triggered by a NIR flare observed at the Very Large Telescope (VLT). Accurate flux densities and source morphologies were acquired. Results. The total 7 mm flux of Sgr A* shows only minor variations during its quiescent states on a daily basis of 0.06 Jy. An observed NIR flare on May 17 was followed 4.5 hours later by an increase in flux density of 0.22 Jy at 43 GHz. This agrees well with the expected time delay of events that are casually connected by adiabatic expansion. Shortly before the peak of the radio flare, Sgr A* developed a secondary radio off-core feature at 1.5 mas toward the southeast. Even though the closure phases are too noisy to place actual constraints on this feature, a component at this scale together with a time delay of 4.5 +- 0.5 hours between the NIR and radio flare provide evidence for an adiabatically expanding jet feature.
Stellar laboratories: new Ge V and Ge VI oscillator strengths and their validation in the hot white dwarf RE 0503-289
T. Rauch,K. Werner,E. Biemont,P. Quinet,J. W. Kruk
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201220014
Abstract: State-of-the-art spectral analysis of hot stars by means of non-LTE model-atmosphere techniques has arrived at a high level of sophistication. The analysis of high-resolution and high-S/N spectra, however, is strongly restricted by the lack of reliable atomic data for highly ionized species from intermediate-mass metals to trans-iron elements. Especially data for the latter has only been sparsely calculated. Many of their lines are identified in spectra of extremely hot, hydrogen-deficient post-AGB stars. A reliable determination of their abundances establishes crucial constraints for AGB nucleosynthesis simulations and, thus, for stellar evolutionary theory. In a previous analysis of the UV spectrum of RE 0503-289, spectral lines of highly ionized Ga, Ge, As, Se, Kr, Mo, Sn, Te, I, and Xe were identified. Individual abundance determinations are hampered by the lack of reliable oscillator strengths. Most of these identified lines stem from Ge V. In addition, we identified Ge VI lines for the first time. We calculated Ge V and Ge VI oscillator strengths to consider their radiative and collisional bound-bound transitions in detail in our non-LTE stellar-atmosphere models for the analysis of the Ge IV - VI spectrum exhibited in high-resolution and high-S/N UV spectra of RE 0503-289. We identify four Ge IV, 37 Ge V, and seven Ge VI lines. Most of these are identified for the first time in any star. We reproduce almost all Ge IV, Ge VI, and Ge VI lines in the observed spectrum of RE 0503-289 (Teff = 70 kK, log g = 7.5) at log Ge = -3.8 +/- 0.3 (mass fraction, about 650 times solar). Reliable measurements and calculations of atomic data are a prerequisite for stellar-atmosphere modeling. Our oscillator-strength calculations have allowed, for the first time, Ge V and Ge VI lines to be successfully reproduced in a white dwarf's spectrum and to determine its photospheric Ge abundance.
Randomised trial of proton vs. carbon ion radiation therapy in patients with low and intermediate grade chondrosarcoma of the skull base, clinical phase III study
Anna V Nikoghosyan, Geraldine Rauch, Marc W Münter, Alexandra D Jensen, Stephanie E Combs, Meinhard Kieser, Jürgen Debus
BMC Cancer , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2407-10-606
Abstract: The study is a prospective randomised active-controlled clinical phase III trial. The trial will be carried out at Heidelberger Ionenstrahl-Therapie (HIT) centre as monocentric trial.Patients with skull base chondrosarcomas will be randomised to either proton or carbon ion radiation therapy. As a standard, patients will undergo non-invasive, rigid immobilization and target volume definition will be carried out based on CT and MRI data. The biologically isoeffective target dose to the PTV (planning target volume) in carbon ion treatment will be 60 Gy E ± 5% and 70 Gy E ± 5% (standard dose) in proton therapy respectively. The 5 year local-progression free survival (LPFS) rate will be analysed as primary end point. Overall survival, progression free and metastasis free survival, patterns of recurrence, local control rate and morbidity are the secondary end points.Up to now it was impossible to compare two different particle therapies, i.e. protons and carbon ions, directly at the same facility in connection with the treatment of low grade skull base chondrosarcomas.This trial is a phase III study to demonstrate that carbon ion radiotherapy (experimental treatment) is not relevantly inferior and at least as good as proton radiotherapy (standard treatment) with respect to 5 year LPFS in the treatment of chondrosarcomas. Additionally, we expect less toxicity in the carbon ion treatment arm.ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01182753Low and intermediate grade chondrosarcomas (9-13% of all malignant bone tumours) are relative rare bone tumours. In 5-12% of all cases the chondrosarcomas are localized in head-and-neck region [1]. The typical sites of skull base lesions are temporo-occipital junction, parasellar area, spheno-ethmoid region and clivus [2,3]. Due to hystopathological type chondrosarcomas are divided into Grade 1 to 3 tumours according to mitotic rates (WHO classification) with 3 histological subgroups: classic, mesenchymal and myxoid [2]. The mesenchymal type has
CO J=1-0 spectroscopy of four submillimeter galaxies with the Zpectrometer on the Green Bank Telescope
A. I. Harris,A. J. Baker,S. G. Zonak,C. E. Sharon,R. Genzel,K. Rauch,G. Watts,R. Creager
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/723/2/1139
Abstract: We report detections of three z ~ 2.5 submillimeter-selected galaxies (SMGs; SMM J14011+0252, SMM J14009+0252, SMM J04431+0210) in the lowest rotational transition of the carbon monoxide molecule (CO J = 1-0) and one nondetection (SMM J04433+0210). For the three galaxies we detected, we find a line-integrated brightness temperature ratio of the J = 3-2 and 1-0 lines of 0.68 +/- 0.08; the 1-0 line is stronger than predicted by the frequent assumption of equal brightnesses in the two lines and by most single-component models. The observed ratio suggests that mass estimates for SMGs based on J = 3-2 observations and J = 1-0 column density or mass conversion factors are low by a factor of 1.5. Comparison of the 1-0 line intensities with intensities of higher-J transitions indicates that single-component models for the interstellar media in SMGs are incomplete. The small dispersion in the ratio, along with published detections of CO lines with J_upper > 3 in most of the sources, indicates that the emission is from multi-component interstellar media with physical structures common to many classes of galaxies. This result tends to rule out the lowest scaling factors between CO luminosity and molecular gas mass, and further increases molecular mass estimates calibrated against observations of galaxies in the local universe. We also describe and demonstrate a statistically sound method for finding weak lines in broadband spectra that will find application in searches for molecular lines from sources at unknown redshifts.
Instantaneous local wave vector estimation from multi-spacecraft measurements using few spatial points
M. Platino, U. S. Inan, T. F. Bell, J. Pickett, E. J. Kennedy, J. G. Trotignon, J. L. Rauch,P. Canu
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO) , 2004,
Abstract: It is now well known that amplitude modulated HF transmissions into the ionosphere can be used to generate ELF/VLF signals using the so-called "electrojet antenna". Although most observations of the generated ELF/VLF signals have been made on the ground, several low and high-altitude satellite observations have also been reported (James et al., 1990). One of the important unknowns in the physics of ELF/VLF wave generation by ionospheric heating is the volume of the magnetosphere illuminated by the ELF/VLF waves. In an attempt to investigate this question further, ground-satellite conjunction experiments have recently been conducted using the four Cluster satellites and the HF heater of the High-Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility in Gakona, Alaska. Being located on largely closed field lines at L≈4.9, HAARP is currently also being used for ground-to-ground type of ELF/VLF wave-injection experiments, and will be increasingly used for this purpose as it is now being upgraded for higher power operation. In this paper, we describe the HAARP installation and present recent results of the HAARP-Cluster experiments. We give an overview of the detected ELF/VLF signals at Cluster, and a possible explanation of the spectral signature detected, as well as the determination of the location of the point of injection of the HAARP ELF/VLF signals into the magnetosphere using ray tracing.
Lower hybrid resonances stimulated by the four CLUSTER relaxation sounders deep inside the plasmasphere: observations and inferred plasma characteristics
S. Kougblénou, G. Lointier, P. M. E. Décréau, J.-G. Trotignon, J.-L. Rauch, X. Vallières, P. Canu, A. Masson,J. Pickett
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO) , 2011,
Abstract: The frequency range of the WHISPER relaxation sounder instrument on board CLUSTER, 4–80 kHz, has been chosen so as to encompass the electron gyro-frequency, Fce, and the electron plasma frequency, Fp, in most regions to be explored. Measurement of those frequencies, which are triggered as resonances by the sounder, provides a direct estimation of in situ fundamental plasma characteristics: electron density and magnetic field intensity. In the late mission phase, CLUSTER penetrated regions deep inside the plasmasphere where Fce and Fp are much higher than the upper frequency of the sounder's range. However, they are of the right order of magnitude as to place the lower hybrid frequency, Flh, in the 4–15 kHz band. This characteristic frequency, placed at a resonance of the medium, is triggered by the sounder's transmitter and shows up as an isolated peak in the received spectrum, not present in spectra of naturally occuring VLF waves. This paper illustrates, from analysis of case events, how measured Flh values give access to a plasma diagnostic novel of its kind. CLUSTER, travelling along its orbit, encounters favourable conditions where Fce is increasing and Fp decreasing, such that Fce/Fp increases from values below unity to values above unity. Measured Flh values thus give access, in turn, to the effective mass, Meff, indicative of plasma ion composition, and to the core plasmasphere electron density value, a parameter difficult to measure. The analysed case events indicate that the estimated quantities (Meff in the 1.0–1.4 range, Ne in the 5 × 102–104 cm 3 range) are varying with external factors (altitude, L value, geomagnetic activity) in a plausible way. Although covering only a restricted region (mid-latitude, low altitude inner plasmasphere), these measurements are available, since late 2009, for all CLUSTER perigee passes not affected by eclipses (on average, roughly a third of a total of ~200 passes per year) and offer multipoint observations previously unavailable in this region.
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